(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Wisconsin magazine of history"

FORT WAY.,.v CO., iND 



INDIANA COLLHICTION 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 




3 1833 01742 9355 



VOL. VI 



1922-1923 



THE 

WISCONSIN MAGAZINE 
OF HISTORY 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE 
STATE HISTORICAL 
SOCIETY OF WISCON- 
SIN. Edited by JOSEPH 
SCHAFER, Superintendent 




^^^^ 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME VI 



LEADING ARTICLES: 

General Charles King — Memories of a Busy Life 3, 165 

Early Days in Platteville 40 

D. J. Gardner — Incidents in the Early History of the 

Wisconsin Lead Mines 42 

Truman O. Douglass — ^Platteville in Its First Quarter 

Century 48 

Maria Greene Douglass — Personal Recollections of 

Platteville 56 

Angie Kumlien Main — By the Waters of Turtle Lake 66 

Joseph Schafer — The Yankee and the Teuton in Wiscon- 
sin 125, 261, 386 

Samuel Plantz — Lawrence College 146 

Louise P. Kellogg — The Electric Light System at Apple- 
ton 189 

DoANE Robinson — Beaver Creek Valley, Monroe County . . 195 

William Ellery Leonard — Wisconsin 247 

HosEA W. Rood — The Grand Army of the Republic and 

the Wisconsin Department 280, 403 

W. A. Titus — Empire: A Wisconsin Town 295 

Samuel M. Williams — Micajah Terrell Williams 303 

Kate Dewey Cole — An Appreciation 314 

Mrs. William E. Allen — ^A Polish Pioneer's Story 373 

Louise Phelps Kellogg — ^An Historic Collection of War 

Portraits 414 

LuciEN S. Hanks — ^A Footnote to The Story of a Great 

Court ." 419 

Samuel M. Williams — Charles Henry Williams — A 

Sketch 424 

Camille Coumbe — John Coumbe, the First White Settler 

in Richland County 435 

DOCUMENTS: 



Diary of a Journey to Wisconsin in 1840 . 
Letter of Senator James Rood Doolittle 



73, 207, 334 
95 



A Swiss Family in the New World: Letters of Jakob 

and Ulrich Biihler 317 

The Speech of Honorable John E. Cashman, Senator 

from the First District, on Bill No. 108, S 444 

EDITORIAL COMMENT: 

Historical "Firsts," "Exclusives," and "Incompara- 
bles"; Northern Wisconsin — Revelations of the 
Fourteenth Census 102 

What We Remember 233 

Why an Affidavit?; 1923; The American Historical 

Association ; The Wisconsin Magazine 346 

Popular Censorship of History Texts 450 

THE SOCIETY AND THE STATE 107, 238, 355, 463 

COMMUNICATIONS : 

A Correction 117, 462 

Early Days of Rhinelander; The Chicago Convention 

of 1860 352 

THE QUESTION BOX: 

Letter of George Washington; The East Shore of Lake 
Michigan; Early History of Algoma; Whitney's 
Mills ; Beginnings in Price County 118 

TO MEMBERS 237 



BOOK REVIEWS 



367, 470 

52^403 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/wisconsinmagazin06quai 



VOL. VI yO'' 



1922-1923 



THE 

WISCONSIN MAGAZINE 
OF HISTORY 




PUBLICATIONS OF THE 
STATE HISTORICAL 
SOCIETY OF W^ISCON- 

SIN. Edited by JOSEPH 
SCHAFER, Superintendent 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Memories of a Busy Life . . General Charles King 3 

Early Days in Platteville 40 

Incidents in the Early History of the Wisconsin 

Lead Mines D, J. Gardner 42 

Platteville in its First Quarter Century 

Truman 0. Douglass 48 

Personal Recollections of Platteville 

Maria Greene Douglass 56 

By the Waters of Turtle Lake 

Angie Kumlien Main 66 

Documents: 

Diary of a Journey to Wisconsin in 1840; Letter of 

Senator James Rood Doolittle 73 

Editorial Comment: 

Historical "Firsts," "Exclusives," and "Incom- 
parables"; Northern Wisconsin — Revelations of 

the Fourteenth Census 102 

The Society and the State 107 

Communications : 

A Correction 117 

The Question Box: 

Letter of George Washington; The East Shore of 
Lake Michigan; Early History of Algoma; Whit- 
ney's Mills ; Beginnings in Price County 118 



The Society as a body is not responsible for statements or opinions advanced 
in the following pages by contributors 

COPYRIGHT, 1922, BY THE STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF WISCONSIN 

Paid for out of the George B. Burrows Fund Income 



MEMORIES OF A BUSY LIFE^ 
General Charles King 
the war with spain 

Major General Merritt, my old-time commander in the 
Fifth Cavalry, had been hurried to San Francisco to organ- 
ize a corps of twenty thousand men, with two division and 
four brigade commanders, and he at once wired to the War 
Department, asking for me, his adjutant of the Indian war 
days. At the same time he wired to me at Milwaukee. > 
I received his invitation with gladness, and when two 
days later there came a wire from the War Department 
asking if it would be "agreeable" to me to go with General 
Merritt to Manila, I replied at once, **With Merritt any- 
where," and asked that my commission be sent to his care 
at San Francisco, expecting to start at once. 

But the orders did not come. General Greene, for whom 
I knew Merritt had also applied, had passed through 
Chicago en route to join. General Mac Arthur was at the 
Plankinton in Milwaukee, daily expecting his orders, but 
not until the fourth day did they arrive. Mine was curiously 
worded: "This being an original appointment you must go 
to San Francisco at your own expense." Blow the expense! 
I would have gone all the way to Manila at my own expense 
if that were all that kept me waiting and worrying over the 
delay. The papers announced that Gen. T. M. Anderson 
with the first brigade had started, and General Greene, 
Generals E. S. and H. G. Otis had arrived in camp before I 
got the word to go. Four days later I was with General 
Merritt in San Francisco, wearing my uniform as a general 
officer of the Wisconsin Guard, found General Greene just 
ready to start with the Second Brigade, and a raft of 

* This article is a continuation of the author's reminiscences, parts of which have 
appeared in the March and June issues of this magazine. Another installment is being 
prepared by General King. 



4 



General Charles King 



Regulars wondering how in blazes a retired captain could 
so suddenly blossom out into a brigadier. Few of them 
knew that I had been for over seventeen years the instructor 
of the Wisconsin troops that had been called into action, 
and that when Wisconsin was ordered to furnish a brigade, 
her two senators, Spooner and Mitchell, at once urged that 
Wisconsin be permitted to name the brigadier, and the 
only name they placed before the President was mine. 

Reporting for duty in camp, I was assigned by Maj. 
Gen. E. S. Otis to the command of the Second Provisional 
Brigade (First Idaho, Thirteenth Minnesota, Twentieth Kan- 
sas, and First Tennessee). An important meeting was held 
at the headquarters of General Otis on the morning of the 
thirteenth of June, at which were present General Merritt, 
the corps commander; General Otis, the division com- 
mander; Gen. Marcus P. Miller, commanding the First 
Provisional Brigade; General MacArthur, who had just 
arrived; General King, commanding the Second Provisional 
Brigade; and a few staff officers. Addressing the camp 
commander, General Merritt said: "And now, General 
Otis, we have started the first and second expeditions; I 
wish the third to be placed in readiness to leave about the 
twenty-fifth. General King to go in command." 

I regarded this announcement as confidential and said 
nothing about it to my little staff, and was surprised to see 
the announcement in big letters in the morning paper the 
following day. A very busy week followed. We were drill- 
ing hours each day and making preparation between times 
for the voyage. The transports were assembling, the stores 
going aboard, when there came a note from Colonel Bab- 
cock, Merritt's chief-of-staff (we had been brother captains 
in the Fifth Cavalry), asking me to come at once to San 
Francisco; he had something of importance to tell me. I 
went, and with no little embarrassment he informed me that 
General MacArthur had been to see General Merritt, had 



Memories of a Busy Life 



5 



pointed out that he was commanding a regiment in the 
Civil War while I was only a cadet, that he was for that 
reason my senior in the list of generals (he was by just two 
places) , and as he was present for duty it was a reflection on 
him to send a junior in command of the third expedition. 
Merritt saw the point; so did I, though I might have made 
a similar objection in the case of General Greene, but did 
not. I rode back to camp almost as sad as when I had to 
give way to Upham in the spring of '62, yet went straight 
to MacArthur, congratulated him on his preferment, and 
told him that had he spoken to me I would have gone with 
him to Merritt, as I would have gone to Lincoln with 
Upham, and said that he had the better claim. In the early 
summer of 1862 Senator Doolittle had taken MacArthur 
to the President to beg for an appointment at large for West 
Point, only to learn that Upham and I were already repre- 
senting Wisconsin on the presidential list. So he went home 
to become adjutant of the Twenty-fourth Wisconsin and, 
before he was fairly nineteen, its commanding officer. 

And now he was to go on and reach Manila in time for 
the one tussle with the Spaniards, he and Greene both my 
juniors in age and Greene my junior in rank, both to be 
made major generals as a result of it, while I was left behind 
to continue drilling volunteers. It was hard luck, but 
worse was to follow. 

Two of the best regiments in my brigade were sent with 
MacArthur, but in their stead I had received the Fifty- 
first Iowa, a militia regiment, in very creditable condition 
as to drill and discipline. Under its lieutenant colonel, 
however, another regiment had become so slack that 
Merritt sent for me and asked the direct question, ** Which 
Wisconsin regiment shall I apply for in its stead 

It was then late evening. "Let me think it over until 
morning," I replied, and with that we parted; and with the 
following day came Funston, the young colonel of the Kan- 



6 



General Charles King 



sas regiment, who had been held in Washington by Lieuten- 
ant General Miles because of his intimate knowledge of 
Cuban affairs, and with Funston came a marked and im- 
mediate change for the better. In less than a week Merritt 
had such excellent reports of the "Jay Hawkers," as the 
Kansans were called, that Wisconsin's chance in the first 
army of occupation at Manila was gone. 

I now had what was soon called the Union Brigade — 
Iowa, Kansas, and Tennessee — with three fine colonels, and 
in ten days their brigade drills and evolutions were worth 
seeing. Merritt himself left for Manila, placing Major 
General Otis in command of the three brigades, Gen. 
Marcus Miller, a veteran regular. Gen. Harrison G. Otis, 
and myself as the brigade commanders, Otis being my 
junior. Merritt in going told me that he had directed 
Gen. E. S. Otis to send me with my three thousand just as 
soon as the transports got back. Meantime it was drill, 
drill, drill. 

Then came another blow: — Orders by wire from Wash- 
ington for Gen. E. S. Otis to send the brigade of Gen. 
Harrison G. Otis, and himself to accompany it. "The 
President directs" was the wording, and everybody knew 
why. 

During the latter part of the Civil War the Twenty- 
third Ohio, of which a modest young sergeant, McKinley, 
was on duty at regimental headquarters, was commanded 
by its major, Harrison G. Otis, and now the sergeant had 
become president and commander-in-chief, the major head 
of a great California paper, and there you were. Again was 
I overslaughed, as the saying is. Again I congratulated 
my luckier rival, and then Major General Merriam came 
to San Francisco to command the Department of California, 
and presently held the first brigade review of the war, so 
he said — though I fancy there may have been a few at 
Chickamauga — and the Union Brigade was called on, and 



Memories of a Busy Life 



7 



it was a beauty. Alex. Reid of Appleton was then with us 
as volunteer aide on my staff, and his description of that 
event in the Appleton Crescent was a joy. Indeed, the 
major general, a keen drill master himself, was more than 
complimentary. He had the whole brigade cheering wildly 
after the ceremony by the announcement that they should 
go to Manila before the end of the month (August) as a 
reward for their fine work, and once again we took heart. 

Soon, however, came the news of the battle of the 
thirteenth of August, and soon thereafter General Merritt's 
announcement that he needed no more troops, and for the 
third time my hopes were blasted. 

Then followed a week of decided depression, and then 
an inspiration came to General Merriam, who had been 
most sympathetic. The Arizona of the old Guion Line, 
once the grayhound of the seas, having made the quickest 
run from Sandy Hook to Liverpool, arrived in port to load 
up with supplies for Merritt's army at Manila, and to 
carry over a number of Red Cross doctors, nurses, addi- 
tional staff officers, etc. The First New York Infantry 
and the Second Battalion of Engineers had been sent over 
to Honolulu and were in camp at Kapiolani Park, and they 
needed supplies, and there had come to our camp at Presidio 
Heights five battalions recruited in Colorado, Nebraska, 
Minnesota, and Pennsylvania for the regiments of those 
states already in Manila, also two hundred men for the 
Eighteenth Regulars. These men being actual members of 
organizations already in the Philippines, General Merriam 
declared it could be no violation of General Merritt's wishes 
to send them where they belonged. "And," said he, "if 
you don't mind giving up this fine brigade and taking charge 
of a single ship load, you shall go in command." I could 
have hugged him. 

Merriam felt sure that they would be needed, for no 
sooner did Aguinaldo's forces find that the Americans sternly 



8 



General Charles King 



forbade their looting the homes of their former oppressors, 
the Spaniards, now disarmed and helpless, than they 
became turbulent and threatening. In writing to the 
Sentinel in August and September, I made the prediction 
that the Filipinos would give our little army infinitely more 
trouble than the Spaniards had caused Dewey or Merritt. 
Whether General Merriam consulted the War Department 
or not was no affair of mine. On the sixteenth of August I 
bade adieu to the Union Brigade, assuring them of my faith 
that they would speedily be needed and sent after me. 
Our five battalions were ordered to embark the following 
day. My two staff officers and I moved aboard (a beautiful 
cabin, formerly the ladies' rest room, had been assigned to 
me), and then came a message from Merriam. Bad news: 
Ordered to hold the Arizona until the arrival of certain field 
guns from Rock Island Arsenal, and again my spirits sank. 
Something kept telling me the plan would fall through after 
all. 

Three wretched days followed. At last the guns came 
and were hoisted aboard and stowed below, and nearly 
mad with impatience I drove up to headquarters to urge 
that the battalions be marched down at once, and Merriam 
met me with his whimsical grin : 

"Another day can make no difference," said he, "and 
I've about decided to run over with you myself and have a 
look at Honolulu. The islands are now part of my com- 
mand and I ought to get acquainted with them, but I 
can't get aboard until tomorrow night." 

"Then I am betting that orders will come from Wash- 
ington to stop the whole scheme." 

"Don't worry," said Merriam, "it doesn't pay. You 
are going— anyhow." 

At last he came aboard bringing a little party of friends, 
and to him, as senior, I turned over the beautiful cabin, 
turned Lieutenant Colonel Barnett out of the next best, he 



Memories of a Busy Life 



9 



in turn recoiled on the senior major, and so there was no 
end of moving of luggage at the last moment. By nine at 
night the last soldier was stowed away between decks, and 
the last stowaway led, crest-fallen, ashore. At ten General 
Merriam, tired out from three days' rush work, turned in. 
We were hard aground, with our heavy load of stores and 
fifteen hundred passengers and crew. "But," said Captain 
Barneson, "the tide will lift us off toward midnight, then 
we back out into the bay and anchor until morning." 

At eleven everybody except the sentries, the watch, and 
so on, had gone to roost, officers and soldiers wearied after ' 
the long march in from camp, and still I paced the deck, 
nervous, apprehensive, sure that something still was des- 
tined to happen to checkmate our move. 

And at 11 :30 it came. 

The officer of the guard appeared with a telegraph boy, 
and the lad held out to me the fateful brown envelope. It 
was oddly addressed: "Commanding General U. S. Troops, 
San Francisco, California." Official beyond doubt, and 
as General Merriam, the department commander, had 
declared himself simply a passenger on the ship, which was 
under my command, I was undoubtedly the commanding 
general of the United States troops at that moment at 
San Francisco, General Miller being in command of the 
two brigades still left at camp. 

But the instant I opened it I saw that the clerk had 
erroneously addressed the envelope, for this was practically 
what the message said; at this moment I cannot quote it 
verbatim. 

Commanding General, War Department, Washington, 

Department California, S. F. August 20, 1898. 

If General King has started send swift steamer after him with 

orders to hold command at Honolulu. 

(Signed) Corbin, 
who was the adjutant general of the Army. 



10 



General Charles King 



If only I had not opened it! If only we could have slid 
away from that pier five minutes earlier! If only I could rip 
it to fragments! The boy had gone ashore; the single plank 
had been hauled aboard; we were at that moment just 
beginning to stir, heavily, slowly, straining at the stern 
hawsers landward under the impulse of the flooding tide. 

And now — just at the moment when after all the dis- 
appointment — all the suspense — all the worry — at last had 
come the longed-for chance to go, with it had come this 
wretched order to stay ! 

A moment later, and I stood by General Merriam's. 
bedside. Reproachfully he looked up at me, disturbed in 
his dreamless sleep. "What did I tell you, sir?" was all I 
could say, as I handed him the despatch. 

There was a sound of scurrying footsteps out on deck, a 
mufiled order, the splash of some heavy object into the 
sluggish water alongside, some faint sound and stir in the 
bowels of the big ship, and a sudden throb and rumble far 
astern, and all at once the big transport seemed to wake up 
and pulse and quiver and heave, and then Merriam slowly 
folded the despatch and looked up at me, quizzically. 

"Well, sir, do we disembark at daybreak.^" I asked. 

"No," said Merriam, "don't you hear the engine.? 
General King has started." 

The following day we were far out of sight of even the 
Farallones, and time and again on the week's beautiful 
voyage to Honolulu (which we reached August 28) I won- 
dered how on earth Merriam was ever going to "square 
himself" with the War Department. By this time I knew 
that sooner than have his plans disarranged, he had not 
reported until almost the last moment that he was sending 
the reserve battalions on to Manila and me with them. 
But not in the faintest degree did Merriam show anxiety. 
We were off. We would stop at Honolulu long enough to 
land him, his staff oflicers and guests, the supplies for the 



Memories of a Busy Life 



11 



New York regiment and the Engineers. There was then no 
cable to Honolulu, and there wasn't a steamer in port that 
could catch the Arizona. *'You'll be at Manila," said he, 
**before any contradictory orders can reach you, unless 
they cable Merritt to send a boat to meet and turn you 
back. Once there, you and your men will be welcome." 

It looked possible, but I felt somehow that something 
would turn up to delay me at Honolulu, and that orders 
to hold would overtake us — and they did. 

Arrived at Honolulu, we were received by Admiral 
"Joe" Miller, one of the most popular men of the old navy, * 
and he told Merriam much about the new conditions there 
that set my senior to studying the situation. There was 
much interchange of calls between him and the island 
officials — Governor Dole, Secretary Damon, and others of 
the old regime — men of charm and culture and high ideals. 
Then there were the consular and diplomatic representa- 
tives of the United States and a number of officials of other 
nations. Only a few weeks previous the Hawaiian flag 
had been lowered over the palace, the stars and stripes run 
up in its place, and Merriam found a large number of 
prominent British and German, not to mention Japanese 
and Chinese, business men and residents who were in sym- 
pathy with the former queen of the islands and decidedly 
against American interests. 

There was a big parade to the palace grounds, a public 
reception for my officers and men. The five battalions made 
a very soldierly show of it, and the Hawaiian band played 
superbly. The people who met us were most cordial, but 
they were few in number. Nine-tenths of the populace held 
aloof. 

The Arizona remained at anchor out in the harbor. I 
moved into the cabin vacated by General Merriam, and 
every day or two went ashore to beg him to say the word 
and send us on to Manila, where by this time things were 



General Charles King 



beginning to look squally — so said the Shanghai and other 
papers brought in by the eastbound O. & O. liner. 

"There's sure to be trouble with Aguinaldo," was the 
word, and General Merriam grinned. "Didn't I tell you.^^" 
said he. "You and your men will be welcome. See if 
you're not." 

"Then send us on," I begged. "We're not welcome, nor 
wanted, here." But he wished me to go with him to look 
at Pearl Harbor, and that took another day — five more 
thus idled away, and then on the morning of September 3, 
as I rose early, eager and restless, and looked out to sea, lo, 
there came steaming slowly in the transport Scandia, that 
we had left deserted at San Francisco. She wasn't swift, 
but she could catch General King and the Arizona, held as 
they were at Honolulu, and at noon Merriam came out in 
the Admiral's barge, and the guard and I received him with 
all honors, but with reluctant hearts, for the first sight of his 
face was enough. 

"You are to command the District of Hawaii — the whole 
archipelago," said he, trying to be consolatory. The 
Scandia had brought the Washington despatch, received at 
his headquarters in San Francisco, two days after we cleared 
the Golden Gate, and his faithful staff had sent it bound- 
ing after us, over the 2200-mile run to Honolulu as quickly 
as the Scandia could weigh anchor and be off. 

And so, heartsick again, I moved ashore to delightful 
quarters at the Royal Hawaiian. The five battalions 
marched out to Kapiolani Park, near Waikiki beach, and 
went into camp. And then came ten of the most trying 
weeks of my life. The Arizona went on to Manila, with her 
cargo and her array of doctors and nurses. The local papers 
duly published the order establishing the military district 
of Hawaii, headquarters at Honolulu, Brig. Gen. Charles 
King to command. The guns of the Philadelphia flagship 
boomed their salute to that most unwilling oflScial, whose 



Memories of a Busy Life 



13 



first act was to dictate a letter imploring the commanding 
general at Manila to send for us and not keep us where we 
were, neither needed nor wanted. I had to look over the 
ground, and almost instantly took exception to Kapiolani 
Park as a camp ground. It was low, flat, with lagoons of 
stagnant water about, miasmatic, as anyone could see and 
the morning sick report of the First New York and Second 
Engineers too plainly showed. The water supply was 
inadequate, the ground not suitable for latrines. Only one 
battalion could drill at a time, and the post hospital had 
been established in what had been a dancing pavilion in - 
town, two miles away, and that ramshackle old frame shed 
stood on piles over what had been a swamp. A dozen 
typhoid and two dozen malarial fever patients were already 
there and more were coming. We had only five doctors, 
and as for nurses, they had all been shipped to Manila. 

I went to Merriam with my tale of woe, and found him 
packing. He now felt that the more quickly he returned to 
his post at San Francisco the better. The Australia was 
due any moment, and within twenty-four hours he was 
gone, bidding me make the best of the situation and pay no 
attention to what the papers were saying. And the papers, 
British or German owned or edited, were saying scandalous 
things about the depredations and outrages committed by 
the United States troops in Manoa Valley and elsewhere 
before we were a week ashore. Without exception the sto- 
ries were either false or grievously exaggerated. Of course 
they were copied by many journals in the States. 

We had no supplies for so big a command, except the 
plain army ration, ill suited to such a climate — no fund for 
vegetables, fruit, ice, milk, etc. The quartermaster in town 
said he hadn't so much as a storm flag to hoist over camp, 
or the money with which to buy one. The District of 
Hawaii started without a penny of the contingent fund 
provided all other departments and districts, and there we 



14 



General Charles King 



were out in mid-Pacific, eight days by liner from San Fran- 
cisco, and by the end of the second week, two a day our men 
were dying of typhoid, and the only flag to set at half mast 
when the solemn little cortege marched out with muflSed 
drums was the one I had brought from Milwaukee — ^for my 
own purposes. 

Soon after Merriam left, our kind and helpful friend 
Admiral Miller was recalled to San Francisco, as he was 
soon to retire, and the day his flagship steamed away we 
ran the six big bronze guns that were once the pride of 
King Kalakaua's heart, "by hand" through the streets and 
placed them in battery, screened by some sand dunes, and 
surprised Miller with a thundering parting salute of thirteen 
guns to his flag, and right gallantly the Philadelphia boomed 
her reply as her prow turned eastward for the homeward 
run. The Scandia went on to the Philippines, with some 
lucky artillerymen, and then we were left to battle with our 
troubles. 

We had one admirable medical oflScer, Major Morris, of 
the Regulars, and as our sick list soon overflowed the big 
wooden hospital he begged for more doctors, nurses, field 
hospital tents, etc., but they were an interminable time 
coming. The regimental medical officers were few, and with 
one exception well nigh inexperienced. Our cares and anxie- 
ties increased, and October, 1898 came near being the end 
of me. I doubt if ever I knew a month of such continuous 
worry. Sleepless nights and fever-haunted days were 
telling on many of us. At last came November, and with it 
news that we were almost too depressed to cheer. Just as 
Merriam had predicted — ^for Merritt had quit Manila and 
gone to Paris — General Otis urged our being hurried to his 
support. General Merriam was sending the Arizona, and 
on November 7 a debilitated-looking one thousand of the 
men I had led so jubilantly to the August voyage were once 
more stowed away on the transport we had so hated to 



Memories of a Busy Life 



15 



leave. We pulled out into the harbor, anchored three days 
to weed out the last of the fever cases that medical science 
could detect, and on November 10 at last turned our 
backs on the *Taradise of the Pacific," and then the doctors 
put me to bed. 

I had been vaccinated three days before embarking, and 
whether the Australian virus was impure or my run-down 
condition was the cause, most violent inflammation and 
swelling set in, and I broke out all over. I was so weak and 
ill by the time we reached Manila, the end of the month, 
that after reporting to General Otis I was trundled to 
hospital for treatment that could not be given aboard ship. 
It was two weeks before I could go on crutches again to see 
the commanding general, and meantime the suffering from 
carbuncles and swollen legs had been the most serious I had 
ever known. All this time, however, the utmost kindness 
and attention had been shown me by brother officers, and 
at last Dr. Keefer, chief surgeon, decided that I could 
leave the hospital and move to the big, beautiful home down 
Malate way, that had been assigned to me and the officers 
of my staff. It was most comfortable and commodious, 
with screened galleries on three sides and broad screened 
porticos, and the upper floor overlooking that wonderful 
bay, all the way over to Cavite Point — the monitor Monad- 
nock being just off shore, long pistol shot distant, the 
Olympia, Dewey's flagship, and his little flotilla at anchor 
well over toward the westward shore. 

It was mid-December when I was assigned to the com- 
mand of the First Brigade, First Division; General Oven- 
shine, who was colonel of the Twenty-third Regulars, com- 
manding the Second Brigade. MacArthur, now at the head 
of the Second Division, with the brigades of H. G. Otis and 
Irving Hale, was on the north and northeast front of 
Manila, and we had the south and southeast, the lines 
forming a big, irregular half circle inclosing the entire city. 



16 



General Charles King 



By this time, too, my old brigade had come forward from 
San Francisco, and was broken up and distributed, Funston, 
with the Kansans, going to MacArthur's division, the 
Tennesseans over to Cavite Arsenal across the bay. The 
lowans were kept aboard ship and presently sent down 
to a neighboring island. 

On December 15 I had my first look at my new brigade, 
commanded up to that time by that genial soldier and 
gentleman Col. "Jim" Smith, of the First California, later 
governor general. The Fourteenth Regulars, a splendid 
regiment, led by its lieutenant colonel. Robe, was in bar- 
racks only a few squares from my headquarters. The 
Fourth Cavalry — what there was of it — was in roomy 
buildings on the broad Calle Faura, the main road over to the 
Nozaleda, on which General Anderson had his post; and the 
California regiment was stationed farther back, almost under 
the ramparts of the old walled city. These, for the present 
at least, with the guns of the Astor Battery under Lieut. 
Harry Hawthorne, were to constitute my command. 

It took several days to become acquainted with the 
situation, and I own it looked anything but placid or 
promising. 

Long weeks before we reached the islands with these 
welcome and much needed reinforcements, the relations 
with Aguinaldo and his soldiery had become so strained 
that, while demanding that individually or even in small 
parties his officers and men should be allowed to pass to 
and fro without hindrance, Aguinaldo declared the Amer- 
icans must confine themselves to the city. Every road and 
bridge leading to the suburbs, such as Santa Ana, San 
Pedro Macati on the southeast, and Pasay to the south, 
were strongly guarded by the little brown soldiers, many of 
them well set up and having been trained in the Spanish 
ranks. They were well armed, too, with the Mauser or 
Remington, with smokeless ammunition. Our volunteers 



Memories of a Busy Life 



17 



had nothing but the Springfield breech loader, calibre 
forty-five, with the old black powder cartridge. Thirty 
thousand strong was Aguinaldo's surrounding army. Less 
than sixteen thousand was the American force in Manila, 
which had not only to keep order in the swarming native 
population, all presumably in sympathy with Aguinaldo, 
but to care for some ten thousand Spanish prisoners, not 
that they gave promise of trouble, for they would have been 
long ago massacred to a man but for the presence of the 
Americans. They were, therefore, on terms of distant 
but respectful and soldierly courtesy with their conquerors. , 
Moreover, out there in the bay was that little flotilla of 
Dewey's, with its eight- or five-inch guns, quite powerful 
enough to blow the whole town about the ears of the people 
if they started anything objectionable. 

We had but two regiments of regular infantry, the 
Fourteenth and the Twenty-third, the Eighteenth having 
been sent to Ilo Ilo. We had a squadron of the Fourth 
Cavalry, dismounted, a battalion of artillery serving as 
infantry, one light battery of the Sixth Artillery, minus 
horses and harnesses, and the howitzers of the discharged 
Astor Battery, manned by Regulars. We had one regiment 
of volunteers or militia from each of the following states: 
California, Colorado, Dakota (North and South), Kansas, 
Idaho, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Oregon, Pennsyl- 
vania, Tennessee, and Washington, with a battalion from 
Wyoming, a brace of batteries from Utah, and an old 
wooden river craft rigged up as a gunboat. In point of 
numbers that could be assembled on the firing line the 
insurrectos were rather more than two to our one, but 
except the luckless thousand that had been held up ten weeks 
with us in Honolulu, our fellows were in fine health and 
spirits, well fed, well drilled, regularly exercised, and ready 
for anything. What they could not understand was why 
Aguinaldo should virtually be permitted to have his own 
way. 



18 



General Charles King 



And here is the explanation. The President and his 
advisers knew well that their political opponents would 
eagerly seize on every error that they might make, and 
following the lead of Mr. Godkin of the New York Evening 
Post and its "umbra" the Springfield Republican, a number 
of anti-administration papers were making the most of the 
fact that we had accepted the assistance of Aguinaldo and 
his followers in the attack on Manila, and soon thereafter 
had ordered the Filipino soldiery out of town. 

There was every reason for so doing. The insurgents had 
fully expected, and their officers and men had been promised, 
the joy of looting the Spanish stores and homes, and that 
of revenging themselves on every detested Spaniard against 
whom they bore a grudge. They spoke of all this with 
entire frankness, as their right, and were amazed and dis- 
gusted that the Americans would not permit it. 

It was a touchy time for the administration. McKinley 
and his cabinet, and strong men like Spooner, knew that 
we were just where we could not let go. Whether we wanted 
the islands or not, to haul down our flag and pull out and 
tell Aguinaldo and his people to help themselves would 
have been a crime of the first magnitude, since thousands 
of helpless Spaniards would have been butchered and the 
fate of their wives and daughters would have been inde- 
scribable. Until some stable form of government could be 
devised, the fortunes of war had made us the responsible 
custodians of Manila and neighborhood, as well as of the 
other garrison towns. Stay we had to, and keep the peace 
if we could. In plain words. General Otis told us his orders 
from Washington were to hang on until further orders, but 
in every possible way, short of letting them loot the city 
and shoot the Spaniards, we were to conciliate the Filipinos. 
No matter what affront or insult our oflficers or men received 
at their hands, not a blow must be struck, not a weapon 
drawn. The hardest test of discipline ever American 



Memories of a Busy Life 



19 



soldiery was subjected to was that through which our fel- 
lows passed the month of January, 1899. 

Very soon after taking command of the First Brigade, I 
had asked General Anderson to rearrange matters. I was 
General Ovenshine's senior in the volunteers, but he was 
my senior in the old regular service, as was Mac Arthur; 
yet the Fourteenth Infantry and the Fourth Cavalry were 
in my command, while their senior officers. Colonel Robe, 
Major Potter, and Major Rucker, were my seniors in the 
permanent establishment. It was a source of embarrass- 
ment to me, although nothing could have been more cour- ^ 
teous, cordial, and soldierly than their bearing to me on all 
occasions. But, I had had much experience with state 
troops, while Ovenshine, one of the most lovable men and 
gallant officers that ever lived, had had none. I asked to 
exchange the Fourteenth Regulars for the First Washington, 
and the Fourth Cavalry for the First Idaho, and it was done. 

Then came a month of close association with these far 
western soldiers at the extreme front — drills by day and 
vigils by night that kept us in almost hourly touch. "When 
the blow comes," said General Anderson, **it will be in full 
force on your front," and there was every reason to say so. 
With its left resting on the Pasig River at Pandacan Point, 
and its right connecting with Ovenshine's left at Blockhouse 
Twelve, my line followed the meanderings of the Concordia 
Estero, a branch of the river, and was bisected in front of 
Blockhouse Eleven by the main road from Manila to the 
populous suburbs along the Pasig and the big towns on the 
Laguna de Bay and all southern Luzon. Concordia Bridge 
spanned the Estero one hundred yards in front of the 
blockhouse. Everything across that stream was Filipino 
territory, where after January 15 no man of our number was 
permitted to set foot. The bridge and blockhouse were at 
the apex of an almost acute angle, jutting far out into the 
level rice fields and bamboo thickets. It had been accepted 



20 



General Charles King 



and established before I got there, as had the camp grounds 
and hospital at Honolulu, and I fell heir to the most unde- 
sirable, not to say untenable, bit of real estate it has ever 
been my lot to control. 

I pointed out to General Anderson and later told Gen- 
eral Otis how faulty it was from a military point of view, 
as it brought my men between two fires. Moreover, we 
soon discovered that the insurgents were throwing up 
earthworks at night, obviously for artillery with which to 
enfilade both my lines, to the right and to the left of that 
fateful stone arch. Both generals admitted it; but, said 
Otis, to fall back a single foot would give Aguinaldo a moral 
victory that would be heralded far and wide. Moreover, if 
we abandoned that angle, where could we place the line? 
The thronging suburb of Paco was only a short distance 
behind the blockhouse. 

I begged to be allowed to throw up earthworks with 
traverses to protect my men and enable us to hold it; but, 
said Otis, to throw up a single spadeful would be to say we 
distrusted our brown brother, and it would be construed as 
an act of hostility, not only here but at home. "It can't be 
done," and it wasn't. And it was right there at that infernal 
point that we suffered most when at last the assault in force 
took place. 

Four times in January had Otis warning from his spies 
that the attack in force from without, accompanied by a 
general uprising of the armed natives within our lines, was 
set to occur on such a night, and so imminent seemed the 
danger to the Americans in the city, that he felt con- 
strained to hold one-half the California regiment of my 
brigade back in town, with the Thirteenth Minnesota and 
Twenty-third Regulars, so that I had only twenty-four 
companies of infantry to man a mile and a half of tortuous 
line. Every day the situation became more tense, the 
bearing of the Filipinos more insolent; yet our orders still 



Memories of a Busy Life 



21 



required that we should salute their officers, show them 
every courtesy, while they and their men jeered at our sen- 
tries, drew "bolos" in their very faces, called them cowards, 
and dared them to fight. 

Moreover, every night now their working parties were 
spading up the rice fields in our front. We could watch 
their lights flitting about the walls of Santa Ana, a mile 
away, and dancing like will-o'-the-wi^ps from one bamboo 
patch to another; while opposite my left, close to the river, 
there stood a big redoubt, hidden from us by bamboo thick- 
ets on their side of the slough, but plainly visible from the ' 
belfry of the old convent behind our lines. 

In all their fighting against the Spaniards their attacks 
were made by night, the favorite hour being just before the 
dawn. By day, except in little patrols or squads they kept 
in hiding. A Filipino officer, with a dozen men, occupied a 
little guardhouse just across the Concordia Bridge, with a 
single sentry pacing to and fro on the highest point of the 
arch, absolutely safe from molestation by my men, whose 
foremost outpost, a corporal and three men of the Washing- 
tons, crouched by night at our end of the arch that spanned 
the narrow stream. 

Not a night in bed had any one of my people after Jan- 
uary 15. Just as soon as it was dark we formed the long 
lines at the stations, from Artillery Knoll on our right, 
clear around to Pandacan Point, with two battalions in 
reserve in Paco village. Brigadier and all, we watched 
and waited, lying down in our blankets when not actually 
on post, but ready at an instant's notice to spring to arms. 

We were able to discover that the strongest force was 
opposite my left, a battalion in the redoubt, others in farm 
enclosures back toward the Santa Ana convent, under the 
walls of which, trained on Concordia Bridge, were the Krupp 
guns they had captured from the Spaniards. Thus a strong 
force was thrust far forward, threatening my left at the 



22 



General Charles King 



Point and ready to burst through the bamboo and take 
Blockhouse Eleven and the troops holding the bridge, in 
flank and rear. Only the Washingtons had I to hold that 
line, from road to river, but five thousand Filipinos couldn't 
have budged them. I felt so confident of this that I had 
laid before General Anderson a plan of battle to which he 
gave unqualified assent. "Only," said he, **remember that 
you cannot attack until Otis gives the word. You may 
have to fight on the defensive for hours." 

And so it proved, worse luck! And that was why our 
losses were so much heavier than those of the other three 
brigades. 

I had gone over to our quarters on the bay shore the 
beautiful afternoon of the fourth of February, leaving all 
quiet but vigilant along the line of the Concordia. I needed 
a tub and change of raiment, and as the breeze off the sea 
was cool and the cotton khaki uniform promised to be too 
light for the hours of darkness, I donned my complete 
blue uniform of the general, with its double row of buttons, 
then sat for nearly an hour in quiet chat with the gallant 
old colonel of the Tennessee regiment, who had fought all 
through the Civil War in the "Light Division" of A. P. 
Hill, the pride of Stonewall Jackson's corps. We parted 
finally, he to return to Cavite and his devoted regiment, 
destined within sixteen hours to die at their head ; I to mount 
my sturdy little war pony, and with only my orderly. 
Mills, to ride leisurely over to the Paco-Pandacan front. 

It was just after dark when we passed the Engineer 
barracks, and they seemed already to have gone out to 
their night station. Blockhouse Twelve. But at least a 
battalion of the Fourteenth Infantry was standing at 
ease in the square beyond, when, all of a sudden, out of 
the darkness ahead a horseman came at a tearing gallop, 
nearly colliding with me as he dashed by — one of Oven- 
shine's orderlies, as it happened, going in search of me. 



Memories of a Busy Life 



23 



What seemed odd was the absence of the natives from 
their usual haunts, and the darkness that enveloped their 
homes. Even on the main road over to Paco Bridge I met 
not a soul. White-robed forms could be seen here and there 
in doorways, but the streets were deserted. Nearing the 
Calle Nozaleda, on which stood Anderson's headquarters, 
I heard the measured tramp of soldiery and came suddenly 
upon a battalion of the Californians, going out, said their 
commander, to report to me at the Paco front. It was 
another case of "everybody up," and this time there was 
need for it. 

Just about 8:40 that lovely, star-lit evening, far to our 
left rear and over toward MacArthur's right, there burst 
upon the pulseless air, distant yet distinct, the sputter and 
crackle of musketry, and the Washington officer of the guard 
slapped his thigh and called aloud, "By God, it's come at 
last!" 

And so it had, and went spreading gradually westward 
across the entire front of MacArthur's division, covering 
the northern half of the city. MacArthur at the moment, 
like Moltke, was having his rubber of whist at his house on 
the Solano. It was the last card game of his life, as he said 
when he came to spend his final years on earth at Milwaukee, 
and he could never be induced to play again. 

Presently the crackling of rifles became punctuated by 
the measured boom of field guns, and yet all about us on 
the south front was silent, almost breathless. Every light 
that had been burning in the native quarters of the throng- 
ing suburb had been quickly doused the moment the firing 
began. Mounting my pony, I rode four hundred yards 
down the street to Blockhouse Eleven, where stood Colonel 
Wholley and his adjutant, with a little group of men. One 
hundred yards farther was Concordia Bridge, with Company 
A of the Washingtons sprawled in long-extended firing line 
from the roadway up the bank of the narrow and winding 



24 



General Charles King 



slough. Over against this was the dark bulk of the Filipino 
guardhouse — not a sentry nor a soldier visible, yet well we 
knew that in long ranks they were crouching behind the 
ridges of the rice fields, in numbers exceeding ours, and that 
far back across the tree-dotted level, where the lanterns 
were twinkling under the walls of Santa Ana, were reserves 
in strong force, and the guns of the Krupp battery and the 
Lantakas at the pottery on the San Pedro road, trained by 
day on Concordia Bridge or the blockhouse. What were 
they waiting for? Why did not they, too, attack? 

Long weeks later Senor Arellano told us their General 
Ricarti was in town that night, that the attack had not 
been planned to begin until four in the morning but that 
a drunken Filipino officer, with a patrol at his back, had 
dared to cross MacArthur's lines beyond Sanpaloc, had 
refused to halt at the orders of the Nebraska outpost, had 
marched straight toward the sentry until within a dozen 
paces, and then was heard the shot that waked the eastern 
world as Private Grayson let drive, dropped his man, and 
sent the others scurrying back to their lines, which, carried 
away by excitement, opened fire right and left and the bat- 
tle of Manila had begun. 

Not until six hours later did the fun begin on our front, 
and then it came in a burst of fire and, as Anderson said it 
would, came in full force on that exposed angle, at the apex 
of which stood Concordia Bridge. In view of the fact that 
my orders were simply to hold the ground, but not to 
counter attack, I would have been glad to draw my men 
from the adjacent sides of that angle, where they must be 
raked by the guns of those two batteries, and line them up 
on the base, stretching across from the Concordia on the 
left to the Tripa de Gallina on the right, with the village 
and convent walls (which we were forbidden to use or occu- 
py) at our backs. Then, just let the enemy take the arch 
of the bridge, if they wanted it, and pour confusion into 



Memories of a Busy Life 



25 



them as they sought to deploy. But no, **yi^W not an inch 
and advance not a foot," were the orders I had to transmit 
to my CaHfornians and Washingtons, and they lay grim 
and silent along the banks of the slough, and obeyed. 

Three mortal hours that dismal game was carried on. 
From their lines three-quarters of a mile away the natives 
poured at first a shower of Mauser bullets at the salient, 
and occasionally sent the Krupp shells screeching over, but 
made no attempt to storm or charge our lines, so the only 
thing to do was to hug the ground, let them waste their 
ammunition and hold ours until we could see something ' 
worth shooting at. 

Not until dawn of the fifth was this possible, and then 
as little by little the scene unveiled before us and we could 
make out the long lines of insurgents, now well back toward 
Santa Ana, and the groups of white-clad riflemen extending 
clear around our left until lost in the bamboo toward Pan- 
dacan, I sent an urgent message back to General Anderson, 
begging to be allowed to carry out my plan, confident that 
we could sweep the field. Anderson relayed it to General 
Otis in town, and to our chagrin the answer was, by wire, 
"Not yet." 

Not yet, and every moment we clung to that exposed 
salient added to the peril of my men. Already Brigade 
Surgeon Shiels had far more than he could handle of 
wounded at his first-aid station in rear of the blockhouse. 
Already out of one little company, A of the First Washing- 
ton, hanging on to the Estero bank, seventeen lay dead or 
severely wounded. Erwin, their gallant first lieutenant, 
a graduate of the Wisconsin Guard as sergeant of Company 
K, Third Infantry, at Tomah, had been borne to the rear, 
shot through and through at the breast; while their grim 
captain, Otis, of Spokane, with half an ear torn away and a 
long gash across his cheek bound up in a bloody handker- 
chief, was spitting blood and imprecations at the fate that 



26 



General Charles King 



held us in the leash when all we prayed for was the word, 
"Go in!" 

It came at last, meeting me riding back from Scott's 
guns on Battery Knoll, at our right. It came after the 
insurgents, skulking in the native houses along the main 
road on our side of the Concordia, had shot down our 
wounded, drifting in from the front, and we had had to 
clean out three or four of these tenements, and their flames 
were driving skyward as General Anderson himself rode up 
from the rear with the welcome words: "King, you can 
attack." 

The Idaho regiment, at the moment, was massed in the 
side streets, sheltered by the stone walls. Bidding them 
follow, I galloped out to the Californians on the right 
front, sending their first battalion splashing breast-deep 
through the muddy slough and scrambling up the farther 
bank. Two companies, obeying the same impulse that 
had carried the lines of Thomas up the west slope of Mis- 
sionary Ridge in November, '63, had earlier taken the bit 
in their teeth, finding the flank fire unbearable, and had 
cleared a little lodgment for themselves on the opposite 
bank of the stream where, as the only men who could see 
anyone to shoot at, and being speedily set upon by the 
sprawling lines of the enemy, they fired away most of their 
ammunition by daylight and nearly lost thereby their share 
of the fun that followed. 

We went in just as I had planned, in echelon by battal- 
ion, beginning on the right. The First Battalion, Califor- 
nians, with Lieutenant Haan and his Engineers on their 
right, marching for the San Pedro road to the west of 
Santa Ana; the Second Battalion, three hundred paces to 
the left rear of the first; the Third, of the Washingtons, with 
its left resting on the Santa Ana road; the Fourth, McCon- 
ville's battalion of the Idahos on the left of the Santa 
Ana road, were waiting for the word, as I spurred a very 



Memories of a Busy Life 



27 



unwilling pony across the bridge and dismounted a moment 
beyond the Filipino guardhouse, where lay three of the 
guard dead, and, with a company of Californians blazing 
away at the fire-spitting earthworks across the level rice 
fields, got my first good look at the Krupp battery and the 
straw-hatted ranks of insurrectos supporting it. Now was 
the time to carry out the plan, and not a moment to be lost. 
Sending Lieutenant Hutton, my West Point aide, with 
orders to McConville to head straight for those guns, I 
galloped to the nearest battalion, already in long line 
halfway across the fields, ordered its left to halt short, and 
then wheeled the four fine companies square to their left, 
driving the insurgents who remained west of the main road 
scampering before them. The next battalion, taking care 
of everything in their front, also prevented any attack upon 
the right of the Third. Then with the four companies of 
Idahos skipping nimbly into line with the Washingtons, 
we had that Filipino brigade pinned between the stone walls 
of Santa Ana, the swift flowing, unfordable Pasig, the Con- 
cordia Estero, where Fortson's four companies of Washing- 
tons, moving out as soon as McConville had his distance, 
were just scrambling up to the attack of the thronged 
redoubt; we had them where for six long weeks we had been 
praying to get them, in open field, with the river at their 
backs, and then at last the poor fellows learned to their 
cost how their ofiicers, their priests, their papers had lied to 
them. So far from being in dread, those long lines of blue- 
shirted "Yankos" were coming straight at them, cheering 
like mad and paying no heed whatever to their frantic, ill- 
aimed volleys. 

It was all over in ten minutes. Only at the extreme 
left, the redoubt, was there an instant check. There some 
of the insurgents, seeing that they were being cut off from 
Santa Ana, that the American lines had wheeled to the left 
and were swiftly driving their comrades into the river, stuck 



28 



General Charles King 



their hats on the butts of their guns and held them high aloft 
in token of surrender, then shot dead the first two or three 
of Fortson's men who came clambering up the grass parapet. 
For an instant, amazed and appalled at such a base viola- 
tion of the rules of war, some of the men quickly halted ; 
then, with a roar of wrath and vengeance, swept forward in 
headlong charge just as on the right Sothern's men of the 
Washingtons, backed by McConville's right company, were 
ripping their way through the Krupp battery, and all along 
the intermediate lines, by scores the little brown soldiers 
were diving into the river, to drown or to be shot in the back 
as they swam, while some three hundred others threw down 
their arms and begged for their lives. 

One hundred sixty of their misguided fellows lay dead 
on that field, scattered from Concordia Bridge to the bank 
of the Pasig, but the dead lay thickest on that wretched 
redoubt. I fear me there was little mercy shown at that 
end of the line. Probably sixty or eighty wounded were 
mingled with the dead, whereas our entire loss was seventeen 
killed and seventy-nine wounded, gallant old McConville, 
leading his Idahos, falling mortally hit in the rush on the 
Krupp battery. 

Among the Filipino wounded was an officer who had been 
employed in the Hong Kong and Shanghai bank, and prided 
himself on his fluency in English. To our surgeons, dressing 
his wound, he unbosomed himself, for his mental distress 
seemed to outweigh his bodily ills. "Often have we fought 
the Spaniards. We would fire and they would fire, and 
after awhile we would stop and they would stop. They 
fight like gentlemen. But you Americans, we fire at you and 
you jump up and run at us. It is not fair!" 

Santa Ana town, which we occupied in force before ten 
o'clock, proved to be quite a storehouse of arms and ammu- 
nition. We found two thousand bolos in one building. But 
its garrison scurried away up stream as our lines enveloped. 



Memories of a Busy Life 



29 



and having no cavalry we failed to catch them. They fell 
back to San Pedro Macati, a mile distant, but had to get 
out of that, too, when Col. Jim Smith with the right echelon 
pressed close on their heels, on the Pasig road. So ended 
Santa Ana, which in point of casualties, numbers taking 
part, and guns engaged was the heaviest fight of the cam- 
paign. My share of the spoils, so to speak, was sent me 
by staff officer the following week — General Anderson's 
earnest recommendation that I should be promoted at 
once to the full rank of major general. 

There followed two months of alternate lull and battle. 
The corps commander, in the endeavor to capture Aguinaldo 
and smash his army, concentrated most of his force on the 
line of the Dagupan railway to the north and, to the keen 
disappointment of General Anderson and myself, for we 
had pushed ahead and captured the populous island town 
of Pasig, ordered us to fall back to the line San Pedro Maca- 
ti-Pasay, and took away so many of my men that I had only 
sixteen companies left to cover nearly two miles of open 
line. The insurrectos, who had disappeared for as much as 
a week from the eighth of February, returned in consider- 
able force and gave us two stirring fights by night, in the 
endeavor to break through that blue line and go careering 
on to Manila. But that line held. 

Then General Anderson, promoted to brigadier general 
in the Regular Army, wherein he had been colonel of the 
Fourteenth Infantry when the war started, was ordered 
back to the States to command the Department of the 
Lakes, and there came in his stead to command the First 
Division our famous Indian campaigner, Henry W. Lawton. 
He had been quartermaster of the old Fourth Cavalry when 
I was adjutant of the Fifth. We knew each other well, and 
the friendship between us was strong. I had parted most 
reluctantly with General Anderson, and to the day of his 
lamented death, long years later, we kept up our exchange 



30 



General Charles King 



of letters, telegrams, or greetings. But if the whole Army 
had been searched for a successor more to my liking, it 
could have yielded none to surpass LaWton. We were in 
harmony from start to finish, but that finish came all too 
soon. 

Lawton was a glorious soldier, and we of the old frontier 
cavalry swore by him. Sometimes about the camp fires in 
the Black Hills, toward the end of the Sioux campaign in 
'76, and again as we marched leisurely home from the Nez 
Perces campaign of '77, we would get to talking of the 
men who, still subalterns, had shown the greatest energy 
and ability in that most trying and hazardous warfare. 
The Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Seventh Cavalry, 
the Fourth, Fifth, Seventh, Ninth, Fourteenth, and 
Twenty-third Infantry had been more conspicuously and 
frequently engaged in the Sioux, Cheyenne, Nez Perces and, 
earlier, the Kiowa and Comanche wars than had any others ; 
and while each regiment had its favorite son or sons — men 
like Philo Clark and Sibley of the Second Cavalry, Emmet 
Crawford and John Bourke of the Third, Lawton, Bob 
Carter, and McKinney of the Fourth, Hall and Schuyler 
of the Fifth, Billy Carter of the Sixth, Garlington and 
Godfrey of the Seventh, Baldwin and Bailey of the Fifth 
Infantry, Jackson and Woodruff of the Seventh, and Heyl of 
the Twenty-third — it may be said that for all-round ability, 
efficiency, and endurance "Big Henry" Lawton would 
have polled the heaviest vote. 

As a general he had fought admirably in Cuba, yet had 
not won at the hands of the commanding general the com- 
mendation his friends expected, and he came to the Philip- 
pines intent on proving his worth, and he would have 
emerged from that war the popular hero had he lived it 
through. But he was utterly reckless under fire, and 
because of his stature and dress and the big black horse he 
rode, by long odds the easiest mark and the most conspicu- 
ous figure on the field of battle. 



Memories of a Busy Life 



31 



The first day he and I rode out to my front together, 
from San Pedro cemetery toward the Guadeloupe Ridge, 
the men at the guns and the rifle pits were moved to merri- 
ment at the contrast; he a towering figure, I short and squat 
on my Kttle plug ugly of a pony — I couldn't help laughing 
with them. 

But my laughter changed to dismay, not half an hour 
later, when out in front of our advanced line, in full view of 
the insurrecto riflemen on the ridge (while I was busy calling 
up a company to swing out over the slope and drive back 
the opposing pickets so that we could get a good view of 
the ridge) Lawton disappeared in the shrubbery, and the 
next thing I saw of him he was perched, like a lighthouse, 
on the summit of a rocky mound full three hundred yards 
out to the front, calmly studying the scenery through his 
binocular. Clapping spurs to my amazed and indignant 
pony, I galloped out to him full tilt, forgetful of rank or 
etiquette, thinking only of his peril. '*Come down off that 
rock!" I shouted. "Come down, or you're a dead man!" 
And presently, laughing, yet grim, he had to. "You'll 
break my heart," I said to him a moment later, "if you 
persist in such performances; and the whole Army will 
damn me for letting you do it," I insisted. 

"But, how else can I see what I need to see? "he laughed, 
in reply. 

"What good will it do you or me if you get killed in 
seeing. For God's sake don't tempt Providence that way." 
But it turned out even as I feared. In his white helmet and 
raincoat, the one prominent object on his fighting line, 
Lawton fell a few months later, shot through and through 
in a mere skirmish. 

But by that time I was no longer with him to meddle or 
remonstrate. Even before he came I knew my time was 
coming. The hot suns of March and April, the constant 
exposure night and day, the irregular hours for food and 



32 



General Charles King 



sleep, all had been telling on my strength, and the infernal 
eczema had come back with redoubled force. Lawton saw 
I was in misery and tried to spare me. I had lost my fine 
brigade surgeon and physician, Shiels, who had so helped 
me during the Santa Ana week. He had been transferred 
to the north line when MacArthur was having his heavy 
losses, and the assistants left with us tried everything they 
could think of, but the eruption and exhaustion grew worse 
and worse. There came a week when I could sleep neither 
night nor day, and was carried back to Manila and the 
doctors. "It's home for you by the first steamer," was the 
verdict. "A fortnight more of this and you'll go in an ice- 
box." 

Now, during those trying days on the south front Law- 
ton's house was back in town, while my quarters were a 
sand-bagged corner of the building Pio del Pilar, division 
commander in the Insurgent Army, had used as his head- 
quarters, and many of his papers were left when he had to 
quit, and Lawton came out every day and spent long hours 
at the front. We had limes, ice, the wherewithal to offer 
cool and stimulating drink to many ofiicers and visitors 
coming and going, especially while Wheaton, with his 
flying column, was making things lively along the Laguna; 
not once would Lawton touch a drop, though he willingly 
allowed his staff the luxury. He was a Spartan in drink 
and diet during his days with us, gladly accepting for the 
wife and children half a box of delicious oranges, such as 
they had been accustomed to at their own Riverside, for 
a friend had sent me a supply from San Francisco, but 
nothing else would he touch, taste, or handle. 

Yet a most unpleasant episode occurred at a very pretty 
luncheon given at the Palace Hotel just after my return. 
Half a dozen prominent oflScers and as many charming socie- 
ty women were at table, when in a loud voice the senior 



Memories of a Busy Life 



33 



major general called to me across the table, and everybody 
heard. 

"Lawton's drinking again, I hear," said he. 

There was an instant of dead silence, then everybody 
heard me reply: 

"Not a drop, sir, and I was with him every day and 
many a night.'* 

"Well, you know, of course, he was drinking hard in 
Cuba." 

"I do not, sir. This is the very first mention of it that 
ever reached me." 

In such a presence and at such a time it was a flagrant 
breach of every propriety, and the lady on my left turned 
quickly to me: 

"I don't know General Lawton," said she, "but, I hate 
that man!" And "that man" and I were strangers there- 
after. Sheer jealousy and utter lack of breeding explained 
it. Lawton's last letter to me we treasure in the family, 
and for them I record here what my corps commander 
Otis and my successive division commanders, Anderson 
and Lawton, wrote of or to me after I came away. 

Chicago, III., October 31, 1901. 

The affair was a brilliant and an important one. Early in the morn- 
ing [Feb. 5, 1899] General Anderson telegraphed me that General King 
desired to advance his line against the enemy making a wheel to the 
left towards the Pasig river, on which his left rested. We were not 
then prepared for this movement, wishing i&rst to accomplish certain 
results north of the river where General Mac Arthur commanded. 
This effected, I instructed General Anderson about eight o'clock in 
the morning to direct General King to move his brigade as he (General 
King) had suggested. The movement was made and resulted in the 
overwhelming defeat of the insurgents in front of General King's forces, 
the loss to them of many men, all their artillery, considerable ammuni- 
tion and quantities of war supplies. The movement was suggested by 
General King, effected under his immediate supervision and he in person 
led it, at least in part, I am sure, showing conspicuous gallantry and 
efficiency. He is entitled to special recognition for this affair, and I 
hope the present brevet board will recommend that suitable recognition 
be made of his gallant services. 

E. S. Otis, 

Major General, U. S. Army. 



34 



General Charles King 



Manila, P. I., March 21st, 1899. 

Brig. Genl. Chas. King. 

My Dear General: Before leaving this department, I wish to 
assure you of my appreciation of the zeal, energy and marked ability 
and skill you have shown in the command of your brigade. I would 
tender my thanks, but that I am sure you were influenced by the higher 
motive of patriotic endeavor. My division can never know how hard 
it is for me to sever my connection with it before the end of the war. 
As for you, my dear General, I am sure you will find your best reward 
in the consciousness of duty well performed. 

Cordially yours, 
(Sgd.) Thomas M. Anderson, 
Major General Com'd'g 1st Div., 8th A. C. 

San Fernando, P. I., May 10, 1899. 

My Dear General: 

Your kind letter of the 6th inst. is here, and I thank you very 
much, and I regret that your health has made it necessary that you 
should return to America. 

But, my dear General, you have not left us until you have estab- 
lished a reputation for bravery, ability, and skill, that will make you 
honored by Americans while you live. * * * * 
With wishes for your speedy restoration to health. 

Sincerely yours, 
LoYD Wheaton, 

Major General, U. S. V. 

To Brig. Gen. Charles King, 
United States Volunteers, 

Headquarters, First Division, Eighth Army Corps, 
Manila, P. I., August 10th, 1899. 

To Brig. Gen. Charles King, 

U. S. Volunteers, 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
My Dear General: * * * * 

I cannot express to you how much I regret the necessity for your 
return to the United States at the time you did. I want to say to you 
that you are the only General oflficer whom I know who possesses that 
peculiar faculty or that magnetism which attracts men to him; you 
are the only one of all the General officers who has excited among the 
men of his command any great amount of enthusiasm. I remember 
when you left your launch to come aboard the gunboat just before 
the attack on Santa Cruz, that a cheer went up from all the men in the 
transports; and you seem to possess that peculiar dash and spirit which 
carries men who follow you along with you with enthusiasm. 

sjc ^ s{c 3)c 

Yours very truly, 
(Signed) H. W. Lawton, 

Major General, Volunteers. 



Memories of a Busy Life 35 

State Soldiers* Home, Erie Co., Ohio, 

October 29th, 1901. 

My Dear General: 

When you did not receive your well-deserved promotion, you were 
doubtless disappointed, but I was mortified, because I thought it was 
from my lack of influence. 

* * * * J would state, what is more to your credit, that you 
did far more than you were expected to do. After holding your share 
of the San Pedro Macati and Pasay line, you went on and took Pasig 
and Pateros, which we gave up under orders, and for the retaking of 
which a great amount of credit was given * * * one month later. 

* * * * 

When a Brigade or Division has been uniformly successful, some 
credit should be given to the commanders who have drilled and or- 
ganized, and infused into them their military spirit. 

Very cordially yours, 
(Signed) Thomas M. Anderson, 
Brig. General U.S.A., Late Maj. Gen'l Vols. 

Brig. Gen'l Charles King, 
Milwaukeey Wis. 

529433 

RECENT SERVICE 

It may be remembered that my spells of ill luck came, as 
it were, in groups of three. In '93 our bank suspended, our 
books and papers and furniture were burned, and my wife's 
injury occurred in quick succession. In '98 I lost in even 
quicker time the command of the third and fourth expedi- 
tions, successively to Mac Arthur, to Harrison Gray Otis, 
and then my own, the fifth, was held up at Honolulu. 
Now came group the third. I planned, having reached 
home, to go to Europe in the early fall of '99 to join my 
family and recuperate. I was still undergoing treatment 
and far from well when I reached Milwaukee. W^ithin six 
weeks of each other disaster befell my three publishers; 
Harpers failed, Lippincotts burned to the ground, and 
Neely, whose notes I had accepted and had discounted 
because of the needs of the household overseas, was forced 
into bankruptcy. I stayed home and went to work. It 
was practically beginning all over again the uphill climb of 
the previous twenty years. 



36 



General Charles King 



First there were fair offers for army stories, and later a 
detail as acting superintendent of the Michigan Military 
Academy at Orchard Lake. I made enough to bring the 
family home and start housekeeping on Cass Street, whence 
we soon moved to Biddle. Then the "Dick Bill," reorganiz- 
ing the militia as part of the National Army, and making 
it in arms, equipment, uniform, etc. exactly and in instruc- 
tion as nearly like the Regulars as possible, with the title of 
general, as provided by statute law of the United States 
for officers who had served with that rank in war time in 
the volunteers. As brigadier general retired, of the Wis- 
consin Guard, I had thought my days of active duty ended. 
But the new law provided for the detail of certain retired 
oflficers as instructors of the organized militia, and in 1904 
I was rejoiced to be selected as one of them, and here, with 
my old comrades of Wisconsin, up to the date on which I 
pencil these lines, I have been ever since, one result to which 
I helped being that in a circular published by the War 
Department in 1914, to every unit of the Regular Army or 
the state militia it was announced that, "The Organized 
Militia of the State of Wisconsin may be taken as a model 
in training, equipment aind business administration." And 
from that organization grew in great part the famous 
Thirty-second Division of the Army in France, two-thirds of 
which was made up of our Badger Guardsmen. 

Some rarely valuable men had for long years been my 
associates and fellow workers — Charles R. Boardman of 
Oshkosh, on whose sleeves I placed his corporal's chevrons, 
a freshman at the University in '81, and later Orlando Hol- 
way of La Crosse, whom I first knew as a lieutenant in the 
Wausau Light Guard, being in turn the adjutants general; 
and Charles R. Williams of Milwaukee, "the whole thing," 
one might almost say, in the Department of Supplies — 
ordnance, quartermaster, commissary, and pay. Board- 
man went to France as commander of the Sixty-fourth Bri- 



Memories of a Busy Life 



37 



gade, Thirty-second Division, a first-class leader in every 
way, until the doctors told him the strain was telling on his 
heart and he must abandon it; Holway, the head and front 
of the great work of recruiting and building up the eight 
regiments of auxiliaries Wisconsin placed at the disposal 
of the nation; later the State Guard, our defense during the 
absence of their predecessors; and finally, the calling to 
life, the organization of the force of ten thousand the 
Government demanded of Wisconsin, one-eighth of all the 
National Guard cavalry of forty -eight states being assigned 
to us — the hardest military task, I venture to say, laid upon 
any state in the union. In my seventy-ninth year I am 
still eagerly interested in this work, and but for one wretched 
mishap might still be in fine physical trim. 

On the evening of October 26, 1919, as I reached Oneida 
Street at the corner of Jefferson, and paused at the north- 
west curb to reconnoiter, for automobiles by the score were 
usually rushing in all four directions, I saw not a light on 
the Jefferson Street driveway, not a light east on Oneida, 
and the lights of only two cars west on Oneida, coming 
swiftly my way. Now, it is just fifty feet from curb to 
curb. It took me at that time just twenty steps to cross. 
I habitually took two steps to the second, thirty inches 
each, therefore ten seconds would put me safely over. The 
forward car was just reaching the middle of Milwaukee 
Street as I started. It had almost one hundred yards, 
exactly 254 feet, to come. The second was a short distance 
behind it. Unless they were coming at thirty miles an 
hour, I had abundant time. But, before I had taken the 
ninth step I saw that the leading car was almost upon me. 
It was keeping well over to the south side of Oneida, 
because of the light at the intersection of Oneida and 
Jefferson. I knew that a following car had no right to 
attempt to pass a leader on its right, so quickening step 
I easily and safely cleared the foremost car, only to be cut 



38 



General Charles King 



down by the other on the sixteenth step, hurled to the pave- 
ment, my right leg broken in two places below the knee, 
the fracture of the tibia, as it turned out, extending through 
the knob or weight-bearing joint, and my back was badly 
injured. The second car was close behind the first, and 
instead of following in its' trace was running to the right of 
it within three steps of the curb, just exactly where it should 
not have been, as the driver could not possibly see anyone 
crossing from the north to the south side, as I was, and 
absolutely sure to cut down anyone so crossing directly 
in front of the leading car. They were running exactly 
twenty-seven and one-half miles per hour when suddenly 
they caught sight of me and put on the brakes — too late, of 
course, to stop their way. They took me, as I asked, to the 
Emergency Hospital, where a young interne promptly 
assured me I hadn't a bone broken. I knew better, and 
my own physician came in half an hour. I was carried 
to the X-ray room and the rays were sent through from the 
right side, revealing the transverse fracture of the fibula, 
but failing to show, of course, the longitudinal split, a far 
more serious injury to the main bone, the tibia. They 
put me in "the Roosevelt room," and doubtless would have 
given me proper care but that half a dozen people were just 
then brought in from a smash-up, one man with fractured 
skull, and the doctors and nurses apparently were needed. 
"Push that button if you want a thing," said the doctor, 
and after midnight, when the pain became serious, I wanted 
several things and pushed accordingly, but without the 
faintest result. No one heard, and I had to grin and bear it 
until three o'clock in the morning, when a nurse casually 
looked in. Then the discovery was made that the push 
button or something was out of order. 

All winter long, all spring, and until mid-July the 
trained nurse rubbed at that injured knee in the effort 
to get it to bend. The best of surgeons, like our good old 



Memories of a Busy Life 



39 



Guardsmen Seaman and Evans, came frequently to see 
me, but I could never again mount my horse from the 
ground, and going up and down stairs is a matter of diffi- 
culty. God be thanked it was no worse ! 

{To he continued) 



EARLY DAYS IN PLATTEVILLE 



The three articles which follow, from Hon. D. J. Gardner, 
Rev. Truman O. Douglass, and his wife, Maria Greene Douglass, 
all relate to the early history of Platteville and practically to the 
years prior to the close of the Civil War. The editor is very glad 
to present these contributions to the readers of the magazine. 
They are all well written, by responsible first-hand witnesses who, 
though venerable in years, are gifted with excellent memories 
and trained to careful, discriminating statement in historical 
matters. It will be noted that, whereas the two Douglass papers 
deal mainly with reminiscences of those pioneers whose interests 
centered in the school, the Academy, and the Presbyterian or 
Congregational Church, the reminiscences of Mr. Gardner deal 
with incidents more characteristic of the mining frontier. In a 
way, therefore, Mr. Gardner brings to us the atmosphere of the 
earliest Platteville, the Douglasses that of a somewhat mature 
community. 

Platteville became a lead mining center with the discovery of 
rich deposits in 1827, the year that miners began fully to prospect 
the Wisconsin mining area. In the fall of that year John H. 
Rountree became part owner, by purchase, of one of the principal 
diggings opened in the spring. He and his partner, J. B. Camp- 
bell, are said to have taken out within a year mineral to the 
value of $30,000.1 They erected a log furnace, opened a tavern 
and store, and otherwise prepared to take advantage of the trade 
which the mineral wealth attracted to the vicinity. Communica- 
tion was maintained with Galena, which continued to be the 
metropolis of the lead region, though Mineral Point soon became 
the leading town in the Wisconsin field. In 1829 "Platte River," 
as the place was at first called, was given a post office. 

Soon after the Black Hawk War the Platteville mines began 
to attract wider attention. In 1834 a "rush" of small proportions 
occurred, which may have been due in part to the recent survey 

1 Castello N. Holford, History of Grant County (Lancaster, 1900), 454. 



pIMI HE iiibicribtr km§ 1*14 otil s mmw T^mm ml 

Jit iPlal'lf m lmw% i^umtf^ MmU%%u T#m- 

rlmlCt ti bmimmMly %%%mmUd urn tk# tof4#r 

#Et#»tif# FoMit OS lb# f^lilt# Kit #rti tsd it 24 

#ri| P#iafi tft44i SiilM BmI #f tli# MtMiinippii oo 
tb« wtitt 8t*f# fMii Qidmmm t# Prmim, Do 

f*tt sif r#i»d»f mmmtff" it mtmnm In io 
f#rtiilty of soil, mud mimfUdmmm ta sfriouliura. 
Tbt tiffii^if on th# Flmti# .f if tin, is #r #X€#H«st 
ualitft tod mkQndant; «od f#r| oootMUot to ibo 
armt»| land o» tbo Prairio; tho litllo Plmtto» wbiob 
rtiiQs irtlbiQ m tnilo and a bmlf of tbo Tow o^ it a ?al* 
iiaWo Mill ilmisif affordiof fioo falti in varioot 
ptaeai hr mill sitoi» and attifficioot totnfiio of wa- 
tt? at a!t toaiooi, of Ibo |oar, to oarry, oxtoosi? o 
Maqbioory; a Saw mill is alroady to oporatioo on 
tbit ttrtaoii S»iloi below Piaitt illo, mad mootbor a 
fow iiiloi abof Spriog • aod ttrotoit of jporott wa 
tor tboiiod io ototy paft of tbmeootifiioiiiCouotry, 
Io additioo to tboto rndtantagott it may botafoly a/- 
ir&od ik^t Ibo mioorai woallb of ibis rof iofi ia o« 
quml to Ibal of any olbor portiofi of Ibo Mioiog Oia- 
trioti attraotod by toob lodiioofiiooti, ao iaduatri- 
oysi iotolligoot aod morat (Kipulalioo isiolltiof aod 
improf iof Ibo oouotry rapidly, aad purjobatiog ibo 
laoda at tboy oomo ioto loarhot. 

Portooi friibiof toporobato proporty^omd aoitt« 
io tbo Tarritotyi woold do wall to oxploro tbia too 
tioo of Coootr/a bofoM mircbaaiog. 

JOHN H. BOUNTREE. 

Sept- 19; 1835. 



From North Western Gazette and Galena Advertiser, Soptoiuhor 10. IS.S.) 



Early Days in Platteville 



41 



of the lands. 2 The increase in population justified the platting 
of the town, and in September, 1835 Major Rountree placed in a 
Galena paper the advertisement of the site of Platteville which is 
herein reproduced. It will be observed that among the advan- 
tages claimed for the place were a fertile soil, a good supply of 
timber, and a fine water power stream, in addition to the mineral 
wealth. 

The village grew by irregular accretions to its mining popula- 
tion, and little by little, especially after 1846, when miners were 
permitted to enter at the land office the lands containing their 
mines, farming in the fertile prairies and adjacent openings 
came to furnish a more permanent basis of its prosperity. The 
census of 1850 assigns to the town of Platteville, including the 
village, a population of 2171. Just how many the village con- 
tained at that time cannot be ascertained. In 1855 it had 1427 
when the entire town had 2789. An analysis of the population in 
1850 shows that 1552 were American born, 616 foreign born. 
Of the American born 573 were natives of Wisconsin, 181 of 
Illinois, 164 of Pennsylvania, 142 of New York, and 122 of Ohio. 
Natives of the southern states aggregated 162; of the northern, 
aside from Wisconsin, 817. This reveals how rapid must have 
been the influx of emigrants from the northern states after the 
first flush of the mining boom had passed. Of the foreign element 
England was credited with 349, Germany 145, Ireland 69, 
Canada 28. There were 5 Scots, 4 Welshmen, 9 Norwegians, 4 
Dutch, 2 Swiss, and 1 Frenchman. This is the social environment 
into which the narratiyes by Mr. and Mrs. Douglass fit. The 
Gardner narrative, except for the incident about General Grant, 
must be referred to a condition which by 1850 was already 
somewhat altered. 

The footnotes appended to the articles by Dr. Douglass and 
Mrs. Douglass were very kindly furnished by Hon. James W. 
Murphy of Platteville, whose knowledge of the antiquities of the 
place is at once extensive and minute. 

From the pen of Mr. Josiah L. Pickard, who figures so 
prominently in the article by Mrs. Douglass, this Society has an 

* The range of townships which includes the town of Platteville, range one west, was 
surveyed in 1833 by Sylvester Sibley. 



42 



D, J. Gardner 



extended manuscript of great value as a source for educational 
history. That manuscript will be published in later issues of the 
magazine. 

INCIDENTS IN THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE 
WISCONSIN LEAD MINES 

D. J. Gardner 

John H. Rountree, who came here from Mammoth 
Cave, Kentucky, early in 1827, and who remained here 
until his death, was the first permanent settler of Platteville, 
although there were hunters and trappers in this vicinity 
many years prior. Grant County takes its name from one 
of these hardy men. A man named Grant came into the 
county and located on the river bearing his name, in the 
year 1816. He had a kettle which fitted over his head and 
which he frequently wore in that manner. An incident of 
him is related by one of the early settlers. While attending 
his traps on the Grant River, a band of Indians came upon 
him suddenly and one of them rushed up and struck him 
on the head with his tomahawk, which did no more damage 
than to produce a ring from the kettle. The Indian turned 
back and yelled, "Manitou," and the whole band fled. 

Prior to the advent of the white man the Indians mined 
and smelted lead ore here quite extensively, and when the 
early white settlers came they used the same method 
employed by the Indians, which was known as the "log 
furnace." In the early forties the Yorkshire English brought 
in the blast furnace. Two of these furnaces were in opera- 
tion for many years here, the Coates furnace and the Straw 
furnace, the latter being dismantled about twelve years ago. 
The first white settlers came from southern Illinois, Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, and Missouri, and a little later there 
came numbers of Europeans. All of the lead was hauled to 
Galena by ox team and shipped from there by boat to St, 



Incidents in History of Wisconsin Lead Mines 43 

Louis and other points down the river. Dubuque is as 
close to Platteville as Galena, but the road to Galena, until 
recent years, has been much better than the road to Du- 
buque. The average lead ore of the early-day mining ran 
from seventy-five to eighty-eight per cent metallic lead. 
Most of the early mining was shallow, and in fact many of 
the largest bodies of lead ore were discovered at the grass 
roots. The Rountree lode was discovered in 1827 in a 
ground-hog den. The Finney patch, one of the most exten- 
sive lodes ever worked here, was discovered in 1828 at the 
grass roots. This mine turned out nearly five million 
pounds of lead ore and was not over thirty feet deep in the 
lowest place. Mining was the principal occupation of this 
region until about the year 1846, when agriculture began to 
have a good start. 

One of the early settlers of Platteville was Jacob Hoosier, 
who came here in 1828 and located on a tract of land about 
a mile south of this city. In the year 1831 he built a house 
on this piece of land, and in 1846 he built a stone house 
and occupied it until the date of his death. His daughter, 
Mrs. Frank Young, now owns the farm. This farm has 
never been out of the family since it was first occupied by 
Mr. Hoosier. Mr. Hoosier was noted as a crack shot with 
the rifle and a race-horse man. In the fall of 1848 he par- 
ticipated in one of the most unique horse races that was 
ever run in Wisconsin. As related to me by Mr. Hoosier, he 
and Mr. James Vineyard, who was also a race-horse man, 
had had a race in which Mr. Vineyard came off victorious. 
Mr. Hoosier then went down to Edwardsville, Illinois, and 
purchased a sorrel mare which he called Big Ann, and he 
turned her over to his jockey to care for and train. In the 
meantime he fixed up another race with Mr. Vineyard. 
Mr. Vineyard found out from the jockey that Mr. Hoosier 
had purchased a new horse, and he and some of his friends 
and the jockey stole the horse out one night, tested her 



44 



D, J. Gardner 



speed, and found that she was much more fleet than the 
Vineyard horse. They made an arrangement with Mr. 
Hoosier's jockey, by the terms of which he was to hold Big 
Ann in and let the Vineyard horse win the race. 

In some unaccountable manner Mr. Hoosier found out 
what had been done but did not let it be known and kept on 
putting up money on Big Ann until he exhausted his re- 
sources. The morning of the race he put up an additional 
five hundred dollars brought to him by Tim Barr from 
Beetown in this county. He also drove up all of his horses 
and cattle to the place of the race and bet them against 
money. Judge Paine, one of the early-day lawyers of Platte- 
ville, was the stake holder. The race was run in a straight 
mile track about two miles northeast of the city of Platte- 
ville. All of the lovers of horse racing in southwestern 
Wisconsin were on the ground the day of the race, and Mr. 
Vineyard and his friends felt sure of breaking Mr. Hoosier. 

As the hour approached, the jockey, all togged out for 
the race, was walking the mare up and down the track 
when Mr. Hoosier stuck his finger in his mouth and blew 
a shrill whistle and a young man by the name of Gregory, 
dressed for the race, came out of the hazel brush. Mr. 
Hoosier whipped out a brace of pistols, walked up to his 
former jockey, and said, "You d — thief, stand aside," and 
picked up the young man from the hazel brush and put 
him on Big Ann, at the same time saying, "You win this 
race or I will kill you." At this juncture of affairs excite- 
ment was running high and the Vineyard forces were trying 
to withdraw their money, but the unwritten law of the 
mining district would not permit it and Judge Paine held 
fast to the stakes. The race was run and Big Ann came 
in first, winning her owner about ten thousand dollars. 
After the race was over, Mr. Hoosier went up to Big Ann, 
put his arm around her neck, and patted her and said, 
"Ann, horse racing and me is done. You will not have 



Incidents in History of Wisconsin Lead Mines 45 

to work any more or run in any more races." He gathered 
in his boodle and went back to his farm home and never 
tried racing any more. If some of the modern race-horse 
men would follow his example they would be much better 
off. Mr. Hoosier lived about a mile from my father's farm, 
and Big Ann lived until she was about thirty-five years old. 
I remember seeing her in the early seventies. 

Most of the early settlers coming to this vicinity brought 
their rifles with them and many of them brought pistols 
and bowie knives. I very distinctly remember the first 
governor of Wisconsin, Nelson Dewey, who was living at 
Cassville, Wisconsin, in 1878. He had had some trouble 
with a doctor then living in the town. I overheard some 
remarks that the doctor had made and I went into the 
Governor's room in the hotel and told him to be careful, 
that the doctor had a revolver. Whereupon Governor 
Dewey said, "If he pulls a revolver on me, I will cut his 
d — head off," at the same time pulling out of his inside 
vest pocket a bowie knife. 

There were a great many rifle matches held here in the 
early days, the prize usually being a fat three- or four-year- 
old steer. The best shot had the first choice of hind quar- 
ters, the next best shot had the second choice of hind 
quarters, the third best shot had the first choice of fore quar- 
ters, the fourth best shot had the second choice of fore 
quarters, and the next best shot took the hide and tallow. 
Mr. Jacob Hoosier quite often went away from these 
matches with the choice of hind quarters. There were 
many other crack rifle shots in the Wisconsin lead mines, 
and every early settler had from one to three rifles hanging 
up near the fireplace with all ammunition ready for any 
emergency. They were all of them muzzle loaders. Mr. 
Hoosier had one gun that he called "Long Tom." I think 
it weighed about fifteen pounds, and he had another rifle 
which he called "Old Rusty." My father, who came here 



46 D. J, Gardner 

in 1840 from Ottawa, Illinois, was also a crack rifle shot. 
He had two of the famous old-fashioned guns. Col. Joseph 
Dickson, who came here in 1827 and who lived about two 
miles west of my father's residence, and who was noted as an 
Indian fighter, was also a crack rifle shot.^ 

From 1850 to 1855 there was an exodus of the early 
settlers from here to the California gold fields. Mr. Jacob 
Hoosier and his eldest son crossed the plains in 1850, and 
men who were in his company have related to me that Mr. 
Hoosier and his son supplied the train with fresh meat all 
along the trip. They had two saddle horses with them 
and killed a large amount of game on the way. 

Many of the early settlers of Platteville were personally 
acquainted with General Grant before he went into the 
Civil War from Galena, and when he was a candidate for 
the presidency in 1868 he visited Platteville and made a 
short speech in the normal school here. A new addition to 
the school was dedicated at that time. General Grant came 
again in 1878 after he had made his tour around the world, 
and had a public reception at the residence of Major Roun- 
tree; while there some gentlemen from Lancaster, Wiscon- 
sin, wished to talk to him over a telephone, which had been 
built by Capt. W\ H. Beebe — one of the first telephone lines 
in southern Wisconsin, if not the first. General Grant was 
sent for and came to Captain Beebe's office, and for the 
first time in his life used the telephone. 

Another very interesting character of the early days was 
a man by the name of Colonel Teller. He started mining on 
lands now belonging to Hon. J. W. Murphy just southwest 
of this city, and sunk a shaft without the aid of a partner. 
In doing this he used what was known to early miners here 
as an "Indian ladder." After working for some time the 
Colonel became short of funds and could not obtain credit 
at the stores. His wife pleaded with him in vain to stop the 

3 For Colonel Dickson's own narrative, see Wis. Hist. Colls., v, 315-317. 



Incidents in History of Wisconsin Lead Mines 47 

mining and go at something else which would give them a 
livelihood, but he insisted that there was a large body of 
lead ore under his shaft. He left home one morning intend- 
; ing it to be his last day in the shaft. He did not return in 
j the evening, and his wife waited until about midnight and 
I then called upon some friends to assist her. A searching 
party was formed and they went toward the prospect. 
When they arrived at the shaft, they heard the Colonel 
shouting at the top of his voice. One of the men went down 
the ladder and tried to get him out, when he saw a sheet of 
lead ore covering the entire bottom of the shaft. The 
Colonel during the day had struck it rich and had got 
beside himself in his excitement. This lode made him a few 
thousand dollars, and a few years afterwards he left here. 

One of our oldest living residents at Platte ville is Mr. 
Frank Rowe, who came here in the forties and who crossed 
the plains to California with an ox team in 1852, leaving 
Platte ville on the last day of March. There were five ox 
teams in the company. Close to the mouth of Shell Creek, 
Nebraska, the company was attacked by Indians, but 
fortunately at that moment another company bound for 
California came in sight. A corral was quickly made of the 
wagons, and the oxen, horses, and non-combatants were put 
in the center. The battle lasted for a considerable time, and 
finally the Indians withdrew leaving nine of their number 
dead. This company had difiiculty with the Indians not 
far from Salt Lake City, but no one was hurt. After some- 
thing over three months' travel the company arrived at 
Placerville, commonly called "Hangtown," California. Mr. 
Rowe states that while in California he called upon the 
family of Mr. James R. Vineyard. Mr. Vineyard had 
preceded Mr. Rowe to California and never returned to 
Platteville. Mr. Rowe was present at the *'Hoosier horse 
race." He is now past ninety years of age and in possession 
of good health. 



48 



Truman 0, Douglass 



Dr. William Davidson came to Wisconsin Territory in j 
1828 and lived close to my father's home. He also discov- 
ered in 1830 one of the large bodies of lead ore. His princi- 
pal occupation all of his lifetime was mining, although he ' 
used to pull teeth, bleed, and dispense calomel and other I 
early-day medicine, and many an old settler has been the 
victim of his "puUicans" and bleeding methods. He was 
frequently a guest at our table for Christmas and Thanks- ; 
giving dinners.'^ 

Another famous character who lived near my father's i 
farm was a Mr. James Clark, who was nick-named "Boots." i 
He was killed in his cabin by another miner, named Kerns, 
during the course of a heated political argument. Kerns 
was arrested, tried, and acquitted. It was shown in his 
trial that "Boots" was a bad man generally and always 
carried a bowie knife, and some witnesses were introduced 
who showed wounds which they had received in encounters 
with "Boots" and his famous bowie knife. Mr. Clark had 
no relatives in this part of the country. My father dis- 
covered a body of lead ore and called it "Boots Range" \\ 
because "Boots" had his cabin on this range. j 

PLATTEVILLE IN ITS FIRST QUARTER CENTURY I 
Truman O. Douglass 

My biography can be written in three sentences: born ^ 
in Illinois; raised in Wisconsin; lived in Iowa. California is ! 
simply a remnant, and doesn't count. ' | 

On my father's side I belong to the innumerable Douglas | 
clan of Scotland, and on mother's side to the prolific Mc- i 
Cord family of Protestant Ireland. Both families settled | 
in the South. Father was born in middle Tennessee in i 
1812, and mother in Bond County, Illinois, in 1817. Shortly i 

* Dr. William Davidson wrote his reminiscences for the Society. These are pub- I 
lished in Wis. Hist. Colls., v, 317-320. | . 



Platteville in First Quarter Century 49 

1 before her birth, in 1816, a colony of Scotch-Irish Presby- 
[ terians, grandfather Robert McCord the patriarch of the 
company, moved from Tennessee to escape the influences 
of slavery, although some of them had made merchandise 
of human flesh. They settled at Bethel, near Greenville, 
the county seat. Here father and mother were married 
February 19, 1833, Rev. Albert Hale, a member of the 
Yale band of Illinois and a home missionary pastor, officiat- 
ing. Here, too, I was born May 3, 1842. The same year 
my people moved to PlatteviUe, Wisconsin, and this was 
counted my home for a quarter of a century. 

I never lived in the village of Platteville but grew up in 
the country near by. Great multitudes drifted in with us 
to the lead regions about Galena. Galena in those days was 
a rival of Chicago, and had the prospect of becoming the 
great metropolis of the Middle West. I think we selected 
Platteville as our place of residence because Rev. Alvon 
Dixon, mother's nephew by marriage, was then in charge of 
the Academy recently established. 

The American Home Missionary Magazine, about the 
best history of the Middle West, gives us glimpses of Platte- 
ville as it was when we arrived. In the April number of 
1840 we have the following: 

Platteville is near the Little Platte River, some sixteen or eighteen 
miles from the Mississippi, having a small mill stream on one side and 
an extensive forest of hardwood timber on the other, with prairie all 
around, and rich beds of lead ore under the soil in all the ;Surrounding 
country. There are therefore at this place all the facilities for a flourish- 
ing town — the most so of any in the western part of Wisconsin. The 
only church organization has been a Methodist Society, strong and 
numerous, until a few months ago when a Presbyterian Church of 
twelve members was formed by Rev. Messrs. Hale and Kent.^ The 
Methodists have a convenient, and even for this country, an elegant 
church, with basement rooms for a school or academy, now consisting 
of about 130 pupils of both sexes and of all ages. The teacher, Mr. A. 
M. Dixon, a graduate of Jacksonville College, is one of the elders of the 
infant Presbyterian Church. I may add that the present population 

^ Albert Hale was from Bethel, and Aratus Kent, coming to Galena in 1838, wa^ for 
over forty years pastor there and did missionary work in all the region round about. 



Truman 0. Douglass 



on a mile square is perhaps 400 — so that it is not a paper town, many 
of which sort are exhibited at the East, and are hkely to exist a long 
time only on paper. The town has the reputation and appearance of 
being healthy, abounding in springs and streams of water in hill and 
dale, the village being mostly on the eminence. 

Here is a picture of Platteville in 1842: 

This place contains 800 inhabitants, and is located about twenty- 
five miles from Galena, and the same distance from Dubuque. There 
are here facilities for a flourishing inland town. The Church was formed 
by Rev. Messrs. Kent and Hale about three years ago. The church is 
exerting itself to erect a building to be occupied both as a place of 
worship and an academy. It is expected that this building will be 
completed the present autumn. Mr. Dixon, who now supplies the 
pulpit, having devoted himself particularly to the interests of education, 
will then take charge of the academy with from 70 to 100 pupils. Of 
course an elQScient minister will be needed for the congregation. There 
will be work enough in the vicinity for two or three ministers. 

Mr. Dixon reports for the Church: 

During the past nine months there has been an increase of religious 
feeling. Fifteen have been added to the Church. The congregation 
has been doubled. The Church now numbers 57 members. Almost 
everything that is done in a pecuniary way, goes into the building 
which is nearly finished. 

A belated report was pubHshed in 1844. The Missionary 
says: 

The cause of the delay of this report is the existence of the smallpox 
in an epidemic form in our village; we have been and are being most 
severely and dreadfully scourged with it. It commenced in this village 
Oct. 28th [1843] in very mild form, and continued such for a consider- 
able length of time, so that four weeks elapsed before any of our physi- 
cians discovered its true character so as to venture to call it by its 
true name; and another week passed before they could be persuaded 
of it. No deaths occurred until Dec. 6th, since when it has been very 
fatal. All business is at a standstill; the schools are suspended; and 
places of worship are nearly deserted. The whole village is affected with 
the disease. Fifteen, who a few days since were among us in all buoy- 
ancy of spirits and of life, now lie beneath the turf. What the end will 
be, God only knows. The disease stole in among us in so mild a shape 
that almost the whole community were fully exposed to its contagion 
before they were aware of the danger. When the alarm came it was too 
late to flee or take measures in self defence. The vaccine matter im- 
posed upon us proved to be no protection, and was worse than none. 
May Heaven dispose this people to profit by this severe judgment. 



^ Platteville in First Quarter Century 51 

We spent the first winter in a double log house a short 
distance from the village. This was our welcome to Platte- 
ville. Often did I hear my father tell of that fearsome 
winter. At times he was utterly homesick and discouraged. 
I grew up with those whose faces were pocked and pitted in 
this dreadful scourge. 

In the spring of 1844 we moved out into the big timber 
six miles to the northwest, and there began the attempt to 
grub out a forty-acre farm, destroying enough of wood to > 
serve almost a township. My earliest recollections are of a 
log cabin sixteen feet square, with puncheon floor, in the 
midst of the black stumps of this timber farm. The fire- 
place was built of sticks and mud. The shake roof was 
weighted down with logs and stones. The door had wooden 
hinges and a wooden latch, and the latch string was out 
all the time to neighbors and to strangers. I really pity 
anybody who never lived in a log house and does not know 
what this **latch string out" signifies of frontier hospitality. 
In that one room were six of us, and beds and a table, all 
the cooking outfit, and a spinning wheel and a loom — and 
sometimes we had company. The hired man had to sleep 
in a straw stack. 

My only association with Platteville while we lived in 
the timber was in the church on the Sabbath day. The 
twelve miles in a lumber wagon was something of a journey, 
but our people had been brought up to attend church and 
they continued to do so now. The meeting house of those 
days was a room in the old Academy building, and Rev. 
John Lewis was the home missionary pastor. 

But the timber home was too far from church, and our 
people could not long endure separation from kindred and 
friends. Both father and mother had the clan instinct fully 
developed. Four years of this isolation was sufficient. Dur- 
ing this time a number of the Bethel community, including 
uncle James B. McCord, had settled at Limeston(\ on 



52 



Truman 0. Douglass 



Limestone Creek, among the limestone quarries one and 
one-half miles west of the town.« Thither late in 1847 we 
moved, and this was my home until I went to college in 
1861. 

For the first years of our residence at Limestone my 
associations with Platteville continued to be confined almost 
wholly to church attendance. Almost the whole neighbor- 
hood went to meeting in the village. The hitching-posts 
around the meeting house were all occupied in those days. 
We did not care much for the Platteville society. We were 
sufficient in ourselves and quite self-satisfied. Were we not 
more pious than were the town people .^^ Did we not send 
five young men into the ministry while Platteville sent only 
one?^ W^ere we not all abolitionists and prohibitionists .^^ 
And then was not a Lodgeman in the neighborhood; were 
we not equal to the town folks in intelligence.^ Did we not 
take the Ladies Magazine and the National Era, in which 
Uncle Tom's Cabin was first published .^^ Did not our log 
schoolhouse, with its slab desks and benches, soon develop 
into a large stone structure with modern furnishings .^^ 
Under the tuition of our able teachers did not a number of 
us only by a little *'fall below Demosthenes and Cicero .f^" 
Did we not excel in music, with our tuning fork and violin 
and clarionet and splendid voices.^ Deacon McCord turned 
up his nose at the tuning fork but I must relate that at 
times he would back up and start again, although usually 
he would strike the key note at the first trial. We had 
sufficient social life among ourselves. We had our social 

^ Limestone Hollow is one mile north of the city, on the east side of Little Platte 
River. Lime kilns, stone quarries, brick yards, and tm-ning mills were operated there. 
There was also a sawmill and later a woolen mill on Platte River near the mouth of Lime- 
stone Creek. A stone school building stood on the north side of the valley. It was aban- 
doned in 1877. Many laborers were employed in this valley. They owned and cultivated 
little plots of ground around their homes, which were situated between this valley and the 
city. 

^ Mr. Douglass mentions that five young men from the valley entered the ministry. 
That number is now increased to seven by the addition of Rev. Francis Kehoe and Rev. 
James Kehoe, Catholic missionaries, of whom the former is now a missionary in India, to 
which place the latter will soon follow him. 



Platteville in First Quarter Century 53 

gatherings, our spelling schools, our debating societies, our 
charade parties, etc., etc. And we had our own Sunday 
school and neighborhood prayer meetings. We were not 
very refined; we had most of the crudities of a frontier 
settlement. Our men were sometimes rough in speech, and 
our boys followed the example of their elders. Our women 
were very homely in their virtues, and our young ladies 
were some of them rude and some of them were prudes; 
but on the whole we were a fine bunch of people, and we 
needed not to seek our well-being in the society of the * 
village. 

When I was old enough to go to town on errands, I came 
in contact with the "seamy side" of Platteville life. "Gro- 
cery Street" was given up to groggeries. I often saw men 
reeling on the streets or lying in the gutters. I met men on 
the road, homeward bound, running their horses at the top 
of their speed and shouting with all the strength of their 
voices. Now and then some poor fellow would fall out and 
break his neck or some of his bones. Well do I remember 
when Pat was pitched into the Platte. I heard his call for 
help ; when we fished him out he was almost sober, but not 
quite. 

Sometimes the young hoodlums of the town called me 

"Country Jake." Considering the source I did not care much 

for that. Well do I remember my supreme disgust when two 

distinguished men — great babies! — complained that when 

they first came to this country they were called "Dutch" 

and "Sheeny," and "the iron entered into my soul!" each 

said. I was ashamed of them both for their unmanly 

whining. I think I rather enjoyed the doggerel which the 

town boys sometimes sang to me: 

Abolition Hollow; ten feet wide; 

Nigger in the middle, and a McCord on each side. 

This was a faint echo of the feeling of some of the pooi)lo 
toward our Puritanical neighborhood. But these wliisky 



54 



Truman 0. Douglass 



shops and this harmless hoodlum element were not the real 
Platteville. The real Platteville was the churches; the 
Academy; the honorable business and professional men of 
the town; "The Beloved John" [Lewis] of the Congrega- 
tional Church, and his wife Electa Page, and Mr. Pickard 
of the Academy, and the scores of good men and women who 
worked and prayed for the moral and spiritual well-being of 
the community, and for the uplifting of men the world 
around. This was the real Platteville, and its ideals were 
more and more realized as the years went by. 

Of course the Platteville of our days was a mixed multi- 
tude. There were Yankees — not very many of them — and 
a few New Yorkers. The English were a good deal in evi- 
dence, and there were many Germans. We called them all 
Dutch in those days. There were a good many Southerners 
— some of them of ''the first families of Virginia," but more 
of them had simply passed through the South on their 
way from Scotland and Ireland; and there were also many 
Catholic Irish. Limestone at length was captured by these 
people, and the schoolhouse and the mill pond and the 
prayer meeting disappeared. 

The nativity of people is to a considerable extent 
manifest in the churches to which they belong. The 
Methodist Church of Platteville was composed of all 
sorts and conditions of men. The Presbyterian, organ- 
ized in 1839, became Congregational in 1849 because 
our people, Scotch-Irish, were outnumbered by the New 
Englanders. The English, of course, must have their 
Primitive Methodist Church; and the Germans divided 
into Presbyterian and Lutheran camps. Late in the day 
some of the English and some of our United States people 
united in forming the Episcopal Church. All these and 
perhaps other churches were in Platteville in my day. 

As a matter of course, as the years went by, I got more 
and more into the social life of the village. Now and then I 



Platteville in First Quarter Century 



55 



attended a lecture or a concert in the town, and I attended 
the Academy, though irregularly because father was in ill 
health, and I, the oldest son, was needed at home. But in 
one way and another I became acquainted more and more 
with the young people of the town, homes were open to me 
and I ventured to call at a few places. There was one house 
especially that I passed by more often than was really 
necessary, and a few times I knocked at the door, and, 
only once, sat at the table with the family. So, at last, 
Platteville became dear to me as the home of a good many 
friends — one of them the best friend ''in all the world to me." 

Maria Greene, of English ancestors on both sides of the 
house, both families coming to America in the seventeenth 
century, was born at Richmond, Ontario County, New 
York, September 10, 1843. She was the daughter of 
Benoni Greene and Oracy Clark. In 1855, at the age of 
twelve, she came with a remnant of the family to Platte- 
ville. She graduated from the Academy, from the Albany 
Normal School, took a course in the Oswego training school, 
and was a teacher for two years in Philadelphia. In 1868, 
at the age of twenty-five, she was a little body weighing 
less than one hundred pounds, with brown hair, brown 
eyes, and brown cheeks. Her dress, showing the charac- 
teristics of her mind and heart, was always simple and of 
quiet colors. She was unassuming, sober-minded, serious, 
conscientious even to a fault, studious, industrious, and 
ready for every duty or sacrifice life might have in store 
for her. But, withal, she had a mind and will of her own, 
and some shades and tinges of radicalism, the product of 
heredity and environment, for she was born and brought 
up in the midst of anti-slavery, anti-saloon, anti-I\Iasonic, 
anti-Mormon, and other anti-agitations of the middle 
decades of the last century, and her father took radical 
grounds on all these questions. We were married at 
Platteville June 25, 1868, Rev. J. E. Pond, the pastor of 



56 



Maria Greene Douglass 



the church, performing the ceremony. We took a short 
wedding trip and then began at Osage, Mitchell County, 
a life of fifty years in Iowa. Four years ago we observed our 
golden wedding. 

PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS OF PLATTEVILLE ! 

Maria Greene Douglass 

As I sit at my desk there is before me the portrait of a 
man in the prime of life, of large frame, broad shoulders, 
wide brow crowned with an abundance of dark hair, a well 
formed nose, firm mouth, and dark beard. The outstanding 
of the features are the dark, full, kindly, piercing eyes. 
When fixed upon one they seem to penetrate to one's inmost 
being, "discerning even the thoughts and intents of the 
heart." Such was the outward appearance of one of the 
great educators of the Middle West in the last half of the 
nineteenth century, Josiah Little Pickard. 

Born in 1824 in New England, where his early life was 
spent and where he was educated, his life service was given | 
to the Middle West, and his last years were spent in Califor- | 
nia, whence he departed this life in 1914, a noble Christian | 
man and educator, the impress of whose life was left upon | 
many thousands of young men and young women. No one | 
could fail to be a better man or woman from having come ! 
in contact with this great-hearted friend. ^ 

I first met Mr. Pickard when I was at the age of twelve. ; 
My parents, with their minor children, moved from western 
New York to the young state of Wisconsin in the autumn i 
of 1855, and settled at Platteville, Grant County, in the I 
southwest corner of the state. Entering as strangers the [ 
Congregational Church, where we were accustomed to wor- j 
ship, we were greeted by Mr. Pickard as a deacon of the ' 
church. The opening of the Sunday school found Mr. ; 
Pickard as its superintendent, alert and interested in every 



Personal Recollections of Platteville 57 



individual member; so he became a formative influence in 
my life from our very first meeting. 

Platteville was a typical western village of those early 
times, rude and uncouth in many ways but not lacking in 
signs of refinement and good taste. Situated in the midst 
of the lead mining region, its people were of a number of 
nationalities and tongues. The men and women who were 
counted as leaders and who gave tone to the town were 
largely from New England and New York, and from the 
South. These were for the most part enterprising, public- ' 
spirited, cultured people, bringing with them the traditions 
of the several sections from which they came. The majority 
of them, being professed Christians, were gathered into the 
Congregational and Methodist Episcopal churches. The 
miners' families were predominantly English and Welsh, 
and a Primitive Methodist Church accommodated them. 
A considerable German population supported a Presbyte- 
rian and a Lutheran Church. The growing Irish population 
erected a Catholic house of worship, and later an Episcopal 
Church was built. There was one institution open to all, 
and patronized freely by many of the citizens — namely, the 
saloon. In those early days, because foodstuffs and drink 
were supposed to belong to the same category and were 
dispensed by the same business houses, the term "grocery'' 
was appended to the store which furnished them. Later, 
when staple foodstuffs and dry goods were combined in 
general stores, the term * 'grocery" still clung to places where 
drinks were the principal merchandise. Thus, in my early 
days in Platteville "groceries" were the equivalent of 
saloons of later years. 

Main Street in Platteville extended east and west 
through the entire length of the village. Branching off 
about midway of its length to the north was Grocery Street,* 

* Grocery Street (Second Street) was a unique institution of modem city govrrnniont. 
The first business houses were erected on this street, hut gradually business drifted onto 
Main Street. The first village board, 1845, refused to grant licenses for sale of liquors 



58 



Maria Greene Douglass 



where the drinking places were segregated within a block or jj 
so. Beyond this section were residences, but that part of the I 
street was popularly known as Slab Street. In addition to I 
the groceries (or saloons) there were several other business 
houses on Grocery Street, a shoe shop, harness shop, etc. 
From the doors of the groceries drunken men were often 
seen reeling, and men and boys were often seen entering 
for drinks. Women and girls were not often seen on Grocery 
Street. j 

On all sides of the town the mining industry was carried i 
on in a primitive way, and mineral holes abounded every- 
where. They were well-like excavations sunk for lead ore. 
The ore mixed with earth was lifted in buckets operated 
by a hand windlass; when the vein of ore was exhausted, 
the digging stopped and the hole was left open; not seldom 
a drunken man or an animal would fall into one of these 
holes and suffer injury. The holes varied in depth from a 
few feet to twenty or thirty feet, so one had to watch his 
steps carefully if he were walking elsewhere than on the 
regular highway. Many were the warnings given us chil- i 
dren when we went into the country to gather flowers or 
nuts, not to fall into mineral holes. As I remember it, the 
lead ore that was mined was taken to a smelter and melted 
and run into a mould of certain dimensions, and came out 
''pig lead," in which form it was taken to market. I have 
no data as to the annual yield of lead, but it must have ; 
been considerable. 

At the time of my first acquaintance with Platteville ' 
there were three public schools. The north and south ■ 
schools for younger pupils were accommodated in small 
brick structures. The more advanced boys and girls were 
gathered into the one-time dining room of a rather commo- 



on Main Street, but no ordinance to that effect was ever enacted. It remained the unwrit- 
ten law, however, and the saloons were ever after confined to Second Street, which thus 
became and remained Grocery Street. 



^ Personal Recollections of Platteville 59 

dious brick hotel building called the Campbell House, 
which had ceased to be used as a hotel and was rented for 
school purposes. It was this school that I entered in the 
autumn of 1855, Mr. H. Robbins, a farmer-citizen of Platte- 
ville, being the teacher. The one thing that I remember 
with distinctness about that school was the thorough 
daily drill given us in mental arithmetic. At the close of 
the winter term the school was discontinued. The following 
summer I attended the south school taught by Miss McMur- 
ray, who afterward became Mrs. W. Grindell. The next 
year, because there was no other place for me to attend 
school, I entered Platteville Academy as one of its youngest 
pupils. Looking back over a period of sixty-five years, I 
count my enrollment as a pupil of Platteville Academy one 
of the most fortunate occurrences of my life. I do not 
hesitate to assert that in my belief it was providential, 
as have been all the orderings of my life. Mr. Pickard as 
principal and Miss Fanny S. Josslyn as preceptress were 
rare teachers, and rare persons for a young girl to be asso- 
ciated with. To these, together with our pastor and his 
wife, Rev. and Mrs. John Lewis, I am more indebted than 
to all others outside the family circle, for influences exerted 
and ideals presented which determined the course of my 
life. During the previous winter, after a few weeks of resi- 
dence in Platteville, my father suddenly sickened and died 
of pneumonia, so that because of our great loss and bereave- 
ment I was in a state of mind to be influenced in the best 
ways. 

At the time I entered Platteville Academy there were a 
number of boys and young men from Southern slave- 
holding families enrolled as students. They were among 
the popular and influential students. In course of time a 
refined colored girl came to town with a prominent white 
family and was entered as a student of the Academy. There 
were threats on the part of the Southern students of leaving 



60 



Maria Greene Douglass 



school if that colored girl were allowed to remain. The 
matter was taken up by the trustees of the Academy, who 
decided the girl must be dismissed. Mr. Pickard, being 
ill at the time, gave notice to the trustees that when the 
colored girl was sent away they would receive his resigna- 
tion as principal of the Academy. While the matter was 
pending, the girl in question announced that she had applied 
for admission to Rockford Seminary and had been accepted, 
so the matter quieted down; but young girl as I was, and 
almost heartbroken at the prospect of losing my beloved 
teacher, the thought of his great sacrifice in giving up all 
rather than compromise principle made an impression on 
my mind which remains to this day, and many a time has 
helped me to be firm and uncompromising in standing for 
the right as I have seen it. I count that as one of the most 
valuable object lessons of my life, and in my girlhood imag- 
ination it set Mr. Pickard upon a pedestal high above most 
other men that I had known. 

The Academy building of my day was a rather imposing 
three-story stone building west of the business section of 
the town.® The first floor consisted of an entrance hall 
with stairway, on either side of which were recitation 
rooms. In the rear was a large assembly and study hall, 
where also recitations were conducted in front of the teach- 
ers' platform. It was a well lighted, pleasant room. Its 
decorations were engraved portraits of great statesmen 
— Washington, Webster, Franklin — also several framed 
mottoes to which reference was often made from the plat- 
form. 

In the second story were music room and physical labora- 
tory, and the third story was used as a dormitory for men 
students. The building was surmounted by a belfry from 

^ The Academy building described is still standing, being now used as the State 
Mining School; and the houses described as across the street, one occupied by Mr. Pickard 
and one by Mr. Lewis, are still standing. 



Personal Recollections of Platteville 



61 



which a sweet-toned bell tolled off the hours for coming 
and going, change of classes, etc. In the principal's record 
book are found the names of the pupils who had come under 
his instruction in Platteville Academy, to the number 
of 1137. 

Across the street from the Academy were two brick 
residences of similar construction, in size and quality above 
the average of the dwellings of the town. These were the 
homes of Mr. Pickard, with his devoted wife and three 
wide-awake, happy children and foster daughter; and of 
Rev. and Mrs. John Lewis, with mother and sister and 
foster daughter. The Academy and these homes formed 
the center of efforts and influences which radiated in all 
directions for the building up of true, noble manhood and 
womanhood of that community, and reached well into the 
country beyond. 

Much less time and thought were given to recreation 
and social life in the Academy of those days than is devoted 
to athletics and social occasions in most educational institu- 
tions of today. I think there was no organized form of sports 
among the boys, though they were often seen on the Acad- 
emy grounds playing ball. For the girls there were classes 
for drilling in calisthenic exercises, which were the fore- 
runner of girls' gymnasium work. 

There was held annually a May Day picnic, in which 
all, both teachers and students, joined. The crowning 
event of the day was choosing by ballot the May queen and 
king and attendants — then came the weaving of floral 
crowns, the making and decorating the throne seats, the 
ceremony of escorting the queen and attendants to the 
throne, followed by the picnic lunch, at which we were 
seated in a circle; then songs, speeches, stunts, and games 
concluded the gayeties. These were red-letter days spent 
in the open under great pine trees by a clear running brook, 



62 



Maria Greene Douglass 



with the freedom and good fellowship known only to young 
people in natural and wholesome surroundings. 

The boys would sometimes plan jokes of their own, as ^ 
when one morning, all being assembled, Mr. Pickard 
opened his drawer to take from it his Bible and hymn book ■ 
for the opening devotional services, and found a rooster 
hidden there. A titter was heard from a nearby group of 
boys, but Mr. Pickard, lifting the rooster from the drawer, 
walked down the aisle and passed through the entrance door, i 
Having disposed of it, he returned and went on with the 
usual exercises, making no reference to the unusual occur- 
rence. Some of us wondered on whom the joke was. ^ 

In the early years of Platteville Academy a record was 
kept of deportment, attendance, punctuality, and church 
attendance, and each student was expected to report on 
these several points. These reports helped to determine 
the students' standing in the school. 

A literary society met weekly, to which the upper 
classes were admitted. It was regularly organized, and 
varied programs were given, consisting of declamations, 
essays, recitations, debates, music, etc., with regularly 
appointed critics to pronounce upon the several parts. | 
Much earnest work was done and not a little fun was ex- i 
tracted from the programs. The attendance and help of | 
the teachers added dignity and interest to these gatherings. ; 

The tone of the social life in Platteville on the part of a ? 
few families was more or less aristocratic, but for the most \ 
part was friendly and democratic, as became well meaning, [ 
industrious, intelligent citizens of an American town in the I 
making. Anyone of worthy character and life had an equal ! 
place for helpfulness and influence with that of any of his j 
neighbors. This was finely exemplified during the Civil | 
War when the people generally were united in sustaining i 
the government measures and in ministering to the comfort ! 
of the soldier boys. There were a few exceptions where \ 



Personal Recollections of Platteville 



63 



families sympathized with the Confederate South, but 
these sympathizers were usually discreet in expressing their 
views. Well do I recall the mass meetings of the citizens, 
the speeches, the martial music of the band, the singing of 
popular war songs, and the recruiting of our boys for enlist- 
ment in the war. The women and girls of every community 
were gathered into soldier aid societies for the knitting of 
socks and mittens with one finger, the making of garments, 
scraping of lint, rolling of bandages, etc. The making of 
"housewives" containing thread, needles, buttons, scissors, 
etc. for the soldiers was generally claimed by the young 
women, and into many an one was slipped a pocket testa- 
ment, a note, a photograph, or other token of remembrance 
and regard. 

In the year 1859 Mr. Pickard was elected state superin- 
tendent of public instruction in Wisconsin, so he resigned as 
principal of Platteville Academy. He was succeeded for a 
year or two by Mr. A. K. Johnston, a young man from a 
New England college. He in turn was followed by Mr. 
George M. Guernsey, who continued at the head of the 
Academy until it became a state normal school. 

Having finished the Academy course in the winter of 
1861, I taught the following summer at Limestone, but was 
graduated with my class in June of that year. The following 
year I taught country schools near Platteville. In the 
spring of '63 I entered the state normal college at Albany, 
New York, from which I was graduated the following year. 
Then taking a short course in the Oswego, New York, 
training school, I accepted a position in Philadelphia in a 
young ladies' seminary, where I taught for two years. In 
this way I was removed from close connection with Platte- 
ville for several years. In the summer of '67 I returned to 
make preparations for my approaching marriage to Rev. 
Truman O. Douglass, which took place in 1868, upon the 
completion of his theological seminary course in Chicago, 



64 



Maria Greene Douglass 



when we removed to Iowa. Occasional visits to Platteville 
through the following years kept me in touch with relatives 
and friends there, until by removal and death most of them : 
were gone and I began to feel a stranger in a strange land, j 

One memorable visit there was on the occasion of the 
Pickard reunion in the summer of 1887. Former students i 
of Platteville Academy conceived the idea of bringing \ 
together as many as could come of the old students, in I 
honor of our beloved Mr. Pickard. Committees were ap- - 
pointed to plan for it. Just as far as the addresses could be • 
secured, every living former student was notified of the ? 
plan and urged to be present. Local committees made ; 
careful and rather elaborate preparations for entertainment, , 
social functions, and banquet. A program committee had \ 
a varied and interesting intellectual feast prepared, and ! 
opportunities to renew friendships in delightful fellowship 
were enjoyed to the full. Expressions of esteem and loving 
regard for him whom we all delighted to honor were freely 
given and gratefully acknowledged. That so large a num- j 
ber could be brought together after the lapse of years was i 
a marked testimony to the strong hold Mr. Pickard had on 
all our hearts. 

During all the busy years of nearly half a century, my. 
husband and I were happy in keeping in touch with Mr. 
Pickard by occasional exchange of letters, meetings ati 
religious conferences, and rare visits — the last, in 1910, in , 
sunny California. During several months' stay there wei 
received calls from Mr. Pickard and, best of all, spent a 
happy day with him in his daughter's pleasant home mv 
Cupertino. It was a rare occasion as we talked over old 
times and acquaintances and experiences in Platteville and i 
the Academy, and were shown many cherished mementoes j 
and memorials of his life work, with the prized pictures of | 
students and friends of the early days, especially those asso- ; 
ciated with Mrs. Pickard, who had been a helper and loved t 
companion for over fifty years of wedded life. i 



Personal Recollections of Platteville 



65 



At Christmas time of 1913 we received a beautiful 
characteristic letter from Mr. Pickard; then in a short time 
came the news of his passing beyond the realm of our 
earthly vision, and we doubt not he had entered upon that 
larger, fuller, blessed life of the spirit for which he had been 
preparing in the long years of faithful service here. 



BY THE WATERS OF TURTLE LAKE^ 



Angie Kumlien Main 

PART i: AUTUMN 

It was the time of the hunting moon, the first month of 
autumn. The waters of Turtle Lake which could be seen 
around the edges were covered with a slimy ooze. Next to 
this slimy margin was a border of iris, whose blue flags had 
beautified the place in early spring. Then came the arrow- 
heads, which still showed a few scattering waxy white 
flowers. After them the cattails, pickerel weed, and various 
sedges flaunted their browning leaves, the down from the 
brown velvet cattails falling into the tangle below. Beyond 
these nothing could be seen but a wide-spread of the dying 
plants of the yellow lotus. For the most part the plants still 
stood erect and proudly waved what was left of their large, 
mutilated leaves. 

Suddenly the skies darkened; the distant thunder 
rumbled and the light breeze changed to a wind storm which 
caused the water plants to angrily switch their leaves. In a 
few moments many more of the pads of the lotus were 
tattered and torn, and as the cattails clashed their swords 
many of them were bent and broken. Almost as quickly 
as the storm had arisen the wind subsided and the sun shone 
as before. 

A Virginia rail tooted to his fellows from the cover of 
the canes. A few wild ducks came from the lake just across 
the road and lit among the rushes. Instantly the boom of 
a gun was heard, which announced that this was the hunting 
month. A tall blue heron waded out in the water and stood 

^ The following paper was read at the June meeting of the Friends of Our Native 
Landscape at Holy Hill, Washington County. Turtle Lake, whose seasonal appearances 
are herein described, is typical of many small Wisconsin lakes; this one is located in 
Albion Township, Dane County, and is noted as one of the few places in Wisconsin 
where grows the great yellow lotus, the largest wild flower of North America. 



By the Waters of Turtle Lake 



67 



statue-like while he patiently watched for a fish or frog. 

An American coot, thinking that all was well, gabbled to 

his friends who were with him in the rushes. A family of 

spotted sandpipers hunted along the shore, and as they 

walked about in their ludicrous fashion it was plain to be 

seen how they came by their common name of tip-up or 

teeter snipe, for with every step their small bodies tipped 

and teetered. Killdeer plovers flew from lake to lake and 

cried "killdeer, killdeer." A belted kingfisher flew over the 

lake and sent his noisy rattle to the wooded shore beyond, 

and in a clear place among the lotus he dived for his finny 

prey. The blackbirds swinging on the rushes sang of the 

green-corn moon which had just passed. In the trees along 

the shore a troop of hungry warblers, who were journeying 

southward, fed as they moved from branch to branch. 

How changed were their suits from the gay wedding attire 

which they had worn when on their northern journey they 

traveled through in May! 

On the shore nearest the public highway the bright 

goldenrod and purple asters were growing in close proximity. 

Here, too, the sunflowers and burr marigolds nodded their 

fair yellow heads, and over all flitted the gaily colored 

butterflies. Here among the flowers were the roadside 

butterfly, the little sulphur, the orange sulphur, the viceroy, 

the silver-spangled fritillary, and our common mourning 

cloak. Farther on among the thistles the red admiral was 

at home and the monarchs claimed the milkweeds as their 

own special property. 

By all these lovely tokens 
September days are here, 
With summer's best of beauty 
And autumn's best of cheer. 

PART II : WINTER 

Months afterward, when we again went to the shores of 
Turtle Lake, there was silence over all. The falling-leaf 



68 Angie Kumlien Main 

moon had passed and had stripped the trees of their leaf 
dresses. The mad moon with her storm kings had strug- 
gled with life about the lake until the frogs and turtles j 
had taken refuge in the mud at the bottom of the water; j 
the woodchucks had gone to sleep far down in their holes ' 
beneath the ground; the chipmunk had stuffed his alleyway ' 
with earth and had also gone to sleep ; the gopher had made 
a soft, warm nest of grass in his underground home, where ! 
he could doze away the long months until the reign of old j 
North Wind had ended. The migratory birds had long 
taken their departure, but a few of the braver among them 
had lingered until the very waters were frozen. The aqua- i 
tic plants were protected at their roots by the thick sheet of 
ice which kept out the cold. December, the snow moon, or 
the moon of the long night, was no more. 

It was now January, or the cold moon, and it was cold 
at Turtle Lake. The snow crunched under our feet and 
creaked under the runners of the sleigh. Everywhere it lay 
about us shining and glistening. Everything was white 
with the night's storm, white as the coat of the ermine f 
which we had seen running along a stone wall fence. Tracks | 
in the snow around the lake showed where a hungry rabbit i 
had searched for food. Muskrat houses thickly dotted the | 
lake and were snugly covered with thick white blankets. \ 
Near the wooded shore the deep silence of the lake was | 
broken by the friendly "y^^ik yank" of a white-breasted \ 
nuthatch who was searching the bark on the leeward side [ 
of an oak tree. A downy woodpecker said "peek," as he 
poked his head out from his winter quarters. Several 
crows cawed from an adjoining field, where they pro- 
claimed the wonderful news that they had found something | 
to eat. A bluejay lit on a bush, adding a beautiful bit of 
color to the scene. Three merry chickadees with fluffed-out 
feathers hunted among the branches and at intervals per- » 
formed their acrobatic feats. As we retraced our steps to the 



By the Waters of Turtle Lake 



69 



waiting sleigh, these inquisitive chickadees followed at a 
short distance and chatted about the intruder. 

PART III: SPRING 

The long months passed, even the month of the hunger 
moon dragged by, and the waters of Turtle Lake were 
again unbound, for the awakening moon had come creeping 
in and opened the way for the wild-goose or green-grass 
moon. Now these were joyous days around the water. The 
underground folk came out, stretched themselves, and found 
that the great sun and the south winds were doing their 
best to clear away the last remnant of the winter's snow. 
Great flocks of ducks traveled overhead and paused for a 
time about the water. Long strings of geese honked by in 
regular, wedge-shaped rows. It was indeed the glad spring- 
time at Turtle Lake. 

The middle of the song moon found us again on the 
shores of this little lake. Smooth, clear, and clean were the 
waters this day, not a sign of the dead, broken water 
plants, nor of the slime on its surface. Many large herring 
gulls, with a wide expanse of wing-spread, flew back and 
forth from Turtle Lake to the other two small lakes which 
form a chain here in the hollow. Graceful black terns 
skimmed over the water and feasted on dragon-flies. A 
grebe swam out from the shore and exhibited his skill in 
diving. All the members of the swallow family, who claim 
this state as their home, dipped, turned, and circled about. 
The drum corps, too, were out in full force; hairy and 
downy woodpeckers traveled around the tree trunks where 
they were doing their bark police duty. Flickers ate ants 
by the hundreds and looked about for more. Fun-loving 
red-headed woodpeckers played about the fence posts. 
Contented, happy robins were everywhere about and were 
singing to all who would pause to listen. A scarlet tanager 
brightened an oak tree with his flaming color. Bluebirds 



70 



Angie Kumlien Main 



who had heralded the springtime were homemaking in a 
hole in a fence post. From the woods back of the hill a 
wood-pee wee called in a sweet, sad voice "pee-a-wee, 
pee-a-wee." A bittern called from the marsh land, and 
when sought assumed the pose of a decayed stump, thinking 
to deceive our eyesight. An indigo bunting, bluer than the 
sky above him, sang to his dull-colored mate of the beauty 
of the springtime. In and out among the trees the yellow 
warbler, the chestnut-sided, the black and white, the bay- 
breasted, the Wilson, the redstart, the myrtle, and the mag- 
nolia warblers jflitted and flashed their brilliant bits of color. 

It was indeed the happy song moon, for the air was 
filled with melody — songs in many keys, but all blended 
into one. Meadowlarks announced that it was ''nice singing 
here, nice singing here." Blackbirds sang in chorus while 
they teetered and swung on the willows. A catbird per- 
formed in splendid style from the heart of an alder thicket, 
where he imitated his fellow songsters; then all at once he 
yowled like a cat and repeated the remarks of a frog close 
by. Marsh wrens sang from their favorite haunts their 
lively bits of music. A vesper sparrow, in a more serious 
mood, kept chanting his hymns of praise. Several white- 
throated sparrows sang from the woods, in triple time, the 
praises of ''old Tom Peabody, Peabody, Peabody." From 
the meadows beyond the marsh, happy-go-lucky bobolinks 
sang as they mounted in mid-air, in liquid, bubbling notes, of 
the joy of their homecoming; then descending, they let loose 
a torrent of irrepressible glee. A brown thrasher from the 
topmost branch of a dead hickory tree sang his famous corn 
song and told us that this was also the time of the planting 
moon, for he ordered us to 

Hurry up — hurry up; plough it, plough it, 
Harrow it — harrow it, drop it, drop it, 

Four in a hill, four in a hill 
Cover it up, cover it up; weed it, weed it, 



By the Waters of Turtle Lake 71 

Hoe it, hoe it, tut, tut, tut, tut, 

I'll pull it up, I'll pull it up, 
I have it, I have it; eat it, eat it. 
Tastes good, tastes good; I love it, I love it. 

Bright and gay Baltimore orioles, glad to be at home, 
added a dashing bit of orange and black to the scene and 
whistled their jubilant songs from the tree tops. From his 
lookout on the wire fence a phoebe watched for his unsus- 
pecting insect prey and petulantly called his own name, 
"phoebe, phoebe." Gallinules and phalaropes calling from 
the marsh grasses made known their presence. A pair of 
towhees scratched among the dead leaves with both feet 
at one time, and when disturbed darted into a brush heap 
with a quick flirt of their long tails and a sentinel call of 
"chewink." Down among the violets, anemones, cranes- 
bill, shooting-stars, and polemonium the gentle thrushes 
were searching out their favorite beetles. As we left the 
lake this glorious May morning a black-throated green 
warbler sang out, "There's no time like May." 

PART IV : SUMMER 

The happy, carefree days passed by. One by one the 
birds wooed their mates and settled down to family cares. 
The violets, wild crab-apple blossoms, and other early 
flowers of the woodland bloomed and were replaced by the 
daisy and pasture rose, for did not the rose moon follow in 
the wake of the song moon? Oh rose moon, why couldn't 
you stay forever .^^ 

Warm, muggy days came and the thunder moon was 
ushered in. The tenth day found us again by the waters of 
Turtle Lake. But where were the waters of Turtle Lake? 
Around the edges flourished the cattails, the arrowhead, and 
the pickerel weed, whose bright purple flowers blended 
well with their surroundings. Covering the whole surface 
of the lake were large, glossy, green leaves and bright, lovely 



72 Angie Kumlien Main 

flowers of the yellow lotus. Turtle Lake was beautiful, 
with a beauty that made us forget her former self. 

Sweetly the birds sang of this beauty of Turtle Lake ! 
Proudly the tall stems waved their large upturned green umbrellas! 
Proudly the large yellow flowers nodded their queenly heads! 
Each one nodded welcome, welcome to our lotus beds. 



* 



DOCUMENTS 
DIARY OF A JOURNEY TO WISCONSIN IN 1840^ 

Thursday [Fultonville, N. Y.] May 7th, 1840— Cool west wind 
and pleasant this forenoon. Being in rediness and after having 
been detained since Monday in consequence of the breaking of 
the canal and freshets, I finally embarked about noon on board 
the boat Oliver Newberry, Capt. Edwin Monger which trans- 
ferred its loading to another and returned from Auries-Ville, 
there were nearly 75 boats laying above the lock, while the boat 
was passing which, I walked to John F. Starin's to bid them all 
good bye and arrange some other small matters & where the 
boat overtook me She was light and had no passengers but 
myself and a young German pedlar After getting on board I 
found myself rapidly gliding along 

Leaving the Mohawk, its valley, the home of my childhood 
For the charms of Wisconsin, its prairie and wildwood. 

This is the boat on which Hiram Barber and Wilbur who 
murdered him were passengers three years since Cool wind and 
pleas't after-noon. 

Friday May 8th 1840 — On awaking this morning 5 o'clock 
we were at Frankfort lock, very pleas't morning. Arrived at 
Utica about past 7 o'clock. I called on prof.s. [sic] Perkins 
and Barber. Mr. Perkins Gave me some references to persons 
of his acquaintance and was as usual, about proceeding to [give] 
me some marvelous result of his ingenious, mathematical com- 

* Mr. Frederick J. Starin, a first installment of whose diary follows, came from 
Montgomery County, New York, to Wisconsin in the spring of 1840, landing at Mil- 
waukee. Thence he walked to East Troy, which he described with its beautiful lake; 
he rode on a wagon to Whitewater and described the beginnings of that place; took a 
trip across Bark River into the forest and described the beginnings of sawmilling operations 
there. Later he made a trip from Whitewater, via Madison, to Fort Winnebago and vised 
his pen cleverly in depicting all that he saw on the way. He traveled over other portions 
of the state, describing the prairies, the openings, the heavily timbered lands, usually 
locating himself by reference to range, township, and section. Mr. Starin was a beautiful 
penman and a delightful writer. We have in this journal a kaleidoscopic picture of the 
settlements of southeastern and southern Wisconsin, and of many of tlic favored places 
which were soon to receive settlements. It is a valuable source and has not hitherto been 
published. The original diary was lent to the Society by the diarist's daughter, Mrs. 
Imogene Starin Birge, of Whitewater. 



74 



Documents 



binations of letters and symbols, when I was obliged to leave him, 
if practicable, to exchange some money before the boat went out 
which was to lay [sic] but an hour. Being somewhat tardy 
in my operations gave me a stern chase of about two miles. 
The sun was quite warm and on reaching the boat [I] was in a 
state of complete perspiration. At Whitesboro Mr. Sweet one 
of the firm of Sweet & Babcock at Sharden Geauga Co. Ohio 
came on board on his way to Chicago, intending to stop a week 
at his store. Mr. S. has some land in Buffalo Grove on Rock 
River Wisconsin where Samuel Steward one of his tenants lives. 
In the afternoon the east wind sprang up and grew cold towards 
night strongly presaging a storm. Arrived at Canastota-8 o'clock 
in the evening. 

Saturday May 9th 1840 — Arrived at Syracuse this morning 
4 o'clock. The east wind blew very cold. After remaining here 
two hours the boat Venice, Capt. Lewis, which we had passed a 
short distance above Fort Plain, and which was the first boat that 
passed the broken aqueduct, came in sight, and we started out 
It soon commenced raining and was cold rainy and unpleasant 
all-day. Arrived at Lock-pr't 7 o'clock in the evening.^ 

Sunday May 10th 1840 — This morning is very pleasant. 
Arrived at Palmyra 6 o'clock. Mr. Sweet and myself walked 
4 miles this forenoon and in the afternoon, and by walking 3 
miles, anticipated the boat in Rochester which arrived there at 
3 o'clock A. M. Was delighted with spending an hour at the 
Genessee falls which is truly majestic and Grand and strikes the 
spectator with a sense of awe while standing on the east bank 
which is high and commanding just below the falls. Saw here 
the first wooden pavement on Liberty St. that ever I met with 
and which I am induced to believe in point of beauty, convenience 
and durability exceeds stone. Started out about 5 o'clock. 
Has been a very pleasant warm sunshiny day. 

Monday May 11th 1840 — Bright and Pleas't. this morning, 
arrived at Albion 6 o'clo where we stopped half an hour and 
which is a very fine place. Mr. Sweet and I walked from Eagle 
Harbor to Medina. Saw the Road culvert, and the wire bridge at 

^ Not the Lockport, which was reached May 11. 



Diary of Journey to Wisconsin 



75 



Medina. Very fine warm and pleasant day. Arrived at Lockport 
about 3 P. M. The boat consumed one hour in passing the locks 
and taking passengers during which time, I had an opportunity 
of exchanging 200 dols. for gold at the Canal Bank, by paying 
^ Pr. cent. Locked up about two feet by the guard lock into 
the Tonawanta Creek 3^ past 6 o'clock P. M. after which we glided 
rapidly with the current. Arrived at Tonawanta 15 minutes 
before nine in the evening — where the Captain's wife lives and 
where the boat lay about 3^ an hour. As soon as we came on 
the creek we experienced a piercing, chilly breeze from the lake. 

Teusday May 12th 1840 — This morning found myself in 
Buffalo, having landed here about 2 o'clock at night — And it 
being a pleasant morning, after getting our baggage up to the 
Traveller's Home kept by H. D. Huff, Mr. S. and myself walked 
about the city an hour or more before breakfast. There being 
no boats to start out for the Upper lakes to-day I shall be obliged 
to remain untill to-morrow. Mr. Sweet, Mr. E. Tallmadge & 
lady left about one o'clock P. M. on the Boat Chicago, an old 
and in the opinion of many, a dangerous craft managed by hands 
who appeared to be very intemperate, and whose machinery 
seemed ready to go to pieces at every Stroke of the wheel. 

The afternoon was very pleasant, and I passed it in rambling 
and writing, till near night when I went to the office and found 
a letter from home, which I answered the same evening, by 
sitting up till 11. 

Wednesday May 13th 1840 — . . . . After taking breakfast I 
walked to the dock and was pleased to find that the Constellation, 
(a S. B. of the upper line) which had advertised to leave to-day 
at 3 P. M. for Chicago, had arrived, and would redeem its berth, 
which was about to be supplied by the *'Bunker Hill" as it was 
conjectured that she was ashore on lake Michigan, as indeed she 
had been & was detained some time, while she was exchanging 
her cargo and cleaning up which occupied some 6 or eight liours 
I amused myself by looking about the City & purchasing some 
small articles which I supposed would be useful, such as books, 
thermometer, spy-Glass &c. The day being very fine willi a 
moderate breeze from the lake, commercial and mercantile 



76 



Documents 



transactions wore an aspect of activity and life. The principal I 
article of import seemed to be flour from Ohio and Michigan. 
About half past 4 o'clock we headed about and moved out of 
the harbor. There was at the time a light breeze ahead, which i 
however soon died away, and the waters of Lake Erie were { 
smooth and unruffled save where the noble steamer left undu- j, 
lating evidences of her passage. Buffalo and the hills of Chau- 
tauque soon left the horison. . . . About past 7 o'clock 
we landed at Dunkirk, a small port 39 miles from Buffalo, and I 
took in a supply of wood which detained us an hour. } 

Thursday May 14th 1840 — This morning was extremely 
delightful. . . . At 7 o'clock A. M. we again landed at a place 
called Conneaut a few miles east of Ashtabula O. for the purpose i 
of taking in wood. It grew warmer and more pleasant as the sun 
attained his meridian. About 12 o'clock M. we landed at Fair- 
port at the mouth of Grand river, to land and receive passenger ; 
and to take wood. While this was taking place two gentlemen 
and myself went up into the light-house which stands considerably 
elevated on the bank, and from which with the aid of my glass we 
had a commanding view of the town, most of which lies or 3^ : 
mile from the lake and the neighboring county seats some of 
which were very pleasant. Fairport is distinguished for the [ 
number of its public houses and for its safe and commodious i 
harbor, and is 163 miles from Buffalo. At past 4 o'clo. P. M. | 
we arrived at Cleveland, 193 miles from Buffalo, where we | 
landed and received freight and passengers Most of the town | 
is situated on elevated ground and has quite an extensive pros- 1 
pect. The boat was detained here two hours during which time \ 
Mr. M. M. Goodwin a fellow passinger and myself made quite \ 
an excursion into the city. The wind had now somewhat increased | 
and was accompanied at times by a sprinkling rain. The sky was | 
overcast and all seemed to indicate a stormy night yet it was not | 
cold. At past 9 o'clock P. M. we touched at a place called j 
Black River, and at 12 o'clo at Huron where the boat stopped 2 t 
or 3 hours. j 

Friday May 15th 1840 — This morning the weather is very ! 
fine, much different from what was anticipated, with a moderate ! 



Diary of Journey to Wisconsin 



77 



southeast wind blowing. About 9 o'clock A. M. we arrived at 
the mouth of Detroit river. My curiosity led me to ascend to the 
mast head when I apprehended I would become dissy and soon 
feel uncomfortable. But quite the reverse, the air was pure and a 
cool breeze swept gently along, doing away completely [with] 
the sultry influence of the solar rays and I felt aught but disagree- 
able sensations. In the mouth of the river and on our left was a 
small island on which I discovered three small fortifications or 
rather block houses one on each end and one in the middle of the 
Island, which were probably occupied by the patriots during the 
late struggle. Each is surrounded by a low brush-work in the 
form of a square. I was surprised and delighted with the prospect 
on the right, for miles, as far as the eye [could see] I think I never 
beheld a more pleasing landscape, without any intermission of 
beauty, it was apparently one continued field of blossoms and 
herbage. The ground seemed cloth'd with richness and the 
farm-houses betokened luxury and abundance combined with 
taste, neatness and good-husbandry. One novelty here presented 
itself, viz, a windmill at each convenient place on the coast and 
for the most part on each farm. At the entrance of the river on 
the Canada side is Amherstburg, a very pleasant little place 
where we touched and landed one or two passengers. It is 299 
miles from Buff. At first thought I was somewhat surprised at 
seeing men in military array parading, and sentinels posted at the 
entrance of each street. But was soon set aright on reflecting 
that it was one of her Brit. M towns. A short distance above, 
is Ft. Maiden A british post commanding the west branch of the 
river. Above this, either side of the river presents a very pleasing 
prospect, yet I think the Canada farmhouses surpass those of 
Mich, in point of taste, neatness and size. As the sun shone 
exceedingly bright and we were now going with the light wind 
that blew up the river it was uncomfortably warm. Thermom. 
75° About 11 o'clock A. M. we landed at Detroit, where more 
than the cabin passengers and quite a number of the steerage 
passengers left us. Mr. Goodwin & a young man from New 
York (who has a brother engaged in the mercantile business at 
Racine and with whom fellow-passengership had worn into a 



78 



Documents 



kind of intimacy), and myself walked up into the city, which is 
very pleasant indeed, has the appearance of being a place of 
considerable trade, and much exceeded my expectations. Here 
as well as elsewhere the fire of Harrison and Tippecanoe-ism j 
is raging under all its fantastic, bombastic, and I should say j 
ludicrous and air-founded forms. jl 
A *'log cabin" about 40 feet by 50 furnished with rude benches, \ 
at the farther end of which is erected a kind of speaker's stand I 
of unplaned boards in the centre hangs a chandalier — formed of f' 
part of the trunk and the roots of a hickory sapling, behind 
the desk was placed a portrait of Wm. Henry Harrison and about ; 
one hundred tin mugs which smelt strong of hard cider decorated f 
the ventilating walls. Overhead are suspended at proper inter- I 
vals, wild cats, ducks, owls & other game, and crowning the 
speaker's stand stood erect a spiritless image of the bird of ! 
liberty, besides these, codfish, political mottos, dried pumpkins ; 
and a number of other equally interesting objects were here 
exhibited to the enlightened freemen of America as inspiring mo- 
tives to patriotism. Here Mr. Goodwin and I took a stateroom 
for our better comfort and convenience. Left this place about 
2 o'clock P. M. and were soon plowing the bosom of St. Clair. 
At Detroit there was lightning and other indications of a storm, 
but now all was clear with a cool stiff breeze right ahead. The 
channel through this lake is marked by stakes driven into the 
mud, and it is so shallow that even then the boat rubbed for miles v 
and left a muddy track. The lake is about 30 miles long and ter- 
minates with low, marshy and unwholesome banks, although 
near the middle, especially on the Michigan side they appear to t 
be high healthy and fertile. The St. Clair R. presents nothing , 
very interesting save plenty of wild ducks and geese. Gulls 
frogs and other waterfowls which seem to hold peaceable posses- 
sion of the dominions of their ancestors, finally the whole appear- 
ance of what was this evening seen of the St. Clair river is anything 
but prepossessing. About 8 o'clock P. M. we stopped to wood 
at a place called Newport, it being about dark we were enabled 
to see but a small part of what few houses there were in the place. 
Took in a plentiful supply of fuel, in consequence of our not being 
able to obtain any more short of Presque Isle. 



Diary of Journey to Wisconsin 



79 



Saturday May 16th 1840 — . ... All on board seemed 
cheerful & happy and many were the expressions of thankfulness 
and gratitude for the divine favor which seemed to have accom- 
panied us thus far on our voyage. About 8 o'clock P. M. a fresh 
breeze sprang up from the south. On the east the water bounds 
the horison, and the dense forests and habitless beach of Mich, 
with here and there a whitened rock to catch the traveller's 
eye is all that can be seen westwardly About 10 o'clock A. M. 
we passed White Rock which consists of a saw-mill and log cabin. 
About one and a half miles above are two or three small cabins. 
White rock itself is under water The waters of Huron are more 
clear & appear much deeper than those of Erie We were soon at 
the entrance of Saginaw Bay and from 1 to 3 o'clock P. M. no 
land could be seen. About 7 o'clock the boat stopped off Thun- 
der Island, but no signal being discovered on shore she again 
proceeded on her journey, N. N. W. There is a light-house and 
comfortable dwelling on the southern extremity of this island 
where there are a few acres cleared. The rest of it is one dense 
forest, and really a bleak, lonely, desolate place. About in the 
middle I discovered a few miserable huts, probably the abodes 
of fishermen, saw several other small islands between it and the 
main land, all thickly wooded. Pretty hard S. S. E. wind all the 
afternoon. 

Sunday May 17th 1840 — This morning is very pleasant with a 
fresh breeze in our teeth On the left within a league and a half 
is the Michigan shore, on which with a glass I discovered the wreck 
of a schooner said to be that of the Lafayette About 8 o'clock 
we passed the lighthouse at a place called [blank in MS.] where 
there were also one or two dwellings And about 9 o'clock 
landed at Mackinaw 646 miles from Buffalo, situated on a rocky 
barren island in the straits which connect Lakes Huron, Michi- 
gan & Superior The place contains nothing of interest except 
the fortifications, which have a very commanding position, land- 
ed three indian chiefs who had been on some public business to 
Washington. They were very intelligent and well dressed and 
one especially had many well-founded claims to the appearance 
if not to the character of a gentleman with tlie indians on shore of 



80 



Documents 



which we saw a number these contrasted strikingly. There are 
but one or two well-finished houses in the place and one of 
these is occupied by the indian department. After leaving the 
straits the wind gradually increased in violence, so that by 4 
o'clock half the persons on board were completely nauseated. 
The scene inasmuch as there was no danger attending it was 
ludicrous in the extreme to one who was unaccustomed to such 
sights. The first convincing evidences of that were manifested 
of those unpleasant symptoms, I discovered while in the gentle- 
men's cabin below deck, where as I supposed I saw (although I 
thought it was rather an unusual number,) 10 or 12 individuals 
completely resigned to the arms of Morpheus, some on settees, 
one or two on "three stools" and others in their berths. But 
which as I knew it to be Sunday after-noon did not much excite 
my curiosity, untill as I was walking to and fro, watching the 
heaving and pitching of the boat and listening to the creaking 
of the timbers and laboring of the engine which I thought unusual 
in so light a sea, I discovered the muscles of one gentleman's face 
alternately relaxing and contracting as if to subdue the foul 
mutiny of the ingredients of the stomach, and on looking around 
me, observed those symptoms to exist simultaneously among 
most of those present. The simple idea of what was soon to 
follow roused me to a true sense of my situation, and knowing 
that the spectacle before me would soon enlist my feelings though 
involuntarily into its disagreeable service. O'er scenes of holier 
things to gaze, I hastened on deck. But alas!! [Here follows a 
description of his seasickness.]. . . . 

About ten o'clock in the evening we landed at one of the 
Manatoo Islands to wood & were detained in consequence of 
some defect in the machinery which had to be repaired, untill 
6 o'clock the next morning. 

Monday May 18th 1840 — ^Rather chilly this morning with con- 
siderable wind. The southern extremity of the island at which 
we were detained is said to be 70 feet high, and to contain a lake 
on its summit more than a mile long. It grew very foggy about 8 
o'clock and remained so for two hours, when it was dispelled by an 
increased head wind & superseded by a chilly & inclement 



Diary of Journey to Wisconsin 



81 



atmosphere, which continued nearly all day. Passed the mouth of 
the twin rivers^ about 5 o'clock P. M. & saw the sun set in Glory 
behind the hills of Wisconsin for the first time Arrived at 
Milwaukie about 2 o'clock at night, found the Steam Boat 
Madison laying opposite the mouth of the River just out from 
Chicago. About 25 passengers landed in the small S. B. Me- 
nominee and one or two families, [It] having been recommended 
to me, I stopped at the Milwaukie House^ kept by Mr. [George 
P.] Graves formerly from Canajoharie Montg.[omery] Co. N. Y. 
Having been up late the preceeding evening I felt disposed to 
improve the few hours before 6 o'clock in a comfortable "snoose," 
and soon after laying down was agreeably indulging in a reverie on 
the scenes I had just left. Soon falling asleep the mysterious 
future, was unfolded to my imagination. . . . 

Teusday, May 19th — On looking out the first object that 
engaged my attention was a dense mist rising from the overflow 
portion of lowland adjoining the river which, by the bye, is quite 
considerable As I was walking before breakfast towards Walkers 
point, there being at the time a stiff breeze from the lake I 
involuntarily endeavored to avoid inhaling the foggy atmosphere 
by which I was surrounded by holding a kerchief to my mouth. 
Having been credibly informed that there was nothing unhealthy 
to be apprehended from it inasmuch as it is daily freshened [by] 
the overflowing of the lake — The morning was very pleasant. 
I called on Paul Juneau a young man who attended school at the 
C. L. Institute a few years ago, & to whom I was refered by Prof. 
Perkins, & whose father^ is post master at this place, by him I 
was introduced to Mr. Joshua Hathaway^ a gentleman who has 
for several years been engaged in survey in public lands in this 
Territory, and to whom I am indebted for much valuable infor- 
mation & advice. About noon it rained some, but the after-noon 
was warm k Pleasant Spent most of the day in examining 
the place which in point of location prosperity & trade somewhat 
exceeded my expectations, which had been formed chiefly 

• The town at the mouth of Twin rivers is now called Two Rivers. 

* Called the Bellevue when it was opened in 1837. 
^ Solomon Juneau, founder of Milwaukee. 

^ A prominent engineer, who resided at Milwaukee from 1834 until his death in IRftS. 



82 



Documents 



on the description which my brother gave, as I now suspect 
with the very intention of having me thus agreeably disappointed 
In the evening I called on Mr. Geo. [O.] Tiffany to whom I had a 
line of introduction from I. H. Tiffany Esq. of our place, and 
who has an excellent and very pleasant location on the high 
ground adjoining the village This evening is somewhat rainy 
and unpleasant. 

Wednesday May 20th 1840 — This morning is fine, and there 
are no indications of rain. Started about 3^ past 8 o'clo. for 
Doct. J.[ames] Tripp's residence which is 28 miles from Mil- 
waukie,^ having an opportunity to ride with a Mr. A. [W.] Perry 
from the same neighborhood, and after riding 14 miles over an 
execrable road we arrived at a good specimen of Wisconsin 
inns which consisted of a small log hut 15 by 20 which is divided 
into a Barroom & setting room with an addition of a shanty 
in the rear — in which we partook of a dinner much better than I 
expected, and I supposed was called the dining-room but from 
this was again taken a kind of anteroom into which the women 
and children retired while we dined, about ten more miles were 
as bad as could possibly be imagined, four wagons having been 
broken in two days on the same, and what was most singular 
each of them had one hind wheel "lamed" in the afternoon we 
experienced an occasional shower but they were warm & genial 
not "cold and drizzling" as we have them in New York. After 
crossing Fox River [or the Pishtaka] I was at once delighted 
and surprised at the scene before me which I will not here stop to 
describe The roads from the river to Mr. T's were excellent, 
far superior to those of N. Y. which are annually wrought When 
we arrived about dusk — Found them just setting down to 
supper, and an excellent one it was one that would be relished 
by any rational being and by an irrational one after having rode 
28 miles over roads that are as indescribable as those over which 
it was our fortune this day to pass. 

Thursday May 21st 1840 — Last night did I sleep sweetly for 
the first time under the roof of a Wisconsin Cottage and this 
morning is somewhat rainy & unpleasant. Passed the day 



' In the town of East Troy, Walworth County, at the outlet of Beulah Lake. 



Diary of Journey to Wisconsin 



83 



within doors, inasmuch as the sun did not shine. Frequently 
was the oft-told story of my Grand parents brought to mind as I 
beheld here their habits & customs yet extant, & their mode of 
living again adopted and made agreable by circumstances. As I 
saw the humble log-houses and huge fire-places, out door ovens 
and earth-covered cellars, gathered in small groups beside the 
winding highway of the Adventurous pioneer, — Here again were 
the private decanters and unadulterated spirits to stimulate 
the morning meal or give superior relish to the simple yet whole- 
some burden of the dining table — none shrank from the delicious 
draught, for the fear of violating propriety & decorum. But 
it was sipped in harmless moderation. . . . 

Friday May 22nd 1840 — The day opens very pleasantly, 
feeling an inclination to see the surrounding beauties of nature 
I shoulder'd Mr. T's gun & proceeded along the right bank of the 
lake. My excursion although not very succesful proved very 
pleasant & interesting, beneath me were spread in rich profusion 
the beautiful yet wild and uncultivated flowers of the prarie, 
around me was the oak orchard [?] of the wild man where the 
wood-pigeon fluttered unharmed. The rippless & mirrored lake 
where the loon. Duck, pickerel in safety revelled, strangers to the 
fear and persecution of the civilized man. The sky was robed in 
matchless beauty & all was harmony, natural, varied & matchless 
enchantment. In the afternoon I was gratified with an oppor- 
tunity to ride with Dr. T. & his family to Honey Creek or Meach- 
am's Prarie.^ Stopped at Mr. Syvemus [Sylvanus] Spooer's 
[Spoor's] & Mr. [Austin] McCrackin's The evening is exceed- 
ingly fine. The soft moon-beams fall gently on the quiet lake. 

Saturday May 23d 1840 — A Pleasant morning but a rainy 
afternoon. Amused myself fishing & sounding the lake below 
the sawmilP which was found to exceed 40 ft. in depth — was 
shown a specimen of Wisconsin springs which have a very 
singular appearance as they boil up & the water oozes through a 

^Meacham's Prairie is in the southern portion of the town of Troy, Walworth 
County. It was named for Maj. Jesse Meacham, its first settler. 
» Built by Dr. Tripp in 1838. 



84 



Documents 



mass of coarse white sand, a portion of which is all that can be 
discovered to have any kind of motion, after having been dis- 
tilled through which the water becomes tranquil and is invisible, 
although from 6 to 12 inc. in depth — and is pure, cold and 
palatiable 

Sunday May 24th 1840 — This morning Dr. Tripp proposes 
to take part of a load of lumber for the repair of his mill to 
White Water, ^0 & from there a load of flour to Fort Winnebago, 
where the Winnebago indians are collected by the IT. S. troops 
under Gen. [Henry] Atkinson for their removal beyond the 
Mississippi^^ I ride with him to White Water. Left his house 
about }/2 past 9 o'clock and after having a very pleasant ride over 
tolerable roads we arrived at the mill about 5 o'clock P. M. it 
being about 17 miles. The place consists of the grist-mill, one 
log store, a Public house just not finished, a black-smith shop & 
a dwelling house of logs. I took up my abode at Mr. Asaph 
Pratt's house a mile or more south west from the mill on the 
Prarie. Have had a very fine day. 

Monday May 25th 1840 — Some appearance of rain this 
morning. Went to see the west 3^ of the S.W. 34 of town 5 N 
Range 15E which Henry [Starin — the diarist's brother] purchased 
last fall at the land sale in October. Mr. Tripp started about 
10 o'clock accompanied by Mr. [Willard B.] Johnson who also 
took a load — rather rainy and unpleasant in the forenoon but 
after noon it cleared up & was quite reconciliable. 

Tuesday May 26th 1840— Fair weather Mr Pratt went out to 
the bark river saw-mill this fore-noon and I concluded to accom- 
pany him. Accordingly about 8 o'clock we set out, preparing 
ourselves with a number of boards to serve as a raft in crossing 
the river. The way to Bark river is alternately over bluff open- 
ings and very wet marshes, succeeding each other at regular inter- 
vals. We came out to the river a short distance below its con- 
fluence with the Scuppernong Creek, ^nd after having tied 

^® For the story of the Whitewater grist mill, built by Dr. Tripp in 1839, see Prosper 
Cravath, Early Annals of Whitewater, 1837-1867, 33. Dr. Tripp laid out the original 
village of Whitewater. 

According to the terms of the Winnebago cession of 1837, the Indians were removed 
to Iowa Territory. 

In the town of Cold Spring, Jefferson County. 



Diary of Journey to Wisconsin 



85 



the horses to the wagon & crossed the stream with our raft 
proceeded on foot, for half a mile across the marsh adjoining the 
river and some distance into the wood we found water ankle- 
deep. Then after wending our way through heavily timbered 
& apparently rich land for two miles we arrived at the mill, 
where there are two small clearings and two small frame houses, 
having much the appearance of being lost in the depths of the 
wild- wood by which they are surrounded. Mr. Pratt having 
obtained a wornout mill saw, which was the sole object of his 
errand and which are much used in making breaking plows for 
the Praries, we returned. The river where we crossed was 
perhaps ten rods in width and very shallow The south bank 
is dry & much resembles the Mohawk Flatts. here also grow 
wild onions in abundance. The north is very low & wet & is 
covered with high grass, on our return we also found in a thicket 
on the road, wild cherry & plum, crab-apple & Buck-Thorn 
bushes in abundance. The whole distance is called 8 miles and 
we arrived at Mr. P's about 2 P. M. with a good appetite under 
which the onions we found and vinegar relished well. The after- 
noon was pleasant and was spent by myself in writing & Journal- 
izing — Two of Mr. Pratts sons gave us a fine concert at their 
father's house on violins — this evening. 

Wednesday May 27th 1840 — Warm & Pleasant all day, took a 
tramp through section 10 & its vicinity this afternoon — 

Thursday May 28th 1840 — Having made arrangements to 
start For John Hill's 9^/2 miles east of Elgin 111. this morning, I 
started about 7 o'clock. The weather was fine & (as the people 
term it) seemed to have settled for the season. Having an 
opportunity, I rode with Mr. Cutter & Mr. Pratt as far as tlie 
Bluffs between Round and Heart Praries^^ — who were on their 
way to Milwaukie. Then taking a south-east direction I crossed 
the east Part of Heart Pra, where there are several frame houses. 
Water rather scarce the wells being from 50 to 60 ft. deep — 
from thence S. E. to sugar Creek Pra. in crossijig which I passed 
to the left of a small lake which has neither outlet nor inlet. 

" In the town of La Grange, Walworth County. 

"Sugar Creek Prairie is in the town of Sugar Creek; the lake notiml was oithrr 
Otter or Silver Lake. 



86 Documents 

The wells here are from 40 to 50 ft. deep — After passing several 
slews (properly sloughs) arrived at E[l]khorn Centre about }/2 
past 12 o'clock M. situated in the S. E. corner of the town of 
Elkhorn and is the proposed county seat. Having heard much 
of the place I was somewhat surprised to find only a small frame 
building which was at once a court house, Post oflBce, atty's oflSce 
& clerks office, a small house of Oaken plank which was their 
Gail, but which I discovered to contain Goods instead of prison- 
ers, a little to the right a very good School house & 2 ordinary 
farm-houses 3^ a mile beyond, at one of which I succeeded in 
obtaining a bowl of milk & }/2 Baked bread. Started about 2 
o'clock P. M. and after traveling a very circuitous route through 
the north and east Part of Elkhorn Pra. & then south thro, 
broken openings, sloughs and marshes I arrived at Como. lake, 
called Duck lake at the foot of which a Mr. Pane^^ owns a saw- 
mill, having about 8 feet fall of water, a mile & a half beyond this 
is the foot of Genava lake at which there is a thriving village 
called Geneva where I stopped about 7 o'clock in the evening, 
& which is 30 miles from Whitewater. There is at this place a 
Grist-mill, a Distillery, a saw-mill, two stores two Public-houses 
& quite a number of neat dwelling houses all Put up within a 
year. The fall of the outlet at the mill is 11 feet. Having a 
letter of introduction to Dr. Oliver [S.] Tiffany from his uncle 
I. H. Tiffany Esq I spent most of the evening very pleasantly 
at his room, & am much indebted to him for the loan of a map of 
Illinois which he kindly offered me. The lake is very pleasant 
k is said to abound in good fish, & is about ten miles long. 

Friday May 29th 1840— Left Geneva about 8 o'clock this 
morning & after traveling 4 miles came to Geneva Prarie,^^ 
beyond which I found some fine springs. The weather was very 
hot, took dinner on Minsink or Nipsink Pra.^"^ Water not very 
good & is obtained by digging 15 or 20 feet. My course across this 
Pra. was 6 or 7 miles, after dinner I saw no house on the Pra. 
The sun was excessively warm & not a breath of air stirring 

Christopher Payne, an interesting pioneer character and the founder of Lake 
Geneva. 

^® Also called Bloom Prairie, in the town of Bloomfield, Walworth County. 
^'^ On Nippersink River in McHenry County, Illinois. 



Diary of Journey to Wisconsin 



87 



The thermometer stood at 85°, Plovers in abundance hovered 
around me and occasionally sailed within a few feet uttering 
hideous screams & seeming ostensibly to watch an opportunity 
to take advantage of my inattention & strike me. Brook after 
brook & slough after slough did I wade. Bluff after bluff did I 
thus ascend but not a tree, nor house nor fence nor stump nor 
object of any-kind was there to catch my wearied eye all was 
one waste of weeds & grass — and it was not till I had thus traveled 
6 miles till I was nearly exhausted by perspiration till my energies 
began to leave me and I involuntarily lagged, choked with 
thirst & my feet burning from the heat of the beaten track, that 
I in the distance discovered a few panels of fence, & as I gained 
the summit of the next bluff, forest trees, a shaked roof & finally 
a comfortable looking cabin appeared in the edge of the wood 
Here my anticipations began. The cool shade, the refreshing 
draught of spring water & finally all good things that could be 
imagined seemed there to await my coming. I approached the 
house. The men & children labored in an adjacent enclosure, 
& to all appearance it was even as I had anticipated, but the 
door was on the other side of the house. I passed the corner 
& O! Disappointment! vexation misery & wretchedness! The 
sun poured his scorching rays directly into a kind of aperture 
on the ground as if to light whoever entered into the abodes of 
darkness. This I supposed to be the door. I kneeled before it 
as I could scarce stand any longer & knew not but I should be 
compelled to pray for admission, & here another scene of poverty 
or rather beastliness met my eyes, a perfect picture of slovenness 
sat on the ground (for I could see no floor) a child in her arms 
& one in a box in the corner (apparently twins) a heap of nuid 
& potatoes beside her from which she was selecting & cutting 
for seed, in two corners were smoky heaps of rags, which I 
took to be beds under the influence of extreme fatigue I threw 
off my budget & seated myself on a kind of bench which seemed 
to serve for table, chair, & cupboard. My first inquiry was for 
the next house, & was so absorbed in the spectacle before [me) 
that I was about leaving the hut before my thirst reminded me 
of what I most needed Called for water & was given m mug of 



88 



Documents 



filthy liquid from an open barrel beside the house, and which 
upon inquiry proved to be brook water which she said had been 
hauled two miles that morning I drank deep but tasted not & 
was off with a very good idea of an "arabian desert trap" Then 
crossing the grove about a mile in width I came to an Irish 
hotel. They were out of spirits which I fancied myself then to 
be in need of if ever, but a large churn "patent rocking" which 
must have been made in the house stood in the middle of the 
room & on application obtained a delicious draught of its con- 
tents which were good & thick, then crossed Highland Pra. 
2 miles, to the house of a Mr. Griffin where I was strongly inclined 
from the painfulness of my limbs to stop for the night, but finding 
circumstances rather unfavorable, I again entered the woods & 
wended m.y way. The sun was just sinking behind the western 
hills & the clouds were tinted with his dying luster. Scarce had 
I entered the thicket ere myriads of musquitoes swarmed around 
and attacked me on all sides, for a time I was able to walk leisure- 
ly as I defended myself manfully with my umbrella case. But 
reinforcements were continually pouring in upon me. I chose 
new weapons & in my danger lost all sense of weariness, became 
utterly wreckless of the road I was pursuing, plunging on at 
hazard & at every step making "cut & thrust" at my enemy. 
But night coming on & all hope of victory vanishing, I was 
almost driven to desperation, to proceed was hazardous to 
stop & build a smudge was impossible, & knowing not but that I 
was on the wrong road was about yielding to fate & my merciless 
adversaries when a fence which Proved to be the extremity of 
what was called the Virginia settlement, caught my eyes & my 
energies returned. I soon reached the door of a small cabin at 
which was seated a ragged urchin, whose hair gave him the 
appearance of being isolated after undergoing the rigid scrutiny 
of a sentinel of the canine species, which threatning glances & 
meaning growls induced me to submit to, the following dialogue 
ensued — Boy. How far is it to the next house? Bout half er 
mile. Have you any water here.^ No, our well has got a stinkin so 
we've got ter drink Butter-milk. Will you let me have some.'^ 
Yas an its good en thick too 'twas churned this mornin. [after 



Diary of Journey to Wisconsin 



89 



drinking two cups which were delicious] How many of your 
folks are there? I dun know Theres me & suke & mother & 
pap & John & Sam & Bub & lemuel, that's all? But they're all 
gone away some visitin & some to work be home pretty soon. 
Looking around & seeing but three bunks in the house, took 
another drink of Butter-milk & was off, & never suffered more 
pain from walking in my life, about 3^ a mile bro't me to a 
comfortable looking shanty where I put up for the night, about 
8 o'clock observed a curious phenomena in the heavens which 
was a stream of light shooting from the eastern & extending to 
the western horison, exceeding the brightness of the moon & 
apparently the width of full moon, it however died away in 
about an hour — & after a refreshing sleep 

Saturday May 30th 1840 — I started this morning with 
renewed vigor. The sun was very hot. passed thro. Virginia 
settlement, & Chrystal lake Ville & struck Fox river at a point 

5 miles above Dundee where I met with an opportunity to ride 
as far as Elgin where we arrived about 4 P. M. From there I 
walked to Mr. Hill's which is miles east, found them all well. 

6 at the end of my journey was much elated with my success 
& delighted with my newly discovered traveling faculties, feeling 
none of the least unpleasant symptoms of weariness — and by a 
delicious bath in the poplar Creek revived all my sources of 
Pleasant feeling, it being the first of my bathing this season. 

Sunday May 31st 1840 — A very Pleasant day yet the sun was 
uncomfortably warm. Mr. & Mrs. H. attended church, & I 
journalised this A. M. In the after noon went out to see Mr. 
H's improvments. his wheat is very heavy & was sowed while 
the corn was yet unripe & harrowed in between the rows, which 
I find to be a very common practice west of the lakes, unheard 
of in York State. A small animal resembling the Yorkstate 
chipping squirrel is here found to be very troublesome in the corn- 
fields, — known by the name of Goafer, & burrows in the ground 
was much annoyed this evening by musquitoes 

[Meteorological Table and Weather Table] 

Monday June 1st 1840 — Had an opportunity to rido to 
Chicago with Mr. Josiah Burret who was going out with a load of 



90 



Documents 



wheat. Started accordingly about 6 o'clock, found very good 
roads for about 15 miles when we were hindered by getting into a 
slough & compelled to lighten our load into another wagon 
after which we got along very well except for 5 or 6 miles out of 
Chicago — which is one extensive plain of wet Prarie & marsh. 
The City can be seen at the distance of 7 or 8 miles, with the aid of 
a glass. Saw some fine claims & improvements on the way which 
is most of the distance through rich and dry-praries, interspersed 
with some beautiful groves of timber, where is found oak & 
maple in a thrifty & growing condition. Arrived at Chicago 
about 6 o'clock the distance being 35 miles, & finding there a Mr. 
Sweet with whom I became acquainted on the canal stopping 
at the Sauganash Hotel took quarters at the same place. The 
forenoon was warm & Pleas 't . . . & in the afternoon had two fine 
thunder showers. 

Teusday June 2nd 1840 — Spent the forenoon in looking about 
the city & harbor. The Steam Boat Cleveland came in yesterday 
morning & is to start out on Thursday was much pleased with 
the appearance of the harbor but the city seems to lay rather 
low & on a dead level. The streets are not paved probably on 
account of the impracticability of obtaining stone In the after- 
noon went up into the observatory of the Lake House & with the 
aid of a large glass obtained a complete & comprehensive view of 
the city & the surrounding scenery for miles in extent North 
of the north branch of the river the streets end in a beautiful 
grove of trees, in which may be discovered vined porticos & 
finished roof-walks strongly indicating the presence & character- 
ising the abodes of Luxury, opulence & wealth. The lake house is 
now said to be the first house in the place & in point of con- 
venience is situated at the S. B. landing and in the most comer- 
cial & thriving part of the town. Not a sail nor craft of any 
kind was to be seen on the lake, & a cool steady land brezze was 
steadily blowing. Called on Mr. E S. Prestcott, reciever at this 
place to whom I had letters from Elijah Wilcox Esq"^ & from 
whom I obtained some valuable information respecting that 
portion of the state which is now under contract and about to 
be surveyed. Having seen the Great city of Chicago & finished 



Diary of Journey to Wisconsin 



91 



purchasing some necessary articles which I could not find else- 
where, I fortunately met with and improved an opportunity 
to ride out of town about 5 o'clock with a Rev. Mr. Elmore who 
lives about 5 miles south of Elgin on the west side of the river. 
It was truly surprising to see the number of teams and loads of 
produce that are daily entering the city & on coming out to find 
such detestably execrable roads, over which we empty as we 
were (it having rained some in the after noon) could scarcely pass 
without miring. Stopped for the night at Spencr's Hotel or the 
Tontim Coffee house on the des Plaines river at a place called 
Lyons Observed some very vivid lightning & an incredible 
number of flashes in rapid succession on the S.W. horison & 
which continued all the evening 

Wednesday June 3d 1840 — After leaving Mr. Elmore[*s] 
wagon and riding with a Mr. Curran till within a mile of Mr. 
Hill's where we stopped at the tavern on account of the rain a 
short time, I walked the remainder of the way & arrived at 
Mr. H's about past ten o'clock A. M. It stopped raining and 
was bright and pleasant all the afternoon untill 6 o'clock when 
we had a fine shower. Felt very sleepy this P. M. But took a 
tramp in the woods beyond the creek which kept me awake. 

Thursday May [June] 4th 1840 — Set out on foot about 
7 o'clock this morning Stopped at Elgin untill 9, & then went 
southwardly, passed some excellent claims & some very fine 
situations on the road between Elgin & St. Charles, which is ten 
miles. St. Charles is a fine little place situated on Fox-river. 
Has a large flouring-mill & one saw-mill, supports two schools & 
has a population of 450. One Hotel from thence to Geneva two 
miles farther down the river, is not so large as St. C. but is the 
County Seat of Kane Co. & is mostly on the west side of the 
river. 

From here I took an east course & by walking 9 [6.^] miles 
over an extensive Prarie & some Burr oak openings came to a 
saw-mill and dwelling-house called Gary's-mill from this place 
& bearing south some I passed thro'. Timber 8 miles to a small 
village called Warren-Ville where sun-down found me & I put up 
for the night at the only Hotel The village is much scattcrtHl 



92 



Documents 



and is mostly on the prairie. Have a saw-mill on the Desplains 
river & but one store Pop. is 92 & out of this No. 42 have had 
the fever & ague this spring & I find this disease is more prevalent '■ 
the farther south & on small streams. 

Friday June 5th 1840 — Started from Warrenville about 6 
o'clock this morning for Naperville which is three miles dist. j 
encountered a shower accompanied with much thunder & light- 
ning, one stroke was so near & the flash so vivid that I involun- ! 
tarily staggered from its effect. It however soon cleared up and I i 
arrived at the Preemption house in time for breakfast This is a ! 
place of considerable trade 30 miles from Chicago, on the Du- 
page river and is the County Seat of Cook Co. After taking a 
circuit of about 14 miles in a Northeast direction and returning i 
within a mile of the village I was over-taken & driven into a i 
house by a violent thunder shower from the South, luckily \, 
they had just prepared dinner and I partook with them, but ; 
was surprised to find on inquiry that they charged me nothing I, 
therefor the first case of the kind that has occurred to me h 
since I left White Water After being sheltered and having r 
partaken of the hospitality of this good family I bade them : 
good by about 3 P. M. and wended my way which by this time ? 
on so loose a soil as this had gotten to be a complete slipping up i 
place. Stopped a short time at the village & then proceeded on y 
my return after a very slippry & unpleasant walk being much I 
annoyed by musketoes I arrived at Gary's mill where with the < 
prospect of a very heavy thunder shower before me from the 
south & west I suspended farther operations and stopped for the i 
night. The Black clouds of heaven gathered over the place ^ 
. . . but they passed away harmlessly. . . . Supper was soon n 
prepared of which I partook with a good relish. The evening was 
passed in political debate by Mr. Gary & a Fever & ague physician i 
"got up for the occasion" whose name was Marvin & boarded at 
Mr. G.'s. 

Saturday June 6th 1840 — Having but 14 miles to travel I 
felt no strong inclination to tax my energies untill 6 o'clock. 
At the breakfast as well as at the supper table a blessing was j 
asked and after breakfast & the reading of a chapter in the Bible ( 



Diary of Journey to Wisconsin 



93 



the whole family kneeled in prayer which occupied untill 8 
o'clock when I paid my fare & departed after crossing the 
Du page river on which the mill is situated I took the right 
instead of the left hand road which passes through St. Charles — 
& after walking 12 miles over woodland, prairie and oak-openings 
& encountering many sloughs I found myself on the Galena and 
Chicago road at a Mr. Leatherman's Hotel one mile from Mr. 
H's where I arrived about noon. 

Sunday June 7th 1840 — This afternoon I accompanied Mr. & 
Mrs. Hill to church at Elgin held in the unfinished meetinghouse 
north of the Elgin house. The Day was very fine. 

Monday June 8th 1840 — This morning I had calculated to 
leave for the Territory, but as Mr. Hill had been the day or two 
previous appointed a delegate from Barrington precinct to attend 
the county convention which was to be held this day at the Old 
Doty Stand a short distance below the confluence of the Salt 
Creek & Des planes river, he gave me an invitation and I con- 
cluded to accompany him. We accordingly started about 6 
o'clock. The morning being rather cool we were enabled to 
drive pretty fast & arrived at the Buck horn House on the Galena 
& Chicago road which is 18 miles by 3^ past 8 o'clock, and after 
taking a course south s. west & driving 13 miles across the prairie 
fording Salt Creek once we arrived at our destination about 3^ 
past 11 o'clock, where we found a goodly number of Office 
seekers and political idlers already collected. The place is a re- 
tired one on the bank of the River and has quite a romantic 
appearance. The business of the convention was not completed 
untill about 7 o'clock in the eve. And after a nocturnal ride of 
31 miles during which each of us alternately slept & drove we 
arrived at Mr. H's about 1 o'clo. at night. 

Teusday June 9th 1840 — After passing rather a sleepy fore- 
noon I set out about 2 o'clock for the Territory, passed through 
Elgin, Dundee Cornish-Ville & arrived at the Lake-house kept 
by Mr. King at Crystal-lake ville about 8 o'clock, having walked 
\iy2 miles. 

Wednesday June 10th 1840 — Took a very seasonable start this 
morning, went to see the lake and as far as Virginia Settlement 



94 



Documents 



before breakfast, at 1 o'clock arrived at a Mr. Disbrow's 5 
miles south of Big-foot Pra.^^ Arrived at Mr. [Phipps W.] 
Lake's*^ about 5 o'clock having traveled 25 miles. Went to see 
Mr. Geo. W. Trimbal[le] respecting his farm which Henry looked 
at Last fall and talked of buying. Saw the first Straw-berries in 
plentiness to-day 

Thursday June 11th 1840 — Did not start untill after breakfast 
this morning & after going round the east side of the prairie 
pursued a course a little north of west through openings of white, 
Black, & Burr oak & occasionally a marsh or slough untill after 
I crossed a branch of the Turtle Creek at a mile beyond which I 
came to Jefferson prarie. took dinner at a Mr. [Joseph] Pierce's, 
a mile from the East Side It is six miles wide & has several 
excellent springs, at the west side I changed my course to 
south of west & arrived at Beloit about 7 o'clock P. M. Put 
up at the Hotel which is kept by a Mr. Buntley, having traveled 
25 miles. 

Friday June 12th 1840 — Started from Beloit about 7 o'clock 
this morning & proceeded up the river arrived at Janes Ville 
about 5 o'clock P. M. & having an opportunity rode across Rock 
prairie to Mr. Stearns' where I stopped for the night having 
traveled 23 miles. 

Saturday June 13th 1840 — Having but 14 m yet to go I 
started about 5 o'clock & arrived at Mr. Pratt's at 11 A M. 
Was glad once more to return home as White Water then seemed 
to me. Having sweat profusely for the last 3 or four days, I 
was much benefited by a delicious bath in the White Water dam. 

[To he continued] 

In the town of Walworth, Walworth County. Nathan Disbrow lived near the Illi- 
nois line. 

Mr. Lake was a member of the state assembly in 1854. 



Letter of Senator James R, Doolittle 95 



LETTER OF SENATOR JAMES ROOD DOOLITTLE^ 
[ Chicago, III., April 16, 1880. 

Gen'l C. A. Dana. 
My dear Sir: 

Yours of the 12th is duly received for which I thank you most 
1 sincerely. 

I agree with you that the name of John M. Palmer, if he could 
be nominated as the Democratic candidate, would probably 
lead us to victory over Gen'l Grant. 

But let me tell you the difficulties in the way of his nomina- 
tion. If, as is probable, the health of Mr. Tilden is such that he 
cannot be a candidate, let me say to you that the reason why 
Gen'l Palmer will not probably be nominated lies in the fact 
which neither you nor I can control, viz.; that the Illinois delega- 
tion cannot be united upon him. Many of the leading Democrats 
of this state will never forget nor forgive him because, like you 
and me, he acted with the Republican party during the war. 
Many others are committed to Col. Morrison, and many others 
are committed to the nomination of David Davis; and to his 
nomination Judge Trumbull will not consent. 

It is the same eternal trouble growing out of the selfish wish 
of men to lead, to disorganization and defeat, rather than by 
self-sacrificing patriotism, to unite and organize a victory. It 
is the same thing which scourges New York, and causes all your 
troubles there. 

Instead of saying all for the cause nothing for men; it is all 
the time aut Caesar aut nullus. When that spirit prevails as much 

^ This letter is copied by the contributor from what appears to be a rough draft of a 
letter to the late Charles A. Dana, at the time of its writing the editor of the New York 
Sun. The handwriting in the letter in question is clearly that of the late ex-Senator Doo- 
little of Wisconsin. Of that fact there is not the possibility of a doubt. Whether or not 
the letter was ever sent may be more doubtful. As the entire "tone and tenor" of the 
letter comports exactly with what is believed to have been the sentiments of Judge Doo- 
little at that time, it is safe to say that the letter was sent, although the correspondence 
in the possession of the contributor does not disclose any reply by Mr. Dana. There 
are several political letters from Mr. Dana in the Doolittle correspondence, although 
they do not refer to this particular letter. 

The letter is exceedingly interesting because the author of it was, at the time of its 
writing, familiar with all of the political facts with which it deals. Senator Doolittle 
was, moreover, a national figure of no mean proportions. Few public men were more 

, widely known or more generally sought in the political campaigns of the period covrrcii 
by this letter. We may, or we may not, agree with all that Mr. Doolittle chose to say 

I about men and measures. But he was an intelligent and interested observer of current 

j political events. — Duane Mowry. 



i 



96 



Documents 



as it now does in democratic councils, east and west, we cannot 
achieve victory; we hardly deserve victory. 

Now, let me call to mind what has occurred four times in 
succession. In 1864, if the Democratic party had, by its plat- 
form, declared for the Union and for a more vigorous prosecution i 
of the war, instead of declaring for "peace at any price," McClel- 1 
Ian would have been president instead of Mr. Lincoln. You and | 
I were then for the Republican party and for Mr. Lincoln; and | 
against McClellan and the Democratic party; because the t! 
Republican party and Mr. Lincoln were right; and the Demo- J 
cratic party, and McClellan, in spite of his letter of acceptance, ■ 
which struggled to set him right, were wrong. Had the Demo- 1 
crats then nominated Gen'l Dix upon a Union platform, he would ij 
have beaten Mr. Lincoln as certain as the election was held. 
But the Vallandighams would not allow that. 

In 1868, Mr. Seymour, who, in spite of repeated declinations i. 
to accept, accepted the nomination, was defeated by Gen'l ! 
Grant, though a majority of the people did not want Gen'l^ 
Grant for president. It was because Mr. Seymour presided ati 
that convention of 1864, which passed that suicidal platform 
of surrender to the Rebellion. In that convention of 1868, ' 
had a war Democrat been nominated. Gen '1 Grant would never i 
have been elected president. 

I speak of what I know, for I stood upon the border line of 
parties then. I had lately presided over the Union Convention 
of Philadelphia, and from all quarters, by letters and otherwise,* 
knew the feelings and aspirations of that great mass of con-i 
scientious men, who seek for truth, and follow the dictates of i 
duty and patriotism wherever they lead, rather than obey thai, 
mere behests of party. I was then in the van, leading the War j 
Democrats and Liberal Republican masses into alliance with thei 
Democratic party and to the support of Mr. Seymour because thei 
Democratic party was right upon the issues of 1868. You may,: 
or you may not, call to mind the letter to Ostrander of Penn-i 
sylvania in which I appealed to them to come earnestly to thea 
support of Mr. Seymour. I was in the canvass from the begin- 1 
ning to the end. I helped bear its burdens in several of the states ;;i 



Letter of Senator James DooliUle 



97 



and I tell you only what I know, that the mill stone on Mr. 
Seymour's neck, and which dragged him under, was not his 
speech to the New York rioters; but the fact that he presided 
over that Convention of 1864, which passed those resolutions. 

Had Chase been nominated in 1868 (but Pendleton and 
others in Ohio would not consent to that), or had a War Demo- 
crat, EngHsh, of Connecticut, or Parker, of New Jersey, been 
nominated, he would have been elected, and Grant never would 
have been president. But this same rivalry and selfishness 
defeated us then, and forced the nomination of Seymour with a 
load upon his back too heavy for us to carry; and Grant was 
elected. 

Again in 1872, when a very large portion of Liberal Re- 
publicans left the Grant party, and the Democratic party mag- 
nanimously said to them, if you will hold a Convention and 
nominate a candidate we will back you with all our power. 

The same spirit of rivalry in the State of Illinois defeated us 
again, in the Liberal Republican Convention at Cincinnati. 
Trumbull, Davis and Palmer all had friends, uncompromising 
friends. Neither would yield or consent that the Illinois delega- 
tion at the Liberal Republican Convention at Cincinnati should 
unite on either. The result of this same selfish, unsacrificing 
spirit prevented the nomination of a candidate who would have 
been elected as certain as the revolutions of the earth; that 
forced the nomination of Mr. Greeley. If David Davis had 
been nominated at Cincinnati in 1872 for president and Horace 
Greeley for vice-president, they would have been supported by the 
Convention at Baltimore over which I presided; and at the polls 
by the whole rank and file of the Democratic party. Davis 
would have then carried Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, probably Wiscon- 
sin, and perhaps Pennsylvania. He would have carried New 
York, also. 

But Mr. Greeley, while he was right upon the great question 
of Peace between the North and the South, and did all in his 
power to lead both to "shake hands over the bloody chasm," 
had, unfortunately all his life, done little else than abuse the 
Democratic Party; its men and its measures; and, so bitterly. 



98 



Documents 



too, that thousands upon thousands, (although the great mass of i 
its leaders and rank and file forgot and forgave it all and sup- 
ported him heart and soul) shrank from the polls and did not 
vote at all; and thus Gen'l Grant was elected a second time as 
president. 

Again in 1876, Mr. Tilden was nominated and was elected; ij 
but, unfortunately, he was elected by the votes of the South, j 
mainly. 

Had the Convention at St. Louis in the platform, only ' 
inserted a resolution, which I begged and implored them to do, to ) 
re-monetize the silver dollar; a measure which after the election, , 
the public voice demanded in tones so loud that more than i 
three-fourths of Congress voted for it; and which was carried l! 
over the president's veto, a measure by which alone we would ! 
have been able to resume specie payments. Mr. Tilden would i 
have carried Illinois, and Ohio and Wisconsin, as well as New 
York and Indiana. The question of Solid South versus Solid 
North would have forever disappeared from our political strug- ! 
gles. There would have been no returning boards; no threat 
of civil war; no calling of armies, or of gunboats to help inaugu- ; 
rate a president who was never elected in March, 1877, at Wash- 
ington; no Electoral Commission of 8 to 7, whereby a president, 
never elected, was put into office; and made a legal president; ! 
just as a child, bastard born, is made legitimate by the subse- 
quent marriage of the parties. 

Would to God some of the spirit of the Old Democratic ; 
Republican Party could return to inspire the hearts and guide i; 
the councils of the Democratic Convention to come off at Cin- i 
cinnati in June next. 

From the proceedings in Chicago last night at the Grant i 
meeting, at which the only son of Lincoln presided; and young j 
Stephen A. Douglas made a speech; and from the character of the i 
men who called it, and managed it throughout, you may expect 
Illinois will go for Grant in the Republican Convention. He « 
will be nominated on the first ballot, if not by acclamation. 

If Grant is nominated, you may rest assured that there will I 
be little or no substantial withdrawal of republican votes from i 



Letter of Senator James R, Doolittle 



his support. There will be no third ticket of any moment in 
the Northern States. The Tribune here, with all its anti-third 
term articles, will support him. Its voice already this morning 
mellows in its tones; and it sees its opposition is likely to be 
unavaihng. It is getting ready to bow to the inevitable. Grant's 
nomination will be a bitter pill to swallow, but bitter as it may 
be, they will swallow it; and unless we, on our side, nominate a 
man whose Union war record is as clear and certain and pro- 
nounced as that of Parker, of New Jersey, Hancock, of Penn- 
sylvania, Groesbeck, Ewing, or Payne, of Ohio, Palmer, or 
Davis, or Trumbull, or Morrison, of Illinois, or Field, of Cali- 
fornia, his election is a certainty. Either of these gentlemen and 
others of that stamp, I believe we could elect over Grant. 

In my letter to you I spoke of Mr. Parker, of New Jersey; 
You reply, if Mr. Tilden is not nominated no other eastern 
man will be. Now, my dear Sir, why could not Parker be nom- 
inated? And if nominated, why could not he be elected? Why 
could not Mr. Tilden, if his health is failing, give his voice and 
influence for one of these gentlemen, and give us a certain victory? 

I hope you will not think I trespass on you by these long 
letters, written so freely and frankly to a friend, who, like myself, 
has done the country some service, and has no personal interest, 
or wish, that is not for the good of our cause, and of our common 
country. 

Will you let me be favored with a still further expression of 
your views, from your stand point? 

This letter you see, of course, is not intended for publication, 
but it is for free and frank and full consultation with one who is 
in a position to have a potent voice in shaping the future action 
of the Democratic party. 

Truly yours, 

J. R. Doolittle. 

Editorial Note: Mr. Duane Mo wry, the contributor 
of the above letter, is an enthusiastic admirer of the charac- 
ter and political career of Senator Doolittle. In submitting 
some other papers Mr. Mo wry says: * 'Senator James Rood 
Doolittle, for twelve years, from 1857 to 1869, a United 



100 Documents 

States senator from Wisconsin, was one of the ablest as he 
was one of the most mahgned and persistently misunder- 
stood public men ever sent to Congress from Wisconsin. 
Not only was his ability of the strictly statesmanlike quality, 
but his integrity, both officially and in private life, was 
absolutely unsullied, in spite of the efforts of his political 
traducers to question and belittle it." : 
Senator Doolittle, in his career as a public man repre-i 
senting Wisconsin, experienced the embarrassment com-i 
monly incident to shifting from one party to another and j 
back again. Beginning as a Democrat and ending his career 
as a Democrat, he cooperated during the Civil War with the ; 
Republican party because of his pronounced anti-slavery 
views, and was elected a senator from Wisconsin as a Repub- 
lican. After the assassination of Lincoln and the split 
between President Johnson and the Republican party, Mr. 
Doolittle adhered to Johnson and brought down upon 
himself not merely the wrath of the party but the con- 
demnation of the Wisconsin legislature, which by resolution ; 
called upon him, though unavailingly, to resign his senator-t 
ship. 

Mr. Mowry is in possession of letters written to Senator 
Doolittle by men prominent in public life, expressing appre- 
ciation of his pronouncements on public affairs at critical 
times. Copies of three of these letters, of which a brieft; 
description follows, have been sent by Mr. Mowry to us 
with a view to their publication. We deem it sufficient to!; 
take this means of calling the attention of those interested 
to the fact that Mr. Mowry is in possession of the letters 
and that copies may also be found at the State Historical 
Library. 

1. A letter from President Martin B. Anderson of the 
Uniyersity of Rochester, under date of February 12, 1866, 
speaks of Mr. Doolittle's ''triumphantly conclusive speech 



Letter of Senator James R, Doolittle 101 

on the monstrous heresy of state suicide. I can imagine the 
squirming of Sumner while Hstening to you," etc. 

2. A letter from Lieut. Col. A. S. Daggett, dated Fort 
Wadsworth, New York, January 19, 1866, requesting a copy 
of Doolittle's speech delivered in the United States Senate 
on the seventeenth instant, which evidently refers to the 
speech praised also by President Anderson. 

3. A letter from S. W. Thayer, dated Warsaw, New 
York, February 3, 1866, thanking Doolittle for his speech 
and praising it as presenting the "only true theory on which 
our Union can be restored and maintained." 

Students of the character and political career of Senator 
Doolittle will be interested to know that Mr. Mo wry has 
other Doolittle correspondence in addition to the above. 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 

HISTORICAL "FIRSTS," "EXCLUSIVES," AND "INCOMPAR- 

ABLES" 

Prof. Frederick J. Turner once criticized a former 
student in his kindly, helpful, but perfectly frank and 
decisive manner for calling a distinguished pioneer state- 
builder whose career was under discussion a "great man/' 
"Able, and influential, no doubt," said he, "but not great." 

That comment struck home. The young neophyte was 
quite old enough and experienced enough in history to know 
that the title "great" applies properly in the rarest cases 
only. But biographical study is a seductive thing. Its 
essence is the contemplation of a given career isolated from 
other careers. This person had so filled his mind with the 
virtuous deeds and words of his favorite, his delight at the 
evident strength and originality of intellect growing with 
every new manifestation of it encountered in the sources, 
that almost unconsciously he came to express a judgment 
which was not intellectually discriminative and objective, 
but subjective and emotional. To correct that error re- 
quired a distinct effort to see the subject in a perspective 
favorable to the assessment of his merits compared with 
those of other men. 

The reason why biography is such a disappointing branch 
of history is illustrated by the above example. Without in 
the least wishing to exculpate the young scholar, in whom for 
many reasons I might be deeply interested, it is still true, 
as all are aware, that discriminating biographical judg- 
ments are the exception rather than the rule. We are all 
tempted to ascribe to those about whom we possess special 
knowledge a superiority over others about whom we know 
less; and the degree of the assigned superiority has a sus- 
piciously close relation to the degree of fullness of our special 
knowledge. 



''Firsts,'' ''Exclusives,'' and ''Incomparables' 103 



THe same principle applies rather widely in historical 
matters other than the biographical. Examples are par- 
ticularly apt to occur in the domain of local history. We 
were told long ago that "the pole of the earth sticks out 
visibly in the center of every man's town or village." And 
most of us, when we undertake to write about our "town or 
village," assume that the pole sticks up high enough to 
enable the whole world to see the glorious banner we are 
going to fling out from its pinnacle. The local historian, 
like the biographer, tends to become obsessed with the idea 
that his town is ahead of others, and for the same reason — 
the absence of knowledge about others to correct the dis- 
torted outlines of his picture. Just as the cities of ancient 
Greece contended for the honor of being the birthplace of 
Homer, so most modern towns, through their historian 
spokesmen, try to lay claim to some unique distinction, 
something in which they are exclusive, if not exclusive then 
first, and if not first at least incomparable, I do not now 
remember to have read any local history which was wholly 
free from such amiable indulgence in community self- 
gratulation, and frequently the basis of it is most unsub- 
stantial. 

A little more than a year ago, to my profound regret, I 
had the misfortune to wound the feelings of a local land- 
marks committee which was engaged in a most laudable 
work, when I objected to the wording of their proposed 
inscription, on a permanent bronze tablet, which recited 
that "the annals of Indian warfare show no parallel" to the 
battle the marker commemorated. As a matter of cold 
historical fact, the story of that battle, while revealing 
admirably the bravery, hardihood, and fighting morale 
of the few white soldiers engaged, is remarkable chiefly as 
the sole military incident in the annals of an otherwise 
uniformly peaceful neighborhood. One need not mount 
higher in the reading of Indian war history than the struggle 



104 



Editorial Comment 



of the Puritans against the Pequot to find "parallels'* to 
the particular battle to which allusion is here made. Local 
patriotism, however, insisted on the incomparable, and thus 
will it stand doubtless to the amazement of future genera- 
tions. It goes without saying that some of the claims to the 
distinction of having the "first white child" in county, state, 
or region, the first mill, the first pottery, the only this, the 
greatest that, must of necessity be true. The difficulty is 
that, since local writers have a natural desire to distinguish 
their own localities they are tempted to put forward such 
claims indiscriminately, on hearsay evidence, with little or no 
previous investigation. 

That is a tendency I hope to forestall in the cases of con- 
tributors to this magazine (who thus far have afforded us 
very few occasions for particular criticisms) by presenting 
the above considerations. To make a critical examination 
of proffered manuscripts is obviously an editor's duty. For, 
while on the negative side the magazine assumes no respon- 
sibility for statements made by contributors, there is a 
positive moral obligation to be as helpful as possible to 
those who generously devote time and effort to the prepara- 
tion of articles, and it is no kindness to permit a writer 
to commit historical errors in print. If we were all careful 
of our "firsts," one large class of potential errors would 
disappear. 

NORTHERN WISCONSIN— REVELATIONS OF THE FOUR- 
TEENTH CENSUS 

Thirty years ago it was customary for denizens of the 
older Wisconsin to think and speak of northern Wisconsin 
as if it were some foreign and almost alien country, con- 
taining limitless pine and hardwood forests, mill towns, and 
scattering lumber camps. Hardly at all was the region 
thought of as one possessing an established agricultural 
character, or even agricultural possibilities similar to those 



Northern Wisconsin 



105 



of the south. It was known, indeed, that farmers had 
pressed forward to the sound of the steam mill whistle, 
and that some settlements existed to perform a kind of 
service of supply to lumbermen and loggers. But there 
was no general knowledge of the aggregate extent of such 
settlements and little imagination of the development 
destined to take place. 

About that time the practical exhaustion of the first 
quality western prairie lands; the partial depopulation of 
regions once hopefully entered, where the rainfall proved 
inadequate for crops, like western Nebraska and Kansas; 
the sharp decline in the price of wheat and the resulting 
emphasis on the disadvantage of a long rail haul to market; 
all these factors generated in men a new vision of the farming 
possibilities in areas like northern Wisconsin, which had 
once been looked upon as hopeless, or as destined to remain 
unoccupied for indefinite periods of time. 

Since pine lumbering was already in the **clean-up" 
stage, millions of acres of fertile cut-over lands were to be 
had for a song. Hardwood lumbering was extending as 
rail facilities opened area after area to profitable exploita- 
tion, so that settlers could often pay for clearing their land 
out of the sale price of the hardwood timber it yielded. 
Besides, there were hundreds of square miles of **double 
burned" lands which were all but ready for the plow. 

It is hardly surprising, therefore, that a new pioneering 
movement should have occurred, within our own state, 
which now turns out to have been quite as significant as 
some of those vast migrations from Wisconsin and else- 
where to the western prairies, like the rush into the Dakotas, 
with which older Wisconsin people are so familiar. Yor 
the census shows that the New North — the twenty-nine 
counties including Ashland, Barron, Bayfield, Burnett, 
Chippewa, Clark, Douglas, Dunn, Eau Claire, Florence, 
Forest, Iron, Jackson, Langlade, Lincoln, Marathon, Mari- 



106 



Editorial Comment 



nette, Oconto, Oneida, Polk, Portage, Price, Rusk, Sawyer, 
Shawano, Taylor, Vilas, Washburn, and Wood — contained 
in 1920 more people than either one of the Dakotas, more 
than any of the Rocky Mountain States save Colorado, and 
nearly as many as Oregon despite her large seaport city. 
The aggregate, 703,000, is more than one-third as large 
as that of the balance of the state (forty-two counties), 
notwithstanding the presence of Milwaukee and of the other 
large cities in the south. 

If we compare what the census calls the **rural popula- 
tion" in the north with that in the south, we find it already 
more than one-half as great. But the south's rural popula- 
tion practically stopped growing twenty years ago, while 
the north in twenty years gained 141,000 and is advancing 
apace. According to the census, one of the northern coun- 
ties, Marathon, has a larger rural population than any other 
county of the seventy-one in the state, Dane standing 
second in the list. Little did our fathers dream that such a 
result would follow the destruction of the '^pineries." 



THE SOCIETY AND THE STATE 

During the three months' period ending July 10, 1922, there were 
nine additions to the membership roll of the State Historical Society. 
One of these enrolled as a life member, Albert O. Trostel of Milwaukee. 

Eight persons became annual members, as follows: Frank K. 
Bissell, Marshfield; Ernest Bruncken, Milwaukee; Robert Dessureau, 
Antigo; Dr. Alexander Dienst, Temple, Tex.; Manly J. Hemmens, 
Columbus, O.; Norman A. Knudson, Manitowoc; Richard B. Thiel, 
Algoma; Leonard A. Waehler, Lomira. 

With this number this magazine enters upon the sixth year of its 
publication; it is believed it has succeeded in its object of drawing the 
Society's members more closely together and of keeping them informed 
of the various historical activities of the state, as well as of furnishing 
a medium for the publication of articles of value and interest to the 
people of Wisconsin. With this number also there begins a change in the 
editorship of the magazine. Dr. Milo M. Quaife, who was its originator 
and has had constant supervision of its interests, first as superintendent 
of the Society, then as editor of its publications, severed his connection 
with the Society the first of May. The success of the magazine has been 
due, in large part, to his unflagging zeal and broad ideals. The editorial 
chair will henceforth be occupied by the Society's superintendent, 
aided by the research associates and other members of the staff. It is 
planned to devote a portion of each number to some particular locality 
in the state; this number features the early days of Platteville. 

Since the beginning of the year 1922 three of the Society's curators 
have died, of whom Judge Siebecker and the Hon. John Luchsinger were 
on the roll of the vice-presidents. The following brief sketches of their 
careers are presented in place of more extended biographies or obituaries. 

Chief Justice Robert George Siebecker died at his home in Madison 
on the eleventh of February, 1922, aged sixty-seven years, three months, 
and twenty-five days. Judge Siebecker was a native of the town of 
Sumter, Sauk County, where his parents, who were immigrants from 
Germany, had settled three years before his birth, which occurred 
October 17, 1854. At eighteen he entered a private academy in Madison 
and afterwards completed a course in the University of Wisconsin before 
matriculating in the law school, from which he was graduated in 1880. 
He rose by successive steps from a trusted position as practising attorney 
(partner of Robert M. La Follette) to city attorney of Madison, to the 
judgeship of the ninth judicial circuit, and to the supreme bench, where 
his long, honorable, and distinguished service won for him the universal 
esteem of bench and bar throughout America. The career of Justice 
Siebecker had in it elements of great value to industrious and aspiring 
young men. It is to be hoped that an adequate biography of this 
honored jurist may some day be published for the benefit of Wiscoiisin 



108 



The Society and the State 



youth. He had been for many years a member of the Historical Society; 
he attended its meetings, participated in its councils, and as curator in 
recent years helped to shape its policies. The loss to the commonwealth 
in the untimely passing of such a man is a cause of poignant regret. 

Hon. John Luchsinger passed away at his home in Monroe April 
23, 1922, aged eighty-two years, nine months, and twenty-four days. 
Mr. Luchsinger migrated with his parents from Canton Glarus, Switzer- 
land, at the age of seven and after spending ten years in Philadelphia, 
where he enjoyed the advantages of the Jefferson School, removed 
with his parents to New Glarus, Green County, Wisconsin, settling 
among the Swiss colony from the old home. Mr. Luchsinger became a 
leader in that colony, in the county, and in the state. He was farmer, 
legislator, lawyer, judge, and banker, as well as always a kind neighbor, 
a generous friend, and a wise counsellor both to his Swiss countrymen 
and to all others. He was deeply interested in the work of the His- 
torical Society, writing for its Collections an authentic history of the 
Swiss colony of New Glarus, also a history of the cheese industry as 
carried on in New Glarus. Both papers have been widely distributed. 
No service which he was able to render the Society was ever withheld, 
and only a few weeks prior to his death he brought to the library docu- 
mentary material needed in connection with our publications. In 
his removal the Society loses a dependable curator and officer, his 
community a chief benefactor, and the state an exemplar of the noblest 
citizenship. 

June sixth last. Col. Jerome A. Watrous, curator of this Society 
since 1918, died at his Milwaukee home. Although born in New 
York State in 1840, Colonel Watrous was essentially a Wisconsin man, 
coming here in 1844 with his pioneering father and growing up in 
Calumet County. He was educated at Lawrence College and con- 
tinued his education in the printer's trade and the editorial chair, 
serving on the Appleton Crescent during college days, and after the 
Civil War on the Jackson County Banner^ the Fond du Lac Common- 
wealth, and the Milwaukee Sunday Telegraph. Young Watrous respond- 
ed in 1861 to the call to arms; enlisting as a private in the Sixth Wiscon- 
sin, he obtained by his merits a commission and at the close of the war 
was brevetted captain for gallant conduct. During his editorial career 
he kept in close touch with the militia, serving on the staffs of Governor 
Fairchild and Governor Rusk. Promptly on the opening of the Spanish 
War he volunteered, was made paymaster and lieutenant colonel in 
the regular army. Thence he retired in 1904, after service in the West 
Indies and the Philippines. He was an active member of the Grand 
Army of the Republic and the Military Order of the Loyal Legion, serv- 
ing for both as commander of the Wisconsin department. In 1885 he 
was state pension agent and in 1889 collector of customs at Milwaukee. 
In May, 1919, he was appointed commandant of the Wisconsin Veterans* 
Home, resigning in October, 1920. Although his term as curator of our 
Society was brief, he evinced much interest in our work and furnished 
freely his reminiscences of early days in Wisconsin. 



The Alfred Kittredge Hamilton Papers 



109 



The centenary of the birth of General Grant has revived many 
memories of his visits to Wisconsin. The southwestern part of the state 
recalls his frequent itineraries therein during his undistinguished pre- 
Civil War days in Galena. Grant came to Milwaukee in 1880 in the 
full flower of his prestige as general, president, and world traveler, to 
attend a reunion of Wisconsin's Civil War veterans. His escort was 
Milwaukee's Light Horse Squadron, first organized for this occasion. 
Grant was a guest at the home of a grandson of Alexander Hamilton, 
Charles H. Hamilton, who had been the General's classmate at West 
Point and had served with him in his campaigns on the Mississippi. 

The Society was recently honored by a visit from Mrs. Lucy 
Preston Beale of Virginia, the great-granddaughter of Col. William 
Preston, whose papers constitute a portion of the Draper Manuscripts 
and who was himself an outstanding figure in the Western Movement. 
Colonel Preston came to America as a boy with his uncle Col. James 
Patton, who was in 1755, when on a journey examining western lands, 
murdered by Indians. Mrs. Beale had family recollections of this 
outstanding event in border history, which she related for the Society's 
benefit and which add to the vividness of this bit of frontier life. She 
also gave an interesting account of how Smithfield, the ancestral home of 
the Prestons, acquired its name through the bravery of its first mis- 
tress, Mrs. William Preston, nee Susannah Smith. Among a host of his- 
torical stories we also chose to record from Mrs. Beale's description a 
vivid incident of the presidential campaign of 1848, in which her father. 
Gov. James Patton Preston, had a prominent part. Mrs. Beale ex- 
pressed herself as greatly pleased at the interest taken by Wisconsin 
in the Preston papers, and her belief that but for our Society's careful 
preservation these papers would now be irretrievably lost. 

THE ALFRED KITTREDGE HAMILTON PAPERS 

Alfred K. Hamilton was one of Wisconsin's progressive business 
men, who began his career in our state during the Civil War and died 
at the close of the World War. He was born October 31, 1840, at 
Lynn, New Hampshire, entered Dartmouth College in 1859, and two 
years later became a West Point cadet, where after two years' study 
he ranked second in his class. For his standing at West Point he 
was granted his degree at Dartmouth with the class of 1863. An unfor- 
tunate accident at artillery drill cut short his military career, when 
young Hamilton, having already had experience in a sawmill in his 
native place, emigrated to Wisconsin and engaged in the lumber business 
at Fond du Lac. At first the firm name was Hamilton and Finley; 
later the senior partner operated alone, doing business on the Wolf 
River and around Winnebago Lake. In 1883 Mr. Hamilton removed 
to Milwaukee, where he had large business interests; he managed the 
Milwaukee Harvester Company and developed a lime and stone 
business at a place in Fond du Lac County to which was given his name. 
Mr. Hamilton was president of the Webster City and Southwestern 
Railway Company, director in many enterprises, and trustee from 



110 



The Society and the State 



1899 to 1918 of the Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company. 
He died December 20, 1918, in California. His daughter Mrs. Charles 
J. Mcintosh of Milwaukee has presented his papers to our Society 
under the auspices of the National Society of Colonial Dames of America 
in the State of Wisconsin, of which she is state president. 

The collection is not large, but it illustrates the methods of con- 
ducting the lumber business, with contracts for logs, scaling of rafts, 
inventories of lumber camps, price schedules, and so forth. Among 
these papers there are also a number of interesting letters from Gen. 
E. S. Bragg, Col. William F. Vilas, Sen. John L. Mitchell, and others 
prominent in the political field. 

THE DIEDERICHS DIARY 

Hon. Emil Baensch of Manitowoc has translated for our Society 
the contents of a small printed book of fifty-eight pages published in 
1848 at Barmen. It contains the letters and journal of Johann F. 
Diederichs, who emigrated in 1847 from Elberfeld to America, and 
bought land near Manitowoc Rapids. The account is a vivid picture 
of the experiences of a German forty-four years old, who came with 
wife and four children to found a home in Wisconsin. Especially inter- 
esting are his descriptions of the life of the first year on the new farm, 
the building of the log house, the clearing of the land, the obtaining of 
stock. We hope in the future to publish portions of this translation. 

THE SCHLAICH PAPERS 

Capt. Julius Schlaich was born at Grossheppach, Wurtemberg, 
September 13, 1830; at the age of twenty-one he emigrated to Wisconsin 
and settled at Plymouth, where he became a prominent member of the 
community and in 1861 was appointed postmaster. He soon resigned, 
however, to recruit for Company B, Twenty-seventh Wisconsin Infan- 
try, of which in September, 1862, he was commissioned second lieuten- 
ant. . Eighteen months later Lieutenant Schlaich became captain of his 
company, and in November, 1864, was brevetted major for "meritorious 
service." After the Civil War Captain Schlaich resided in New York 
City until 1870, when he returned to Plymouth and there died March 
11, 1919. His widow, Mrs. Augusta Schlaich, has on the instance of 
Curator Lacher presented to the Society a few papers; while former 
Mayor Charles Pfeiffer has donated the minute book for 1898 of the 
Plymouth Farmer und Gewerbe Verein, of which Captain Schlaich was 
a prominent member. A sketch of his career prepared by Mr. Lacher 
accompanies these gifts. 

CHICAGO RELIC SOUGHT IN WISCONSIN 

Chicago's first fire-fighting machine was bought in 1835 from Gur- 
don S. Hubbard, pioneer fur trader and early citizen of that place. 
The volunteer company by which it was operated called it "Fire King 
No. 1." It is a small affair mounted on wheels and equipped with two 



Friends of Our Native Landscape 



111 



brass single-action pumps. After doing valiant service for twenty-five 
years in the Windy City the still effective "Fire King" was sold in 1860 
to the city of Stevens Point, where again it was actively employed 
in fire fighting for another quarter of a century. At its superannuation 
it was sold to a private party who used it for drainage work and finally 
stored the old veteran in a shed at Bancroft. There it was recently 
foimd by an agent of the Chicago Historical Society, who purchased 
the historic relic and had it transferred to its earliest home and installed 
in state in the historical society's rooms. 

FRIENDS OF OUR NATIVE LANDSCAPE 

The Illinois society of this name was organized in 1913 by Mr. 
Jens Jensen, landscape architect of Chicago. In 1920 the Wisconsin 
chapter came into being and in June of that year the first joint meeting 
was held at Devils Lake Park. The next June the Illinois association 
entertained at the canyons of Apple River, on the boundary of the 
two states. This year the joint meeting was held June 3 and 4 at Holy 
Hill, in Washington County, Wisconsin. About eighty Illinoisians were 
present; the numbers from Wisconsin have not been estimated but large 
delegations came from Milwaukee and Madison, including several of the 
professors in the College of Agriculture and the other departments of 
the State University. Members were also present from Fort Atkinson, 
Oshkosh, Baraboo, Fond du Lac, and other places. The society is 
devoted to the preservation and enjoyment of the beauties of nature 
and to the instruction of the public in the scientific, archeological, and 
historical features of our local environment. It aims to have an influence 
on the acquisition of state and local parks, upon the increasing delight in 
the life of the out-of-doors. The last meeting was especially enjoyable 
and developed a spirit of comradeship and appreciation that augurs well 
for the future of the society. John S. Donald was reelected president of 
the Wisconsin society, and Prof. F. A. Aust secretary. 

LAKE GENEVA PAGEANT 

An elaborate pageant of Wisconsin and local history was presented 
on the lovely shores of Lake Geneva May 29, and may in itself be 
considered an historic event. Historical education was afi^orded to the 
large number of participants, and the whole community was imbued 
with a sentiment of affection and reverence for the past. The author was 
Rev. Irwin St, John Tucker of Chicago, who four years ago collaborated 
in the centennial pageants of the Illinois celebration. It was somewhat 
unfortunate that the exploded theory of Mound Builders as a separate 
race from the Indians was presented. The Indian scenes, especially 
the wedding feast and the dances, were particularly successful. Realistic 
were the Indian treaty and the struggle for land by conflicting claiTnants. 
A daughter of one of these claimants was in the audience. Wisoonsin's 
admission to the union was dramatically rendered by the personifica- 
tion of the states and their warm welcome to the new sister. Lake 
Geneva will hereafter be alert to the significance and interest of Iut 
history. 



112 



The Society and the State 



CHURCH ANNIVERSARIES 

Seventy-five years ago last twenty-sixth of April, the Evangelical 
Lutheran Synod of Missouri was organized at Chicago for the entire 
Northwest. The diamond jubilee of this founding was celebrated 
widely throughout Wisconsin, where many affiliated churches of this 
synod now exist. Beginning in 1847 with twelve churches, it now 
numbers 4,300 pulpits, foreign missions of large proportions, and is one 
of the largest synodical bodies in America. President Harding sent 
congratulations to the officials, which were read at the several cele- 
brations. 

During the first week of June the seventy-fifth anniversary of 
the organization of St. John's Episcopal Church on the south side 
of Milwaukee was observed; the church building, now seventy years 
of age, was consecrated by Bishop Kemper. 

Sunday, June 12, the St. Paul's Lutheran Church of Millersville, 
Sheboygan County, celebrated the sixtieth anniversary of its founding, 
with appropriate exercises. One of its founders, Johannes Dengel, 
is still living in the vicinity and was present at the services. 

Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church of Milwaukee held a three- 
days' celebration of its sixtieth birthday last May. This church has 
occupied three buildings, its present one being at Fourth and Lee 
streets. 

Oregon Methodist Episcopal Church was built by the grandfather 
of Dr. Philip Fox of that place, who was the first circuit rider in this 
vicinity. The church building, begun in 1861, was completed the 
next May. Last May the sixtieth anniversary of its dedication was 
celebrated by local members and Madison friends. 

A jubilee observance on June 6 for St. John's Catholic Church near 
Hilbert brought out a notable assemblage of clergy, among them 
Rt. Rev. P. P. Rhode, bishop of Green Bay. 

In March the Shawano Presbyterian Church held an historical 
review of the fifty years' existence of the organization. Dr. Ganfield 
of Carroll College was the chief speaker. 

THE DRAMA OF RED BIRD 

The Curtain Club, sponsored by the University faculty, presented 
at Madison, April 27, an historical play written by William EUery 
Leonard, one of their number. Professor Leonard, who is a student of 
Indian lore, has already written and published Glory of the Morning, 
one of the best and most typical pieces of literature having the North 
American Indian for a theme. He had for some years been considering 
the tragedy of the Winnebago chief Red Bird, whose surrender to the 
army officers in 1827 has been called the most dramatic event in Wiscon- 
sin history. Using this event as a basis. Professor Leonard has pro- 
duced a powerful drama, whose central theme is the conflicting ethical 
ideals of the two races red and white, and the inevitable tragedy that 
such diversity implies. Red Bird, the hero of the play, having heard that 
the whites had murdered one of his own tribe, felt morally bound to 



Museum Notes 



113 



avenge that death by the double massacre of two innocent white 
persons; then when American soldiers advanced against his tribe and 
threatened it with annihilation, he was impelled by his conscience to 
offer his own life in atonement for the salvation of his people. In prison 
he learns that his sacrifice has all been vain, that his supposedly mur- 
dered comrade still lives; he dies just as the president's pardon arrives 
to set him free. 

The presentation of the character of Red Bird as conceived by 
Professor Leonard affords almost unlimited scope to any actor; the 
student who played the part acted it with conscientiousness and dignity. 
The lesser parts were finely conceived and the entire drama was pre- 
sented with an earnestness that its quality warranted. The scenery 
was especially prepared for the occasion by the University department 
of manual arts, and showed typical Wisconsin landscapes at the Dells, 
Devils Lake, and Prairie du Chien. The audience recognized both 
the literary quality of the drama and its historic significance, represent- 
ing an outstanding event in our pre-territorial history, as well as the 
innate nobility of our Indian predecessors. 

COLLEGE CELEBRATIONS 

Beloit and Lawrence colleges both celebrated in June their diamond 
jubilees, or the seventy-fifth anniversaries of their founding. Thus 
two of the best known of our Wisconsin colleges were begun a year 
before the admission of the state to the union. Throughout all the 
state's history, therefore, these two institutions of higher education, 
one in the southern and the other in the northeastern portion of Wiscon- 
sin, have been quietly but powerfully at work developing the finer 
manhood and womanhood of our commonwealth. The celebrations were 
reminiscent and historical in character, and brought back to Beloit and 
Appleton large bodies of loyal alumni. Pageantry was employed at 
both colleges to vivify the historical scenes of the institutions' begin- 
nings; while historical addresses and personal reminiscences recalled 
early days. In subsequent numbers of this magazine, articles will 
appear on the origins of these two colleges and their place in Wisconsin 
educational history. 

MUSEUM NOTES 

The curator of the State Historical Museum, Mr. Charles E. Bro\\Ti, 
is at all times glad to receive gifts of Indian stone, clay, bone, horn, 
shell, and metal implements, ornaments and ceremonial objects from 
original finders and collectors in every part of the state. 

The work of preserving and marking Indian mound groups and 
other aboriginal landmarks and sites is progressing very favorably 
under the direction of the Indian Landmarks Committee of the State 
Historical Society, of which Mr. David Atwood is chairman. An addi- 
tional impetus was given to this movement when a suggestion was 
made by the secretary of the Wisconsin Archeological Society that tlie 



114 



The Society and the State 



Fraternal Order of Eagles should undertake the care and marking of the 
eflSgy mounds of eagles and thunderbirds, scattered so widely over the 
state. This suggestion was received with enthusiasm at the order's 
annual state convention at Madison, June 5-8. It is hoped that under 
the auspices of this organization many such mounds may be conserved. 

Beloit College has purchased for the Logan Museum the extensive 
archeological collection of Mr. Theodore Kumlien of Fort Atkinson. 
This collection consists chiefly of Indian stone and metal implements 
collected by its former owner in the Lake Koshkonong region. 

The University of Wisconsin, through the State Historical Museum, 
has published for distribution to those teachers attending the summer 
session who are interested in American folklore, a leaflet of Paul Bunyan 
tales. Paul is the mythical hero of the lumberjacks, and tales of his 
great strength and wonderful exploits are told in the lumber camps from 
Maine to Wisconsin and westward to Washington and California. 

A report on the Indian history and antiquities of Beaver Dam 
Lake, recently issued by the Wisconsin Archeological Society, shows 
the total number of Indian mounds formerly located about Beaver 
Dam to have been about fifty. Of thirty-two of these mounds, whose 
exact character is known, twenty-one were conical or round mounds, 
eight were eflSgy or animal-shaped mounds, and three were linear or wall- 
shaped earthworks. Of the effigies five were of the common panther 
(water spirit) type, two represented the turtle, and one was an unidenti- 
fied quadruped. Beaver Dam is one of the localities in the state which 
up to the present date has failed to preserve for the public any of its 
notable Indian earthworks. Many have been destroyed, some of them 
needlessly. It is hoped that some local organization or the city itself 
will, before it shall be too late, undertake to preserve some of the few 
priceless prehistoric Indian monuments which remain. 

Jefferson County, through its county board and rural planning 
committee, has purchased and placed in the care of the Wisconsin 
Archeological Society a tract of land at Aztalan, near Lake Mills, con- 
taining a group of nine large ceremonial and mortuary Indian mounds. 
This land is to be maintained by the state society as a free public park. 
Various improvements for the park are now being planned by a com- 
mittee of the society consisting of Mr. Robert P. Ferry, Lake Mills; 
Dr. S. A. Barrett, Milwaukee; Mrs. H. A. Main, Fort Atkinson; and 
Messrs. David Atwood, John G. D. Mack, and Charles E. Brown, 
Madison. The earliest report of the site of this stockaded prehistoric 
village was published by N. F. Hyer in the Milwaukee Advertiser in 
1837. A movement to secure the permanent preservation of the en- 
closure was conducted by the State Historical Society and the Wisconsin 
Archeological Society in 1919, through a joint committee of which 
the late Publius V. Lawson of Menasha was the chairman. A part of the 
money for the purchase of the row of mounds was contributed by the 



Museum Notes 



115 



school children of Jefferson County. Funds for the acquirement of the 
remainder of the site including the enclosure are now being raised by 
the Wisconsin chapters of the Daughters of the American Revolution, 
a campaign in which the Wisconsin Federation of Women*s Clubs will 
also participate. 

The Winnebago County Archeological and Historical Society held 
its annual pilgrimage at historic Black Wolf Point on the shore of 
Lake Winnebago, on the afternoon of Jime 24. 

This was the site of an early Indian village, and a portion of the 
afternoon was spent in searching for and examining evidences of its 
former occupation. A large Indian boulder corn-mill having several 
depressions on its surface was of special interest. Mr. Halvor L. 
Skavlem of Janes ville was the speaker of the occasion. He gave an 
interesting talk on the Indian antiquities of Lake Koshkonong, which 
he illustrated with a chart of numerous drawings. Basket lunches were 
partaken of and coffee made on the grounds was served to all present. 
The weather was perfect and the attendance was good, forty-one 
members being present. 

The Wisconsin Archeological Society held its last regular indoor 
meeting at Milwaukee on May 15, and will not resume these meetings 
until the third Monday in October. Some of its members are now 
conducting archeological surveys and explorations in a number of 
Wisconsin counties. Mr. H. E. Cole has completed a surface survey 
of the Indian earthworks and other remains in the western half of 
Sauk County. Mr. Towne L. Miller is conducting researches in the 
Grand River region and elsewhere in the southern part of Green Lake 
County, and Rev. F. S. Dayton in Waupaca County. Dr. A. Gerend 
has been assisting in Jackson, Rev. J. H. McManus in Richland, and 
others in other counties. Mr. C. E. Brown recently spent several 
days in research work about Forest, Moose, Garvin, Grass, and other 
of the smaller lakes in Waukesha County. The society has published 
reports on the Indian landmarks about Fox Lake, in Dodge County, 
and about Beaver Dam Lake. A report on the **Stoneworks and 
Garden Beds in Winnebago County," by George R. Fox, is in press. 

The Central Section of the American Anthropological Association 
was organized at a meeting held in the Field Museum of Natural History, 
Chicago, on April 21, archeologists and ethnologists from eight Middle 
West states being in attendance. Dr. S. A. Barrett of Milwaukee 
was elected president of the section; Charles E. Brown, Madison, and 
Dr. W. C. Mills, Columbus, vice-presidents; and Mr. Ralph Linton, 
Chicago, secretary-treasurer. Dr. Berthold Laufer, Dr. Frederick Starr, 
George R. Fox, Prof. Louis B. Wolfenson, and Alanson Skinner were 
chosen as members of the board of directors. During the meeting 
visits were made to the Chicago Historical Society and the Chicago 
Academy of Sciences Museum. 



116 



The Society and the State 



OUR CONTRIBUTORS 

Gen. Charles King ("Memories of a Busy Life'*) resides in Mil- 
waukee. He is a well-known writer as well as a distinguished soldier 
and officer. 

Hon. D. J. Gardner ("Incidents in the Early History of the Wis- 
consin Lead Mines") is one of the best known attorneys of Grant 
County, a pioneer resident of Platteville, and a careful student of local 
history. 

Rev. Truman O. Douglass ("Platteville in Its First Quarter Cen- 
tury") was for half a century a leading pastor and officer of the Congre- 
gational Church in Iowa and an historian of that church. He now 
lives in retirement at Claremont, California. 

Maria Greene Douglass ("Personal Recollections of Platteville") 
is the wife of Truman O. Douglass. 

Mrs. Angie Kumlien Main lives on the Alfahill Farm, near Fort 
Atkinson. She is a granddaughter of the pioneer naturalist Thure 
Kumlien and is a frequent contributor to farm journals. 



COMMUNICATIONS 

A CORRECTION 

I made an odd error in telling of Governor Rusk at the funeral 
of General Grant, published in the latest journal of the Historical 
Society.^ 

The funeral of General Grant took place in the late summer 
of 1885, the Milwaukee riots occurred in the late spring of 1886; 
yet in speaking of our big Governor I said that he was then in 
the heyday of his fame, etc. because of the stand he took in 
suppressing those riots. Having been at his side and on his staff 
on both occasions, I was thinking last winter, when dictating that 
chapter, of the attentions shown our Governor and the greetings 
of the people in the streets — and, long years later, by one of 
those tricks that memory plays, ascribed it to the incident of 
the Milwaukee riots, which made him famous. 

It must have been his leonine physique, or, possibly, his 
phrase "Those men need bread, not bayonets," used on another 
occasion. At all events he "took" with the crowds even the 
year before he became a national figure. 

Charles King, Milwaukee 

^ Wisconsin Magazine of History, June, 1922, 



THE QUESTION BOX 



LETTER OF GEORGE WASHINGTON 

There has recently come into my possession an autograph letter 
of George Washington directed to Colonel Seeley at or near Tappan 
or Tappas, state not mentioned but presumably New York, dated 
Kings Ferry, August 21st, 1781. 

I am writing to ask if it would be consistent with your responsi- 
bilities to tell me something about the location of Kings Ferry, which 
I assume to be just north of New York City; also of the location of 
Tappan, and if there is available any historical mention of the Colonel 
Seeley referred to in the letter, or Colonel Dayton, and possibly some- 
thing of the military history in which they participated about August 
21, 1781. George H. Milne, Kenosha 

You have in this letter of Washington an interesting souvenir 
of the last campaign of the Revolutionary War. In May, 1781, 
Washington had a conference at Wether sfield, Connecticut, with 
the Count de Rochambeau, in command of the French army then 
at Newport, Rhode Island. As a result of that conference 
Rochambeau left Newport June 9 and by early July was on the 
Hudson, where Washington July 3 attacked without success 
the British in New York. The combined armies then retired 
up the Hudson, where Washington made headquarters at Dobbs 
Ferry and Rochambeau at Peekskill. It was the fourteenth 
of August when Washington received word that the Count de 
Grasse was sailing with a large fleet from the West Indies and 
would land his troops on Chesapeake Bay. The commander-in- 
chief immediately determined to transfer his own army to Vir- 
ginia, where he successfully captured Cornwallis three months 
later. It was necessary to march with as much secrecy as possible 
in order not to give Clinton in New York word of Washington's 
plan and destination. He therefore made a feint towards Sandy 
Hook in order to deceive the British. Washington himself took 
station at Kings Ferry, now Verplanck Point on the Hudson, 
where the army, both American and French, crossed. 

Both Colonel Seeley and Colonel Dayton were officers com- 
manding New Jersey militia stationed on the west side of the 
Hudson southwest of Kings Ferry. The village of Tappan, where 



The East Shore of Lake Michigan 



119 



Seeley probably was, is just on the boundary between New York 
and New Jersey. It lay on a principal highway, and had long 
been used as a camping ground. In 1778 Washington had 
headquarters at Tappan; he came there again in 1780 upon a 
very sad errand, when a court of inquiry met to determine the 
guilt of Major John Andre. There October 2, 1780, he was 
executed as a spy. Colonel Seeley was evidently in charge of the 
road leading from Dobbs Ferry to Tappan, since among the 
Washington letters in the Library of Congress is a draft of one 
dated the same day as yours, addressed to Col. Sylvanus Seeley at 
Dobbs Ferry. By York Island there can be no doubt Man- 
hattan Island is indicated. 

We have been unable to find anything personal about Colonel 
Seeley. He was a captain in 1776 of the New Jersey militia; pro- 
moted to a majority May 23, 1777 ; to a colonelcy in November of 
the same year. He was apparently never on the Continental 
establishment, but was a brave and trusted militia officer. As for 
Colonel Dayton, it is not easy to determine whether the one 
mentioned was Col. Elias Dayton or his more famous son Jona- 
than. The former commanded New Jersey regiments throughout 
the war, and at its close was made brigadier general. Jonathan 
Dayton was at the surrender at Yorktown; he may have been 
with Lafayette in Virginia before Washington marched south. 
He was one of the New Jersey representatives in the constitutional 
convention of 1787; in Congress from New Jersey, 1791-1799, 
part of the time as speaker; senator from New Jersey, 1799 to 
1805. 

THE EAST SHORE OF LAKE MICHIGAN 

Is there any special book or books or records of any kind dealing with 
the history of the east shore of Lake Michigan? Were there any early 
explorers aside from Marquette who coasted up this shore? La Salle 
went only to the mouth of the St. Joseph, I believe. Do you know 
any reason why the Muskegon River should appear on Franquelin's 
map of 1684 as "Riviere des Iroquois?" 

Kenneth G. Smith, Lansing, Mich. 

In answer to your queries we know of no book that deals 
particularly with the east shore of Lake Michigan. It was a route 
not as much followed as the west shore; at first probably for fear 



120 



The Question Box 



of the Iroquois, later because of currents and the availabihty of 
winds. Marquette's is the first recorded voyage, although we 
are of opinion that Jolliet in the autumn of 1673 and spring of 
1674 did some exploring in that region. This cannot be proved; 
it is merely inferred from his maps. The next recorded voyage 
is that of Tonti, when he came to join La Salle in 1679 at the 
mouth of the St. Joseph. You will find his account in Kellogg, 
Early Narratives, 288-289, very brief indeed! No other voyage 
on this shore during the seventeenth century seems to have been 
made for fear of the Iroquois, who were from 1680 to 1701 on 
the warpath against the western tribes. That also answers your 
second question, concerning the name. There are several place 
names in the West taken from Iroquois battles; Iroquois Point 
just beyond the Sault St. Marie as one enters Lake Superior, 
named for a battle in 1653; Iroquois River in Illinois, tributary to 
the Kankakee, named for some ambuscade or raid of the Iroquois 
from New York. We do not know what events gave Franquelin 
the name Iroquois River; there were many raids in the years 
between 1680 and 1684, so that it is not diflScult to account for 
the name. You can find secondary accounts both in Parkman's 
La Salle, and in his Frontenac. 

One of the earliest descriptions of a voyage on the east 
coast of Lake Michigan is that of Father Pierre Francois Xavier 
Charlevoix on his voyage of exploration in 1721. He mentions 
the Pere Marquette, the St. Nicholas, the Black rivers, and 
describes the shore. It is difficult to find this account in English; 
there has been no complete English edition since the translations 
of 1761 and 1763. 

EARLY HISTORY OF ALGOMA 

Please send me what material you have on the history of the city 
of Algoma in Kewaunee County. 

Frank R. Snyder, Casco 

Algoma was known until 1897 as Ahnapee, an Indian word 
which meant when, or when it happened. There was an Algoma 
just above Oshkosh, which was later incorporated into that city. 
It is a generic name for the Algonquian people. There are 
Algomas in Michigan, in Canada, and perhaps in other places. 



Whitney's Mills 



Ahnapee was settled first from Manitowoc; one Joseph 
McCormick is said to have explored the region as early as 1834, but 
the first settlers came in 1851. Edward Tweedale was an English- 
man who built the first house on this site in 1851; there his son 
William A. was born in September, the first native of Ahnapee. 
By Christmas there were three families present, who celebrated 
the day with a huge salt-pork pie. A sailing vessel called the 
Citizen plied between this port and Manitowoc. In 1852 came 
Abraham Hall and two years later his brother Simon Hall, who 
built the first mill and opened in 1855 the first store. By 1856 
the steamboat Cleveland began landings at this port and settlers 
came in very fast. By 1860 there were 718 in what is now 
Ahnapee Township, and in 1870 this number had increased 
to 1544. In 1871 terrible fires spread through this region; 
nevertheless it quickly recovered and in 1873 the village was 
incorporated. Harbor improvements began in 1876, and by 1880 
$100,000 had been expended. The place became a city in 1879; 
its first mayor was Samuel Perry. There were five churches here 
at this time. The settlers were of many nationalities: English, 
Bohemians, Germans, Irish, Dutch, Danes, and Belgians, as 
well as Americans. By 1880 the city had a population of 978, 
increased to 1015 in 1890. It touched 2082 in 1910, and in 
1920 had 1911 inhabitants. The first newspaper was established 
in 1873, called the Ahnapee Record. The first railway, the 
Ahnapee and Western, came in about 1892, and by 1894 was 
extended to Sturgeon Bay. 

This community is still so young that many of the first 
settlers must be yet living. It would be well to gather remem- 
brances of early days. 

Whitney's mills 

I am trying to locate an old town in Wisconsin, which evidently 
has been absorbed by some other community, for it does not appear 
in any index or atlas I have consulted. During 1857 it was called Whit- 
ney Mills and was in the vicinity of the Wisconsin River near Dodge- 
ville. 

It is the birthplace of an old lady who is now eighty-five years of 
age. Her maiden name was Emmeline Henshaw Whitney and her 
faniily held large tracts of land; hence, the family name was used to 
designate their holdings. 



122 



The Question Box 



Her relatives are anxious to drive to her old home this summer 
and take pictures of the beautiful country which she left in 1857 to 
journey west to California. 

Adele H. Maze, Oak Parky III. 

The Whitneys were among the first Americans in Wisconsin. 
Daniel Whitney, who came from New Hampshire to Green Bay 
in 1819, was one of the most enterprising men of pre-territorial 
times. Between 1825 and 1830 he built a shot, tower on the lower 
Wisconsin, in what is now known as Tower Hill Assembly 
Grounds, a tract of land lately owned "by Jenkin Lloyd Jones, 
whose widow has given it to the state for a park. This very inter- 
esting relic of early Wisconsin is most easily reached from Spring 
Green, on the opposite side of the river. We think that the 
lady whom you mention was the daughter of Daniel Whitney's 
nephew, David B. Whitney, born in 1804 in New Hampshire. 
He came to Wisconsin to go into partnership with his uncle, and 
died at Helena, August 29, 1838. You will find mention of him 
in Wis. Hist. Colls, xiii, 349, note. It is stated there that he was 
a cousin of Daniel Whitney; the Whitney genealogy shows that 
he was a nephew, son of his brother Samuel, and that he married 
Maria Wright, who married again after his death and went to 
California. Whitney's Mills, however, was some distance from 
Helena and the shot tower. You will see on page 345 of Wis. 
Hist. Colls, xiii, that an English visitor in 1835 found David 
Whitney at Helena; but when John Wilson came late that same 
year to be manager of the shot tower, David Whitney had 
removed his wife and family to Whitney's Mills on the upper 
Wisconsin, where Daniel Whitney of Green Bay had secured in 
1830 a mill privilege in what was then Indian territory. He 
built there in 1831-32 a sawmill, one of the first if not the very 
first on the Wisconsin River. This place was called Whitney's 
Mills, and is described as seventy miles above Portage, just 
below Point Bas. Point Bas is in Saratoga Township of Wood 
County, about six miles below Grand Rapids or, as the city is 
now called, Wisconsin Rapids. An old map of Wisconsin in 
1839 shows "Whitney's Mill" on the east side of the river not 
far above the present dividing line between Wood and Adams 
counties. It may have been opposite the present Nekoosa or 



Beginnings in Price County 



I just below that place. Probably old settlers would know what 
[portion of the river went by the name of Whitney's Rapids. 

BEGINNINGS IN PRICE COUNTY 

Our class would like to obtain information about this part of Wis- 
consin (Price Comity). We are required to write about the local 
history of our community and would appreciate any information you 
are able to give. 

Elving C. Olson, S^pirit 

Price County is the watershed between the Wisconsin and 
Chippewa rivers; through all this region the primitive Indians 
roamed, chiefly those of the Chippewa tribe. Soon after the 
discovery of the Northwest by the French, traders began to 
seek out these Indians. There is, however, no record of a fur 
trading post nearer than Lac du Flambeau. As the fur trade 
was the earliest industry, lumbering was the next to develop. 
During the decades of the sixties and seventies of the nineteenth 
century lumbermen penetrated farther and farther into northern 
Wisconsin. One of the big operators who had risen in the trade 
: was William T. Price, who afterwards went to the legislature and 
in 1879 was president of the state senate. About that time the 
Wisconsin Central Railroad was being built, so in that year 
several ranges and townships were detached on the one side from 
Chippewa County, and on the other from Lincoln County, and 
erected into a new county, called by the name of the president 
' of the senate. 

The Wisconsin Central Railroad received a grant of govern- 
ment land including alternate sections within twenty miles of its 
line. In 1879 its land agent, Mr. Kent K. Kennan, was sent to 
Europe to advertise the lands, and in 1880 he was likewise 
appointed state agent for immigration. He had an office at Basle, 
Switzerland, and sent out many pamphlets which induced a 
large immigration from Bavaria and other parts of southern 
Germany. Many of these immigrants had seen service in the 
Franco-Prussian War, and were eager to come to the United 
States to escape further warfare. Others came to better them- 
selves and to make homes for themselves and their children. 
{There must be many of these older pioneers still livmg in your 
I 



1^4 



The Question Box 



vicinity, who would be glad to relate to you their experiences of 
pioneer days. The Scandinavian immigration seems to have 
followed the German and to have settled largely in the south- 
eastern part of the county. 



HENRY LUMMIS, D.D. 
Professor at Lawrence College, 1886-1905 



VOL. VI M.^ 



1922-1923 



THE 

WISCONSIN MAGAZINE 
OF HISTORY 




PUBLICATIONS OF THE 
STATE HISTORICAL 
SOCIETY OF W^ISCON- 

SIN. Edited by JOSEPH 
SCHAFER, Superintendent 



CONTENTS 



The Yankee and the Teuton in Wisconsin 

Joseph S chafer 125 

Lawrence College Samuel Plantz 146 

Memories of a Busy Jaf^. .General Charles King 165 

The Electric Light System at Appleton 

Louise P. Kellogg 189 

Beaver Creek Valley, Monroe County 

Doane Robinson 195 

Documents: 

Diary of a Journey to Wisconsin in 1840 £07 

Editorial Comment: 

What We Remember 233 

To Members 237 

The Society and the State 238 



The Society as a body is not responsible for statements or opinions advanced 
in the following pages by contributors 

COPYRIGHT, 1922, BY THE STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF WISCONSIN 

Paid for out of the George B. Burrows Fund Income 



THE YANKEE AND THE TEUTON IN WISCONSIN 

Joseph Schafer 
i. characteristic attitudes toward the land 

Wisconsin in its racial character is popularly known to 
the country at large as a Teutonic state. That means the 
state has a German element, original and derivative, which 
numerically overshadows the American, English, Irish, 
Scandinavian, and other stocks also represented in the 
Badger blend. It is not necessary to quarrel with this 
widely accepted theorem, though some of the corollaries 
drawn from it can be shown to be unhistorical; and one can 
demonstrate statistically that if Wisconsin now is, or at any 
census period was, a Teutonic state she began her statehood 
career in 1848 as a Yankee state and thus continued for 
many years with consequences social, economic, political, 
religious, and moral which no mere racial substitutions have 
had power to obliterate. My purpose in the present paper 
is to present, from local sources, some discussion of the rela- 
tions of Yankee and Teuton to the land — a theme which 
ought to throw light on the process of substitution men- 
tioned, revealing how the Teuton came into possession of 
vast agricultural areas once firmly held by the Yankee. 

The agricultural occupation of southern Wisconsin, 
which brought the first tide of immigration from New 
England, western New York, northern Pennsylvania, and 
Ohio — the Yankee element — may be said roughly to have 
been accomplished within the years 1835 and 1850. The 
settlements which existed prior to 1835 were in the lead 
region of the southwest, at Green Bay, and at Prairie du 
Chien. The population of the lead mines was predominantly 
of southern and southwestern origin; that of the two other 
localities — the ancient seats of the Indian trade and more 
recent centers of military defense — was mainly French- 



Ij 

126 Joseph Schafer 

Canadian. When, in 1836, a territorial census was taken, 
it was found that the three areas named had an aggregate 
population of nearly 9000, of which more than 5000 was in i 
the lead region included in the then county of Iowa. The j 
Green Bay region (Brown County) was next, and the ' 
Prairie du Chien settlement (Crawford County) smallest. ' 

The census, however, recognized a new county, Milwau- 
kee, whose territory had been severed from the earlier 
Brown County. It was bounded east by Lake Michigan, 
south by Illinois, west by a line drawn due north from the 
Illinois line to Wisconsin River at the Portage, and north 
by a line drawn due east from the Portage to the lake. In 
terms of present-day divisions, the Milwaukee County of 
1836 embraced all of Kenosha, Racine, Walworth, Rock, 
Jeflferson, Waukesha, and Milwaukee counties, nearly all of 
Ozaukee, Washington, and Dodge, a strip of eastern Green 
County, and most of Dane and Columbia. In that imperial 
domain the census takers found a grand total of 2900 per- 
sons, or almost exactly one-fourth of the population of the 
entire territory. 

Two significant facts distinguish the Milwaukee County 
census list from the lists of Brown, Crawford, and Iowa 
counties — the recency of the settlement and the distinctive 
local origin of the settlers. These people had only just 
arrived, most of them in the early months of 1836. One 
could almost count on his ten fingers the individuals who 
were there prior to the summer of 1835. In reality they were 
not yet "settled," for most of the rude claim huts — mere 
shelters of the pre-log house stage — were haunted at night 
and shadowed at noonday by men only, resident families 
being still rare, though many were on the lakes, at the ports 
of Milwaukee and Chicago, or on the overland trail which 
was to end at the cabin door. It was the prophecy of new 
communities, not the actuality, that the census taker 
chronicled when he recorded the names of claim takers with 



128 



Joseph Schafer 



the number of persons, of each sex, comprising their house- 
holds. We have reason to beheve that the numbers were 
inscribed almost as cheerfully when the persons represented 
by them were still biding in the old home or were en route 
west, as when they were physically present in the settler's 
cabin or in the dooryard, eager to be counted. 

Unlike the other populations of Wisconsin at that time, 
the vast majority of Milwaukee County settlers were 
Northeasterners. Such evidence as we have indicates that 
New York supplied more than half, the New England states, 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Michigan nearly all of the balance.^ 
New York's title to primacy in peopling Wisconsin is exhib- 
ited, most impressively, in the statistics of the 1850 census. 
At that time native Americans constituted 63 per cent of 
the total and New Yorkers had 36 per cent of the native 
majority. Native Americans predominated in all but three 
of the twenty-six counties, and in all but five those who were 
natives of New York, added to the natives of Wisconsin, 
were a majority of the American born. The exceptions were 
the four lead mining counties of Grant, Iowa, Lafayette, 
and Green, together with Richland, which, however, had so 
few inhabitants that its case is divested of any significance. 

The three counties which, in 1850, showed a majority 
of foreign born inhabitants were Manitowoc, Milwaukee, 
and Washington (the last named including the present 
Ozaukee County); and in each case Germans constituted 
more than half of that majority. Together those three 
counties had over 20,000, which was considerably more than 
one-half of all the Germans (38,054) domiciled in Wisconsin 
at that time. The other lake shore counties, together with 
Calumet, Fond du Lac, Dodge, Jefferson, and Waukesha, 

^ As the tide of emigration from the northeastern states rose higher, it bore along a 
goodly number who were not of the old American stock, particularly English and Irish, 
with some Scotch and Germans. Yet, many of these were natives of the states named 
and, if foreign born, had enjoyed so long an apprenticeship to the Yankee system of life 
as to enable them faithfully to represent it. 



Yankee and Teuton 



U9 



accounted for 15,000 of the balance, leaving about 3000 
scattered over the rest of the state. Thus the area embraced 
by Lake Michigan, Lake Winnebago and lower Fox River, 
the upper reaches of Rock River, and the south boundary 
of Jefferson, Waukesha, and Milwaukee counties was all 
strongly and in the main distinctively German. 

Investigating the causes which may have operated to 
concentrate the German population within such clearly 
defined geographic limits, our first inquiry concerns the 
land on which settlement was taking place. And here we 
find that the distinguishing fact marking off the region in 
which Germans abounded from most of the other settled or 
partially settled areas of the state was its originally thickly 
wooded character. In a way almost startling, and super- 
ficially conclusive, the German settlements coincided with 
the great maple forest of southeastern Wisconsin, spreading 
also through the included pine forest on Lake Michigan 
south of Green Bay. 

Returning now to the Yankee element, we find that 
although it was strong in all of the settled districts save the 
five counties named, it was more completely dominant in 
some districts than in others. For example, in Walworth 
County the northeastern states furnished 96.5 per cent of 
the American population, while 3.5 per cent was furnished 
by sixteen other states. The foreign born constituted less 
than 16 per cent of the total. *^ Walworth County was a 
section of the new "Yankee Land," which included in its 
boundaries also the counties of Racine and Kenosha, Rock, 
and at that time parts of Waukesha and Jefferson. Nowliere 
in that region were foreigners very numerous, and in many 
localities non-English speaking foreigners were ahnost 
scarce. 

Physically, this new Yankee Land comprised those por- 

2 Of whom England, Ireland, Scotland, and Canada combined furnislied 11X0, 
Germany 460, and Norway 340. 



130 



Joseph Schafer 



tions of the prairies and openings of southern Wisconsin 
which lay not more than from sixty to seventy-five miles 
from the lake ports at Milwaukee, Racine, and Kenosha. 
The region was just as characteristically "open country" 
as that occupied so extensively by Germans was forested. 
One land type, the glacial marsh or swale — good for hay and 
pasture — was common to the two districts of country. But 
for the rest, the Yankee's land was all ready for the plow if 
it was prairie, and if oak openings the labor of felling the 
scattered trees and dragging them away before the breaking 
team was comparatively light. 

The German, on the other hand, in order to subdue his 
land to the requirements of successful tillage, must attack 
with ax, mattock, and firebrand each successive acre, 
patiently slashing and burning, hewing and delving, till by 
dint of unremitting toil extended over an indefinite number 
of years his farm became ''cleared." 

Shall we therefore repeat, as the sober verdict of history, 
the statement often heard, that in settling this new country 
the Yankee showed a preference for open land, the German 
for woodland? On the face of the census returns that seems 
to be the case, and if our evidence were limited to the census 
such a conclusion would be well nigh inescapable. Fortu- 
nately, he who deals with culture history problems of the 
American West has this advantage over the Greenes and the 
Lamprechts of Europe, that on such matters his evidence is 
minutely particular, while theirs is general to the point of 
vagueness. No one will doubt that the Yankee staked his 
claim in the open lands because he preferred those lands on 
account of the ease with which a farm could be made. The 
question is, whether the German's presence in the woods 
rather than in the openings or on the prairies was with him a 
matter of preference so far as land selection in itself was 
concerned. 

Timber for shelter, fuel, building, and fencing was an 



Yankee and Teuton 



131 



important consideration to all settlers, including the Yan- 
kees. In another connection I have shown, from the records 
of land entries, that the Yankee settlers in a prevailingly 
prairie township of Racine County took up first every acre 
of forested land, together with the prairie lands and marsh 
lands adjoining the woods, while they shunned for some 
years the big, open, unsheltered prairie where farms would 
be out of immediate touch with woods.^ Rather than take 
treeless lands near the lake shore, these settlers preferred to 
go farther inland where inviting combinations of groves, 
meadows, and dry prairie lands, or openings, could still be 
found in the public domain. Only gradually did American 
settlers overcome their natural repugnance to a shelterless, 
timberless farm home — a repugnance justified by common 
sense, but springing from the habit of generations. When, 
for economic reasons, they began to settle on the open 
prairies, the planting of quick-growing trees about the farm- 
steads was always esteemed a work of fundamental utility. 

Yankee agricultural settlers found special inducements 
forgoing inland in search of ideal farm locations, in the glow- 
ing advertisements of Yankee speculators who early pio- 
neered the open country far and wide. These speculators 
concerned themselves primarily with water powers for 
sawmill and gristmill sites and town sites. Yet power and 
town sites both depended for their development on the 
agricultural occupation of the surrounding country, and 
this made the speculators careful to locate their claims in 
areas of desirable lands which would soon be wanted. It 
also made them doubly active in proclaiming to immigrants 
the agricultural advantages of their chosen localities. 

One may take up at random the land office records of 
townships in the older Wisconsin, and in practically every 
case find proof that the speculator was abroad in the land 

• Wisconsin Domesday Book, General Studies, I. History of Agriculture in W\scon>in. 
chap. 2. 



132 



Joseph S chafer 



before the arrival of the farmer. Along the banks of navigable 
rivers he took up, early, such tracts as seemed to afford good 
steamboat landings, which might mean towns or villages 
also. Along smaller streams he engrossed potential water 
powers. In the prairie regions he seized the timbered tracts 
which commonly lay along the streams. And wherever 
nature seemed to have sketched the physical basis for a 
future town, there he drove his stakes and entered an area 
large enough at least for a municipal center. 

In some portions, particularly of the earliest surveys, the 
speculator also absorbed a goodly share of the best farm 
land, which he held for an advance when the immigration of 
farmers became heavy. Other Americans, aside from 
Yankees, participated in these speculations, but the records 
show that the Yankee's reputation for alertness and sagacity 
in that line is not unmerited. For illustration, the plats of 
Dane County townships disclose among the original entry- 
men who bought their lands early, the names of well known 
speculators like James D. Doty, Lucius Lyon, the Bronsons, 
Cyrus Woodman, Hazen Cheney, and C. C. Washburn — 
all Yankees. In addition, we have distinguished New Eng- 
landers who probably never came west but invested through 
the agency of their Yankee correspondents. Among them 
are Daniel Webster, Edward Everett, Ralph Waldo Emer- 
son, and Caleb Cushing. 

To a considerable extent these speculators, in paying for 
government lands, employed military land warrants, usually 
purchased at a heavy discount. "Scripping" by this means 
became more common after the Mexican War. A German 
immigration leader wrote at the close of 1848: "There is a 
man living in Sheboygan who has already placed 344 of these 
warrants [each good for 160 acres] on government lands and 
intends next spring to place 200 more on tracts lying north 
of Fox River. "4 He did not say the man was a Yankee; 

* William Dames, Wie Sieht Es in Wishonsin Aus (Mem-s, 1849). 



Yankee and Teuton 



133 



possibly he deemed that information unnecessary. For, 
although the German sometimes bought warrants of the 
brokers in order to save the difference between the price of 
such warrants and the land office price of government land, 
he did not in the early years of the immigration speculate 
in farm lands. 

Therein was one of the outstanding differences between 
him and the Yankee. The German could not be tolled 
into the interior by golden promises of unearned increments 
from the sale of city lots, of mill sites, or of choice farm 
lands which were going rapidly. His caution and his 
phlegm were a protection. He was not particularly respon- 
sive to the optimistic prophecies of the development of this 
region or that region in which this company or that promi- 
nent individual had interests. For these reasons, the Ger- 
man's motives as a land seeker were more legitimately 
economic and social than were those of the Yankee, and on 
the basis of such motives we can explain his settlement in 
the woods. 

In his homeland the German villager loved the forest for 
its shelter, its recreational hospitality, and the benefits it 
conferred in necessary fuel, timber, bedding, and forage. 
A large proportion of the early German immigrants came 
from south German provinces dominated by such famous 
old forests as the Schwartzwald and the Odenwald. From 
considerations both of habit and of economy it was natural 
that in the New World they should make sure of an abun- 
dance of timber on the lands they sought for future homes. 
Yet, there is no reason to assume that the German, any more 
than the Yankee, courted the grilling labor of clearing 
heavily forested land — a labor to him the more formidable 
for the want of the Yankee's training in axmansliip and his 
almost unbroken tradition of winning fields from forests. 
Some German pioneers who were self-helpful struck for the 
openings and the prairies, and like the Yankee cliosc for 



134 



Joseph S chafer 



their farms the ideal combination of wood, marsh, and open 
land whenever such a combination could be found within 
easy reach of the market.^ 

But Germans were less venturesome than Yankees, or 
more prudent, depending on the point of view. In the old 
home they were accustomed to haul their farm produce 
many miles in going to the markets and fairs. But there the 
roads were passable at all seasons. In the New World, 
where all was in the making, the roads were often impas- 
sable and always — except in winter — so rough and trouble- 
some as to daunt those who were not to the manner born." 
Hence the German settler's idea of what constituted a safe 
distance from the lake ports within which to open a farm 
differed from the Yankee's idea. There is one striking illus- 
tration of that difference. Along the Illinois boundary from 
Lake Michigan westward was the strip of prairie and open- 
ings twenty-four miles wide and seventy-eight long which 
was divided into Racine and Kenosha counties (on the 
lake), Walworth, and Rock. We have already called that 
region the new Yankee Land and have seen the Yankee 
farmers spread over it with seeming disregard to distance 
from the lake ports, each being intent rather on finding an 
ideal combination of desirable kinds of land. The three 
divisions of the strip contained almost equal numbers of 
Yankees — these people evidently believing that canals, 
roads, plank roads, and railways would come to them when 
needed, while a good farm location once lost was gone 
forever; and being willing also, until such improvements 
should come, to haul their crops sixty or seventy-five miles 
to market. Not so the few Germans who entered this 
Yankee Land prior to 1850. More than four-fifths of them 
were in the section nearest the lake (Racine and Kenosha 

^ For example, see William Dames, Wie Sieht Es in Wishonsin Aus. 

^ See J. F. Diederichs, Diary. Translated by Emil Baensch. Account of a trip from 
Milwaukee to Manitowoc. 



Yankee and Teuton 



135 



counties), and less than one-thirtieth in Rock County, the 
farthest west of the strip. 

The movement into the prairies and openings of the 
southeast had been going on for about four years before 
the Germans began coming to Wisconsin, and so many 
selections of first choice, second choice, and even third 
choice land had been made that newcomers were already 
at a disadvantage in that region, especially if a number of 
them desired to settle near together in a body, which was 
the case of Old Lutheran congregations who made up the 
earliest German immigrations. Moreover, most of the 
Yankees were business-like farmers who generally planned 
for fairly large farms, in order to make money by raising 
wheat. They were mainly men who had sold small farms 
in the East in order to secure larger, or sons of large farmers. 
Most of them had money or credit to enable them to acquire 
land, construct buildings and fences, buy stock, and begin 
farming operations. Having found good land by canvass- 
ing the whole region, they were not to be dislodged until, 
with the failure of wheat crops at a later time, the spirit of 
emigration sent numbers of them to fresh wheat lands 
farther west, thus making opportunity for well-to-do 
Germans to buy their improved farms, which they did to 
a great extent. 

Meantime, the forested lands pivoting on Milwaukee, 
the most promising of the lake ports, were open to entry at 
the land ofiice or to purchase at private sale on easy terms. 
The Yankee had not altogether shunned those lands. There, 
as elsewhere, he had been looking for good investments, 
and the project for the Milwaukee and Rock River Canal, 
which was to traverse a portion of the forested area tlirough 
the present Milwaukee, Waukesha, and Jefferson counties, 
favored speculation in farm lands as well as in mill sites 
and town sites. Besides, there is evidence that some of 
the poorer Yankee immigrants who felt unable at once to 



136 



Joseph S chafer 



maintain themselves on open land farms, often settled 
first in the woods, where they began making improvements 
with ax and fire, only to sell out promptly at an advance 
and go to the prairie or openings to establish permanent 
farms. But most of the forested land was still "Congress 
land" when the Germans began coming to Wisconsin. 

The German 'Tilgrims," as the first colony was called, 
arrived at Milwaukee early in October, 1839, their leader 
being Henry von Rohr. Within a month they had decided 
on a location, in the western part of township 9, range 21 
east (the town of Mequon, Ozaukee County), and had 
made numerous purchases of government land. They 
selected a tract of high, rolling land, heavily timbered, well 
watered, and with an extensive marsh near by in the public 
domain which would furnish free hay and pasture.^ The 
situation was similar to that which was chosen, near Water- 
town (in the town of Lebanon), a few years later by a 
German colony from the same region. They also took a 
tract of heavily timbered upland neighbored by an extensive 
marsh. *'Here," said their leader, "we have both wood and 
hay" CHolzundHeu'').' 

Many of the colonists in these two congregations were 
very poor. Those who had means lent to the indigent to 
enable them to emigrate. For them it would have been 
madness to go to the prairies, where such absolute neces- 
sities as fuel, building material, and fencing might cost ready 
money and at best would be diflBcult to procure. In the 
woods trees cut on the spot were used to build cabin and 
log house, stable, garden and field enclosure. Some of the 
German families were months without draft ox or even 

^ Those who filed with von Rohr and on the same day (Nov. 5, 1839) took up most of 
sections 17, 18, 19, and 20. All of these lands were described by the surveyor as "second 
rate" and all had a heavy forest covering consisting of sugar maple, lynn, birch, alder, 
black and white oak, ash, elm, iron wood, etc., together with some cedar in the swamps. 
The land lay on both sides of the creek, along which was some meadow, but the big marsh 
was farther east. 

8 William F. Whyte, "Settlement of Lebanon," in Wisconsin Historical Society, 
Proceedings, 1915, 105. 



Yankee and Teuton 



137 



cow. All work was performed by hand, including the carry- 
ing of logs from the spot where the trees were felled to the 
place where they were to be rolled up to make the cabin 
wall. To such settlers, bringing timber from a distance 
would have been among the impossibilities. Their place 
was in the forest, where labor alone was required for making 
the beginnings of a self-sustaining home. 

In thousands of later instances, Germans who came to 
Wisconsin on their own slender means were in a similar 
case to these early seekers of religious freedom. An im- 
migrant of 1848, J. F. Diederichs, has left a diary and 
letters from which the process of home making in the 
woods can be reconstructed.^ Diederichs, after consider- 
able search, found eighty acres of good government land 
nine miles from Manitowoc, where early in winter he settled 
down to work alongside of several other Germans who 
were as poor as himself. The location was favorable, being 
near a port. *'What good is there," he writes, "to possess 
the finest land and be 6, 8 or 10 days journey from market."^" 
The first step was to build a cabin, the next to bring his 
family from Milwaukee and with a few dollars borrowed for 
the purpose to lay in supplies for them. Then he erected a 
comfortable log house and continued clearing till, by the 
middle of May, he had two acres ready partly for garden 
and partly for potatoes, corn, and beans to provide the 
family with food. Diederichs realized that "to begin such 
work at the age of 44 is some job," and recognized that not 
he and his wife but the children would be the chief bene- 
ficiaries. Nevertheless, the joy of creation was not wholly 
denied him. He had, he said, the "prettiest" location; 
house set on a commanding knoll, with a pure limpid stream 
flowing within a few yards of it, along whose course was 
some open land, making a "layout for the finest pastures." 

• MS. translation by Emil Baensch. 
Page 29 in printed German edition. 



1 



138 



Joseph Schafer 



And there was timber enough on his eighty to be worth 
$30,000 in the home town of Elberfelt. Of this, he would 
gladly make his friends in Germany a present of about jj 
$20,000 worth! J 

The question of nearness to market was a determinant ! 
also in the cases of Germans who were well enough oflF to 
take open lands. William Dames found, for himself and 
associates, a favorable tract near Ripon. It contained 160 
acres prairie, 320 acres openings, and 160 acres of low i 
prairie or meadow land. The advantages of that neigh- ^ 
borhood, he wrote, were these : first, the prospectively near 
market, by way of the Fox River Canal to be completed ' 
the following spring; second, the excellence of the soil; 
third, the ease with which the land could be made into j 
productive farms. There one need not subject himself to ; 
the murderous toil incident to farm making in the woods, j 
And, fourth, the healthfulness of the climate and the superb i 
drinking water. 

One bit of information which Dames conveyed to his 
fellow Germans who were contemplating immigration to* 
Wisconsin, was that the Yankees (by which term he* 
described all native Americans) and the Scotch settlers of 
that neighborhood were becoming eager to sell their partly 
improved farms, preparatory to moving into the newer 
region north of Fox River. He advised Germans able to do[ 
so to buy such farms, which were to be had in plenty not 
only in Fond du Lac County but near Watertown, neari 
Delafield, and even near Milwaukee — prices varying with 
the improvements, nearness to the city, etc. He seemed toi 
think the Germans but ill adapted to pioneering. Let thei 
German immigrant, he said, buy a partly cleared farm; then 
he could follow his calling in ways to which he was accus- 
tomed. Moreover, since such farms produced fairly well 
even under the indifferent treatment accorded them by 
the Yankee farmers, the German farmer need have no fear* 
of failure. 



Yankee and Teuton 



139 



The advice to purchase farms already begun was widely 
followed by the financially competent German immigrants. 
Ownership records of one Milwaukee County township show 
that the lands were originally taken mainly by Irish and 
Americans, yet in 1850 nearly one-half of the settlers were 
Germans; and there is no reason to regard that case as 
singular. Probably the Germans who bought improved 
farms were as numerous as those who bought Congress 
land. Many poor men worked as farm hands for some 
years and then bought small improved farms in preference 
to buying Congress land. 

The experience of an 1849 immigrant, Johannes Kerler, 
illustrates the less common case of Germans who arrived 
with considerable means. Kerler brought with him to 
Milwaukee a sum, derived from the sale of a profitable 
business, which would have enabled him to buy scores of 
mill sites and town sites in the public domain. Instead, he 
limited his investment to a 200-acre farm seven miles from 
the city, paying for the land, including all crops and live- 
stock, $17 per acre. The buildings consisted of a log house 
and a cabin. One-half the farm was divided between plow 
land and meadow; the balance — 100 acres — supported a 
dense forest growth. Kerler at once erected a barn for his 
cattle, and a good two-story frame house for the family. 
Then he went to farming and quickly transformed tlie 
earlier crude homestead into a fruitful and beautiful farm, 
the show place of the neighborhood. 

Social forces are among the imponderables, and yet 
their influence in controlling the distribution of immigration 
must have been considerable. The fact that nearly all 
incoming Germans landed in Milwaukee, wliere were 
acquaintances and often friends, tended in a hundred subtle 
ways to attach the newcomers to that community. Before 

" This farm, located in the town of Greenfield, Milwaukee County, was afterwards 
divided among Kerler's three sons. A portion of it, at least, is I believe still in the posses- 
sion of the family. Louis F. Frank, Pioneer Jahrc (Milwaukee, 1911). 



140 



Joseph S chafer 



1850 Milwaukee had come to be looked upon as a German 
city. "There," said one immigrant, "more German than 
English is spoken." It had its German churches, schools, 
clubs, societies, and recreational features, all of which 
constituted powerful attractions. It was the most impor- 
tant industrial center of the state, with a relatively large 
demand for the labor which with farm work was the poorer 
immigrant's sole means of getting a financial start. In 
addition, it was the commercial metropolis, and that the 
German was firmly tethered to his market has already be- 
come clear. 

The construction of the Milwaukee and Mississippi 
Railroad, begun in 1849 and completed to Prairie du Chien 
in 1857, partially freed the German immigrant from his 
dread of being marooned in the interior. Desirable govern- 
ment lands accessible to the proposed railroad were generally 
taken up several years before the completion of the road, 
and among the entrymen in certain districts were many 
newly arrived Germans. This was true to some extent in 
Dane County, but more noticeably so farther west. In Iowa 
County and in Grant were sheltered pleasant and fertile 
valleys, opening toward the Wisconsin, which would be 
served by the railroad when completed, and which had long 
been in touch with the world by means of steamers plying 
on the Wisconsin. In those valleys, and on the wider ridges 
between them, the Germans competed with others for the 
choicest locations on government and state lands. Land 
entry records for two townships in Blue River valley show, 
by 1860, out of an aggregate of 122 foreign born families 59 
of German origin, while the American families numbered 
93. A similar proportion doubtless obtained in other towns 
south of the river. 

Directly opposite these townships, in the same survey 
range but lying on the north side of Wisconsin River, was 
the town of Eagle, whose settlement was almost exactly 



Yankee and Teuton 



141 



contemporaneous with that of the Blue River valley. But 
Eagle, in 1860, had 20 foreign born families to 108 American, 
and of the 20 only 13 were German. 

Inasmuch as the people on the two banks of the river 
had a common market — Muscoda, which was a station on 
the railroad — and the lands of Eagle were more fertile and 
quite as well watered, the question why the Germans avoided 
that town and made homes south of the river is surely 
interesting, and possibly significant. 

There were two important differences between the two 
districts. In Blue River the valley land, to use the sur- 
veyor's phrase, was "thinly timbered with oak," while in 
the valley of Mill Creek, or Eagle Creek, opposite was a 
dense forest dominated by the sugar maple but containing 
big timber of several varieties, and dense undergrowth. 
In a word, it was a heavily timbered area. Now the Ger- 
mans near Lake Michigan had given ample proof of gal- 
lantry in attacking forest covered farms, yet when the 
choice was before them of taking such land in Richland 
County or easily cleared land of poorer quality in Grant, 
almost with one accord they selected the latter. 

We cannot be certain that the difference in the timbered 
character of the land was the sole motive determining the 
choice, though doubtless it was the most important. The 
railroad ran on the south side of the river and the principal 
trading center was on that side. Settlers in Blue River 
valley could therefore reach the market by a direct, un- 
broken haul with teams over public roads. Those in Eagle 
at first were obliged to use the ferry in crossing the river, 
and later they had to cross on a toll bridge except in mid- 
winter, if the river was frozen to a safe depth, when tliey 
crossed on the ice. These transportation conditions inii^Iit 
have deterred some Germans from settling north of the 
river, even if the lands there had been as lightly timbered 
as those on the south side. Taken together, the two causes 



142 



Joseph Schafer 



virtually served to blockade that district against settlers of 
their type. 

But if the Germans declined the role of foresters, by 
refusing to settle in a partially isolated town like Eagle, 
the Yankees did the same. New Yorkers and New Engend- 
ers were scarcer there than Prussians or Hanoverians. The 
town was occupied mainly by families from Ohio, Kentucky, 
Missouri, Indiana — with a few from Virginia and North 
Carolina; in short, by men who had enjoyed or endured 
a recent experience as frontiersmen in heavily wooded 
regions. So many belonged to the class described by Eggles- 
ton in The Circuit Rider, The Hoosier Schoolmaster, and The 
Gray sons, that the name "Hoosier Hollow," applied to one 
of the coulees, seems perfectly normal. 

To the Yankee, we may be sure, the heavy woods in the 
town of Eagle were a sulBScient deterrent to settlement 
there. The Germans shunned it either because they dis- 
liked heavy clearing when it could be avoided and when no 
compensating advantages offered, as was the case near the 
lake shore; or because they disliked the risk and the expense 
of crossing the river to market; or for both of these reasons 
combined. Probably either reason, singly, would have 
suflSced . 

By way of summary, we may say that as a land seeker the 
Yankee's range exceeded that of the German. Both clung to 
the lake ports as their market base. But the Yankee's 
optimism painted for him a roseate future based on an 
experimental knowledge of material development for which 
the German's imagination was largely unprepared. The 
New Yorker had witnessed, in his home state, the almost 
miraculous transformation of rural conditions through the 
construction of a system of canals; and canal building 
affected Vermont, Pennsylvania, and Ohio only less pro- 
foundly than the Empire State. To the Yankee, therefore, 
who cast his lot in the favored lands of Wisconsin it seemed 



Yankee and Teuton 



143 



that nothing could halt the march of improvement. The 
chief point was to obtain prompt possession of the right kind 
of farm. Having this, he could count on doing a big agri- 
cultural business as a wheat grower, which promised gener- 
ous financial rewards. But if for any reason he failed to get 
the right kind of farm, if improvements were unexpectedly 
dilatory, or if the land ceased to respond to his demand for 
wheat and more wheat, he '*sold out" with slight com- 
punction and went elsewhere, confident of success on a new 
frontier, especially the great wheat plains. To him land was 
a desirable commodity, but by no means a sacred trust. 

The German, on the other hand, came from a land of 
very gradual change. Although agricultural conditions 
there were actually considerably modified in the first half 
of the nineteenth century, he still, for the most part, looked 
upon his dwindling patrimony as the basis, not of a money 
making business, but of a livelihood. If, by the com- 
bined labor of all members of the household, the family 
could be fed, clothed, and sheltered, the heavy obligations 
to church and state redeemed, and a few gulden seques- 
tered for times of emergency, the peasant was content. 
His land was his home. It had been his father's, grand- 
father's, great-grandfather's. The original estate was 
parted into ever more and smaller divisions, as generation 
succeeded generation, until the tracts of many holders were 
at last too small to support the families. These had no 
choice but to sell and go to the city, or go to America. Tliis 
condition was one of the most general economic causes of tlie 
large German immigration to this and other states. When 
the German farmer, or other German, came to Wisconsin 
and bought a piece of land, one purpose dominated his 
mind — to make a farm for a home, and estabhsh a family 
estate. In the beginning it did not occur to him to speculate 
in land, although in this as in other things he proved an apt 
pupil. Accustomed to a very limited acreage, he was not 



144 



Joseph Schafer 



like the Yankee ambitious to secure a large domain. Habit- 
uated to intensive tillage, a partly made farm having ten 
or twelve acres of cleared land was to him an ample equip- 
ment for making a living in agriculture. Enlarging fields 
meant a surplus and mounting prosperity. If he took raw 
land, he could count on clearing enough in a couple of 
winters with his own hands to raise food crops, and he 
looked upon the prospect of spending ten, twenty, or 
twenty-five years in fully subduing his 80- or 100-acre farm 
with no unreasoning dread or carking impatience. The re- 
mark of Diederichs characterized the German preemptor: 
"If I once have land enough under cultivation to raise our 
food supplies, I will win through." Whereas the Yankee 
wanted to break 40, 60, 80, or 100 acres of prairie or openings 
the first year, the German contemplated the possession of a 
similar acreage of tillable land in ten, fifteen, or twenty 
years. 

But once in possession of a tract of land, the German 
tended to hold on, through good years and bad years, as if 
his farm were the one piece of land in the world for him and 
his. The Yankee, already given to change in the East, 
tended in the West, under the stimulus of machine-aided 
wheat culture, to regard land lightly, and to abandon one 
tract for another on the principle that the supply was 
inexhaustible and that one social environment was apt to 
be as satisfactory as another. He had before him the great 
wheat plains, the Pacific coast, the inland empire and the 
parks of the Rocky Mountains. Latterly his range has 
widened to include the plains of the Assiniboin, the Saskat- 
chewan, and Peace River. For more than half a century he 
was free to roam, to pick and choose land even as he picked 
and chose in southern Wisconsin — the slower, more cautious, 
or more timid German buying his farm when he was ready to 
sell. 

It was peaceful penetration, involving no sabre rattling 



Yankee and Teuton 



145 



but much canny bargaining, sober casting up of accounts, 
and cheerful jingling of specie. The Yankees, more specula- 
tive to the last, more imaginative and space-free, pressed 
ever toward the borders of the primitive, drawn by the same 
lure of wealth quickly and easily acquired which brought so 
many of them to the prairies of Wisconsin in the earlier 
days. The Germans, fearing distance more than debt, con- 
fident in their ability to make grain crops grow and farm 
stock fatten if only they had a sure market for cattle and for 
crops, remained behind to till the abandoned fields and 
occupy the deserted homes. Thus, so far as Wisconsin's 
farming areas are concerned, the shadow of the Yankee has 
grown less in the land, while the tribe of the Teuton has 
increased. 

What tendencies may have been induced by the passing 
of the frontier and the resurgence of a population deprived 
of its former temptation to expand into new regions; what 
social changes were implied in the agricultural revolution 
which compels the daily application of science to the busi- 
ness of farming; what readjustments in relationships were 
involved in the modification of the Teutonic type with the 
coming upon the stage of the second and third generations 
of Germans; how the Germans in turn have reacted to the 
competition of groups having their origin in other foreign 
countries, like the Scandinavians, Bohemians, and Poles — 
all these are questions the answers to which would aid us to 
determine "where we are and whither we are tending.'' 
But their discussion will have to be postponed to later issues 
of this magazine. 



LAWRENCE COLLEGE 

Samuel Plantz 

Lawrence College has just passed what President 
Nicholas Murray Butler has called "one of these invisible 
lines which the imagination draws across the chart of change- 
less time." The seventy-fifth anniversary of the founding 
of an institution of learning is really no more important than 
its seventy-fourth or seventy-sixth, but custom has under- 
scored some of the lines on the chart of time so that they 
stand out in bold relief and are given corresponding signifi- 
cance in our imagination. We, therefore, have our golden 
and our diamond jubilees when we stop to consider the work 
of pioneers and founders, and note the progress and achieve- 
ments of institutions they have established during the 
procession of the years. Lawrence College at its last com- 
mencement, by historical addresses, an elaborate historical 
pageant, and the inevitable banquet with toasts and good 
cheer, celebrated such a milestone — its seventy-fifth birth- 
day. Because of this and doubtless because the work of our 
colleges and universities, although a quiet force not much 
thought about by the masses, is among the most potent in 
molding the sentiments, formulating the ideals, and deter- 
mining the characteristics of our civilization, the writer has 
been asked to prepare this article on the history of one of the 
two earliest institutions of learning in Wisconsin — ^Lawrence 
and Beloit having come into existence the same year. 

There were various factors or influences which conspired 
together for the founding of Lawrence College. One of these 
was the missionary activities of the Christian church. It has 
been said of the fathers of our nation, ''They had hardly 
erected shelters for themselves and for their households 
before they were thinking of a college." The same was true 
of those Christian leaders who came to Wisconsin when it 



LAWRENCE INSTITUTE 
First building, erected 1848-49 




MAIN HALL, LAWRENCE ( OLLECiE 
Second building, erected 185:^-53 



Lawrence College 



147 



was a wilderness to lay the foundations of a Christian com- 
monwealth. Says the Reverend William Sampson, who 
had much to do with the founding of Lawrence : 

It is difficult to estimate the importance of furnishing education 
facilities for the population in a republic like ours where the sovereignty 
is vested in the people and the perpetuity of our civil and religious insti- 
tutions depends on virtue and intelligence. 

Again he says : 

For several years before a providential opening seemed to occur for 
commencing such an enterprise in Wisconsin there was a prayerful anxi- 
ety on this subject: several of us had talked the matter over, but could 
fix on no definite plan or location. We concluded that a college for both 
male and female students where each and all should be entitled to equal 
educational advantages was a desideratum. 

In another place in Mr. Sampson's interesting autobi- 
ography, we read that the early preachers were greatly 
interested in what could be done to establish opportunities 
for the education of their children and those of their parish- 
ioners. 

The second influence in the founding of the college was 
the growing belief in the destiny of the great Northwest 
which was beginning to get hold of the mind of the East. 
For a long time many people had little appreciation of the 
West, and especially of Wisconsin. Many said that the 
latter "never would fill up," that ''Illinois had taken all the 
good agricultural land on the south and Michigan all the 
valuable mineral lands on the north," and that "between 
the two were trees and rocks and fish and wild beasts, but 
not much chance for men." But there were others who had 
caught the vision. They, like Henry Clay on the summit of 
the Alleghenies, heard the tramp of coming millions. Among 
these men was Amos A. Lawrence, a graduate of Harvard 
College, who founded two institutions in tlie West — one at 
Appleton, Wisconsin, and the other at Lawrence, Kansas, 
which has become the university of that state. It was only 
a man of great insight and large patriotism wlio, wboii \N is- 
consin was a wilderness, could cast his eye I'-iOO miles wesl- 



148 



Samuel Plantz 



ward and think of founding a college in a primeval forest, 
200 miles from a railroad and sixteen miles from a stagecoach 
line. 

The third element is even more interesting, touched as 
it is with the element of romance. Mr. Lawrence would not 
have become interested in Wisconsin but for the fact that, 
due to the encroachment of white men on their ancient home 
in New York, certain tribes of Indians were led to immigrate 
to new lands which had been in part arranged for them by 
the government in the neighborhood of Green Bay. One of 
the principal advocates of this immigration was a man by the 
name of Eleazar Williams, who held the honorable position 
of missionary among them, and who seems to have had 
dreams of founding a new kingdom, similar probably to the 
far famed Iroquois confederacy, he to be its dictator or head. 
Mr. Williams had received an education under the tutorage 
of Nathaniel Ely of Longmeadow, the Reverend Enoch Hale 
of Northampton, and at Dartmouth College. He was in 
1816 sent as a missionary to the Oneida Indians, and had 
such influence among them that within a year the tribe 
sent a memorial to Governor Clinton stating they had aban- 
doned their idols and accepted Christianity, and desired no 
longer to be called pagan. In 1838 President Van Buren 
granted to Mr. Williams a tract of over 5000 acres of land 
located not far from De Pere. Later Mr. Williams made the 
claim of being the lost Dauphin of France, stating he had 
been brought to Canada at the time of his mother's death 
and placed in care of Thomas and Mary Williams, the former 
being a descendant of the famous Eunice Williams of the 
Deerfield massacre. How early Eleazar Williams made this 
claim cannot be determined, but the Reverend Mr. Lathrop, 
who introduced him to Mr. Lawrence in 1845, says the first 
he heard of it was in 1848. However, the fact that Prince de 
Joinville came from France to Green Bay in 1841 and had 
long private interviews with Williams has led many to 



Lawrence College 



149 



believe that Williams had made earlier claims. Mr. Law- 
rence himself nowhere in his correspondence mentions the 
lost Dauphin story, so that he was doubtless more interested 
in Williams' work as an Episcopal missionary to the Indians 
than in any other fact. His son, Bishop William Lawrence, 
in his biography of his father gives us the following account: 

The pressure of circumstances had brought him [Eleazar Williams] 
to Boston as early as 1845 to raise money on 5,000 acres of land on which 
he lived in Wisconsin. Rev. Dr. Lathrop, whose father was also a mis- 
sionary among the Indians, interested Mr. Amos Lawrence in the mat- 
ter, but on account of his health, the burden of loaning the money was 
taken by his son. The result was that, as the fortune of the lost Dauphin 
waned, Mr. Lawrence was drawn more and more into the investment, 
until he found himself the unwilling possessor of over 5,000 acres of 
land in the Fox River Valley Wisconsin. 

But the incident has an interest as showing that with 
the ownership of property came also a sense of responsi- 
bility for the welfare of those who lived upon it or near it. 
For as soon as the 5000 acres fell into his hand he wrote his 
agent (a Mr. Eastman of Green Bay) : 

I have been thinking of the establishment of an institution of 
learning or college on the Williams land, and there seems to be a good 
opportunity, not only for improving the tone of morals and the standard 
of education in that vicinity, but also of conferring a lasting benefit on a 
portion of our countrymen who most need it. I have a high opinion of the 
adaptation of the principles of Methodism to the people of the West, 
and I think, from all I can learn, that their institutions are carried on 
with more vigor and diffuse more good with the same means than any 
other. It seems to me decided by experience that all literary institutions 
must be controlled by some sect, and efforts to prevent this have often 
blasted their usefulness. I should desire most of all to see a Protestant 
Episcopal institution; but that is out of the question, as our forni of 
worship is only adopted slowly and never will be popular in this country. 
I think the old fashioned name ''college" or "school" is as good as any: 
"university" would hardly do for so young a child. 

Mr. Eastman conveyed the substance of this communi- 
cation to the Reverend William Sampson, presiding older 
of the missionary district of Green Bay of the Rock River 
conference, which included the territory south of Green Bay 
to the Illinois line and from Lake Michigan to Wisconsin 
River. He brought the matter to the attention of the Rock 



150 



Samuel Plantz 



River conference at its next session held at Peoria, Illinois. 
The conference committee on education returned Mr. 
Eastman's communication to Mr. Sampson with an instruc- 
tion to get the name of the gentleman who was making the 
proposition — it having been withheld by Mr. Eastman — 
and to open correspondence in order to see what could be 
done. Mr. Eastman for some reason declined to give the 
name, and the matter was dropped. It so happened, how- 
ever, that the Reverend Reeder Smith, a Methodist clergy- 
man, called upon Mr. Lawrence about this time and asked 
for a contribution for a college to be started in Michigan; 
Mr. Lawrence refused on the ground that he was interested 
in starting a college in Wisconsin. Mr. Smith secured the 
right from Mr. Lawrence to attempt to bring his purposes 
to a successful conclusion, and arrived in Fond du Lac the 
last of November or first of December, 1846. He inter- 
viewed Mr. Sampson and the Reverend Henry R. Colman, 
with the result that a notice was given for a meeting of lay- 
men and ministers in Milwaukee to consider Mr. Law- 
rence's proposition, and "quite a number convened the 28th 
of December." Mr. Smith presented Mr. Lawrence's prop- 
osition, which was that he would place in the hands of 
trustees $10,000 to start a college in the neighborhood of 
De Pere, if the Methodist people of the territory would raise 
a like amount. The offer was heartily accepted and a com- 
mittee appointed, consisting of Reeder Smith, George H. 
Day, and Henry R. Colman, to prepare a charter and present 
it to the territorial legislature then in session. Mr. Sampson 
writes in his autobiography: 

I did not reach Madison until the following week. Mr. Smith had 
preceded me and got the charter before the house, and when I arrived 
they told me they designed to kill the bill when it came up again. 
Having friends in both branches, I secured an interest in favor of the 
bill and it finally passed and was signed by Governor Dodge, January 
17, 1847. 

This charter is an interesting document, the original 
copy being in possession of the Appleton Public Library. 



Lawrence College 



151 



It named the institution the Lawrence Institute of Wiscon- 
sin": it provided for the ''education of youth generally/* 
which was understood to mean male and female; it stated 
"the annual income shall not exceed $10,000," showing the 
idea of a college in those early days; it gave the power to 
confer the usual college degrees; it determined that the 
trustees should number thirteen; it said the institution 
should be located "on the Fox River between Lake Kakalin 
and the foot of Winnebago Lake"; it provided that its works 
should be developed "on a plan sufficiently extensive to 
afford ample facilities to perfect the scholar"; it stated that 
the annual conference of the Methodist church in Wisconsin 
"shall elect also annually by ballot a visiting committee 
consisting of nine whose duty it shall be to attend all exami- 
nations of the institution and look into the condition gener- 
ally," reporting thereon annually to the trustees; and it 
made the following rather remarkable pronouncement, 
considering the sectarian controversies and rivalries of the 
period: "No religious tenet or opinion shall be required for 
the qualijfication for the office of Trustee except a full belief 
in divine revelation; nor of any student shall any religious 
tenet be required to entitle him to all the privileges of the 
institution; and no particular tenets distinguishing between 
the different denominations shall be required as a qualifica- 
tion for professors in said institution and no student shall 
be required to attend religious exercises with any specific 
denomination, except as specified by the student himself, 
his parents or guardians." This was probably inspired by 
the wishes of Mr. Lawrence, who said: "The school is to be 
under the control of the Methodist denomination though it 
is specified that a large minority of the trustees shall be from 
other denominations. I trust it will be conducted so as to do 
the most good, to diffuse the greatest amount of learning and 
religion, without propagating the tenets of any sect." These 
injunctions and agreements have been strictly adhered to. 



152 



Samuel Plantz 



The charter did not altogether meet the approval of 
Mr. Lawrence, especially the provisions that the income of ! 
the school should be limited to $10,000 and that the presi- ' 
dent should be elected by the conference rather than the 
trustees — provisions which were changed at his suggestion 
in a new charter. 

The day after the petition for a charter was offered, 
another petition was filed asking for the granting to Law- | 
rence Institute of a portion of the 140,000 acres of land made \ 
to the territory for university purposes. Mr. Eastman says ' 
that the matter was poorly handled, and Reeder Smith's 
especial emphasis on the aptness of Methodism to advance 
education "prejudiced the members of other denominations 
and especially the Roman Catholics; and the petition, [ 
though read three times failed to pass." 

The next important matter was the selection of a loca- i 
tion, the charter having stated only that it should be some- 
where between De Pere and Winnebago Rapids. A number 
of sites were offered, one by a Mr. Jones of what is now 
Neenah, consisting of forty acres of land and four stone of 
water power. Mr. Lawrence preferred that the institute 
should be on or near the Williams land, but Mr. Sampson i 
seriously objected on the grounds of difficulty of access and f 
because the settlers were mainly French and half-breed 
Indians. A committee consisting of Henry R. Colman, 
Reeder Smith, and William Sampson traveled on foot or i 
horseback the whole river bank of the lower Fox, and agreed ! 
upon what was called Grand Chute as the location for the i 
new school. The reasons which influenced them are indi- 
cated in letters written to Mr. Lawrence. Thus Reeder i 
Smith says: ''The river embraces a water power which, in 
my opinion is to be a second Lowell. This spot is to exceed 
in interest any other point on the river. This is one of the i 
most enchanting and romantic spots I ever saw." Mr. Col- 
man wrote to Mr. Lawrence : ''In beauty of scenery, fertility 



Lawrence College 



153 



of soil and the opportunity afforded for fine farming country 
around the institute, it exceeds by far any on the river." 
Few viewing Appleton with the banks of the river hned with 
manufacturing plants and the flow of water controlled by 
dams, can realize the primitive beauty of the place as de- 
scribed by various persons who early visited the spot. Thus 
S. R. Thorp of Green Bay, on March 1, 1849, wrote to Mr. 
Sampson : 

Having recently visited Grand Chute on Fox River, it gives me much 
pleasure to send you this brief account. A view of the location confirmed 
the universal testimony of its surpassing salubrity, beauty, and even 
sublimity. The surrounding country is pleasingly undulating on a 
general level. Through this the pure, living waters of Lake Winnebago 
have worn a deep broad channel, with many a graceful curve and abrupt 
sweep. On either side is seen a steep bluff, now receding, now beetHng 
and bold, a hundred feet above the dashing flood. Many ravines branch 
out from the river in some of which ripple the modest rivulet. Here too 
are the ''sedes recessae" and "leafy dells" of deep and sombre gloom, that 
poets speak of. Over all waves a forest of almost every variety of trees. 
From shore to shore stretches zigzag a rocky brink, over which the rapid 
waters fall four feet and then shoot off down into a quiet basin below. 
Here is water power unsurpassed this side of Niagara; for here the 
largest tributary of all the northern lakes falls thirty feet; and is on the 
line of navigation now being improved from Green Bay to the Missis- 
sippi. 

To the selection of this site for the institute rather than 
the Williams land Mr. Lawrence graciously yielded saying: 
"I shall be gratified, if it is successful and shall take pride 
and pleasure in rendering it assistance, if it be conducted on 
correct principles." 

The location selected and a campus of sixty acres having 
been given by George W. La we of Kaukauna and Jolin F, 
Meade of Green Bay (although the thirty acres donated by 
the latter was never obtained, owing to the machinations 
of one of the supposed friends of the institution), the trustees 
were confronted with the problem of the securing of funds 
to match Mr. Lawrence's conditional offer of $10, 000 ;iiui 
also to erect the first building. The scarcity of the popula- 
tion and the poverty of the pioneers made this a large under- 



154 Samuel Plantz 

taking which could never have been accomphshed but for 
the faith, enthusiasm, and self-sacrifice of the missionary 
preachers. Writing from memory, the daughter of one of 
these preachers has left us the following account : 

They gathered at my father's home at Oshkosh, for my father, 
S. M. Stone, was a preacher in charge of the Winnebago circuit which 
embraced the whole county. There on the lake shore in a log parsonage, 
ten by twelve feet were its dimensions, those noble, self-sacrificing men 
planned for the institution before there was a tree cut in Appleton, and 
not only planned but divided their little store to start the wheel rolling. 
My father at that time gave $100 which was a fifth of all his earthly pos- 
sessions, and the rest did likewise. 

The Reverend William Sampson, who had more to do 
with starting the enterprise than anyone else, makes this 
statement in his autobiography : 

I spent many a sleepless night in planning to meet the exigencies of 
the hour. In order to carry forward the work I found it necessary to 
dispose of my property in the city of Fond du Lac where I owned a 
dwelling, two lots and thirty acres of land, also one hundred and twenty 
of timber lands two miles north on the west side of the lake. As money 
was close I had to sell at a great sacrifice, but risked all, reputation and 
property on the success of Lawrence University. 

A little later Honorable Mason C. Darling, who was the 
first president of the Board of Trustees, mortgaged his 
property for $3,000, taking some pledges for scholarships as 
security. The first subscription paper is in the vault of the 
college. It reads : ''Notice to the Benefactors of Our Country — 
The Lawrence Institute is to include a preparatory and 
Teacher's department, under the same charter, according 
gratuitous advantages to both sexes of Germans and 
Indians." Then follows a long statement about the beauty 
of the location and the purposes of the institution. Among 
the subscribers' names are those of Governor Seymour of 
New York, Governor Stone of Connecticut, and Governor 
Harris of Rhode Island. About this time Samuel Appleton 
of Boston, through the solicitation of Mr. Lawrence, gave 
$10,000, the interest on which was to be used as a library 
fund. In consideration of this gift, it was decided to change 



Lawrence College 



155 



the name Grand Chute to Appleton. The plan of raising 
funds was to sell scholarships for $50, which would entitle 
the owners to free tuition for ten years. Later these scholar- 
i ships were sold for $100 and made perpetual. Nearly 1200 
of these scholarships were sold in the early days, and it is 
needless to say came very nearly exterminating the institu- 
tion. They were later bought up and so the situation was 
saved. 

At the annual meeting of the Board of Trustees held in 
Fond du Lac, August 9, 1848, it was announced that suffi- 
cient money had been secured to meet Mr. Lawrence's 
conditions and to begin the enterprise. The Reverend 
William Sampson was elected principal, and he and the 
Reverend Reeder Smith, elected "agent," were authorized 
to begin the erection of the first building, with the expectation 
that it would be opened the following November. Mr. 
Sampson gives us the following interesting account of his 
first activities as principal : 

! I arranged matters at home, packed my trunk and the 7th of 
I Sept. 1848 left for the scene of operations. I took the steamer Man- 
I Chester the same they used to draw over the sand bar at Taychedah 
with a yoke of stags, arrived at Neenah about noon, secured a passage 
alone in an Indian dugout to the Grand Chute and took lodgings in a 
shanty hotel about a mile south of west from the present court house, 
kept by Mr. Thurber, the nearest house to the place of business. On the 
8th of Sept. I began to cut away the thick underbrush and soon had a 
road cleared from the old Indian trail on the river bank to the block on 
which Mr. Brewster's beautiful residence now stands. I cleared off 
the brush and the necessary preparations were made for the erection of 
the building in the center of that block. Col. Blood soon had a bill of 
timber as per agent's order, cut a road through the dense forest to Duck 
Creek, where the agent had engaged the lumber, employed teams and 
soon was doing "Land Office" business. A towering pile of lumber was 
on the ground. The agent had let the contract of putting up the building 
to Wm. H. McGregan of Sheboygan and he sent John P. Parish and 
Mr. Blake who came in Oct. or Nov. with their families, erected shanties 
and went to work. 

j It is a tradition that on one occasion the workmen were 
{driven from their task by wolves which attacked them. The 
! building was four stories in height, and was seventy feet 



156 



Samuel Plantz 



long by thirty feet wide. The first story was of stone and 
the others of wood, a cupola topping the structure. It was to 
serve for chapel, recitation, and dormitory purposes. 

With the erection of the building, settlers came pouring 
in so that when it was completed, November, 1849, there 
were in Appleton the beginnings of a village. The institute 
was opened with due ceremonies on September 12, 1849, 
*'with Rev. Wm. Sampson as principal, R. O. Kellogg, A.B. 
Professor of Languages, James M. Phinney, Professor of 
Mathematics, and Miss Emilie M. Crocker, Preceptress and 
Teacher of Music." The price of tuition was three dollars 
for the term of eleven weeks in the elementary English 
branches, four dollars in the higher English branches, and 
five dollars in languages, mathematics, and the natural and 
moral sciences. On the first day thirty -five enrolled, by the 
eighth of December the number had increased to sixty, and 
by Christmas time there were seventy-five. About this time 
the Reverend Henry R. Colman, on account of failing voice, 
resigned the pastorate and became steward. His son, the 
Reverend Henry Colman, D.D., now residing in Milwaukee, 
came with him to enter the school, and thus describes the 
situation : 

My father unable to preach from a broken voice became steward 
and boarded teachers and students for $1.50 per week, including bed- 
linen, while the institution threw in the room rent. I rang the bell, 
made fire for morning prayers at six, when Professor Kellogg came down 
with his tallow dip, read and shivered, shivered and prayed, while the 
students sat around wrapped in long shawls or big overcoats, which 
covered a multitude of negligencies. 

It has previously been stated that the charter and first 
subscription paper made it clear that the school was to 
furnish equal opportunities to male and female students. 
Mr. Lawrence was not especially pleased with this venture, 
but did not oppose it. It was remarked that when he visited 
the school some years later and addressed the students, he 
ignored the girls' side of the chapel and spoke directly to the 



Lawrence College 



157 



boys. Seventy-five years ago there was little sentiment in 
behalf of the higher education of women, and only Oberlin 
College had attempted it on a strict equality. It is inter- 
esting to note that as early as 1849 the doors of this school 
established in a wilderness threw its doors wide open to both 
sexes. At the fiftieth anniversary Dr. Henry Colman, in 
his historical address, said: 

Here women as well as men have boasted with Emerson : 

"I am owner of the sphere, 

Of the seven stars and the solar year, 

Of Caesar's hand, and Plato's brain. 

Of Lord Christ's heart, and Shakespeare's strain." 
But while the boys and girls recited together and had equal opportuni- 
ties, there was an outward show of separating them into a men's and 
women's department, and at graduation they had separate exhibitions 
and received their diplomas separately, because as some one remarked, 
*Tres. Cook did not want it known in the East he was at the head of a 
co-educational school." 

As there were no students who were prepared for college, 
the institute — the title of which was changed in 1849, by 
act of the legislature, to university, contrary to the desires 
of Mr. Lawrence, who wanted the term "college" — had to 
begin with elementary work. The course of study when 
compared with that of the modern high school is most 
interesting, and would put the present-day high school lad 
on his mettle. 

FIRST YEAR 

First and second quarters: Latin, natural philosophy, chemistry 
Third and fourth quarters: Latin, Greek, geology, botany 

SECOND YEAR 

First and second quarters: Latin, Greek, algebra 
Third and fourth quarters: Latin, Greek, geometry 

THIRD YEAR 

First quarter: Latin, Greek, algebra, mental philosophy 
Second quarter: Latin, Greek, algebra, moral science 
Third quarter: Latin, Greek, rhetoric, political economy 
Fourth quarter: Greek, elements of criticism, logic 

The course for the girls was the same except that French 
was substituted for Greek, with the privilege of taking Greek 



158 Samuel Plantz 

if desired. It is at least worthy of consideration, whether 
students who went through this course seventy-five years 
ago did not have a better mental development and greater 
power of thought than those who come out of our secondary 
schools today. 

As a study in educational progress, it may be worth 
while to consider briefly the discipline these students of 
seventy-five years ago were under as compared with the 
college students of today. The catalogue says: 

In the government of the school the faculty while strict, firm, and 
watchful will endeavor to secure not only the improvement of the stu- 
dents but their happiness, and to induce in them such habits as become 
ladies and gentlemen among which habits are appreciation, punctuality, 
and politeness. 

We shall not give all the rules, but for brevity the more 
striking : 

During the hours of study no student shall be unnecessarily absent 
from his room, or leave the institution's premises, or visit the room of a 
fellow student without permission of one of the oflScers. 

At no time and in no case shall clamorous noise, athletic exercises, 
smoking tobacco in seminary buildings, be allowed: nor shall the use of 
profane or obscene language, intoxicating drinks, playing games of 
chance or indulging in indecorous conduct be allowed in the seminary 
buildings or elsewhere. 

A strict observance of the Sabbath will be required of all students. 
On no account may they go abroad into the fields, frequent the village, or 
collect at each other's rooms without permission from the proper officers. 
Sobriety and silence must be observed throughout the Sabbath. Attend- 
ance at church morning and afternoons is required. 

No student may attend mixed assemblages or parties of any kind; 
nor may any gentleman or lady ride or walk together without express 
permission. 

If any male student have a relative in the female department whom 
he wishes to see he can go to the steward's room and there converse 
with her. 

Weekly exercises in declamation and composition were 
required of the gentlemen, but composition only was 
required of the ladies. On alternate Saturdays exercises of a 
literary nature were carried on by the students. Orations 
and declamations were given and the school newspapers 



Lawrence College 



159 



were read. Debating became the main interest of the men, 
and a debating society was formed the first year of the 
school. 

As the first college class was to be formed in 1853, it 
was thought best to elect a president, and September 1, 
1852, the Reverend Edward Cook, D.D., of Boston, was 
chosen. One of his pupils thus writes concerning him : 

He brought to Lawrence University, in aid of his presidency, a 
thorough, highly finished, classical education, with rarely equalled 
polished manners and ways, all supplemented by 18 years experience in 
eastern seminaries and in pastorates in Charlestown and Boston. He 
was neat to a fault in attire, his face clean shaven. His learning was 
measured and dignified to a degree. He was faultless in speech, meas- 
ured by a synthesis and distinctness of enunciation, that rendered him 
an elegant, cultivated and most interesting conversationalist and 
speaker. His lectures, orations and sermons were replete with eloquence 
and grace and were of a high order. He walked with measured gait, 
always with a cane, in true colonial style. 

It must have been something of an undertaking for this 
polished scholar with his silk hat and cane to adjust himself 
to this 'Vilderness school," but he seems to have accom- 
plished it, and to have left a deep impression on his students. 

It was during the presidency of Dr. Cook that what is 
now known as Recitation Hall was erected. At the time it 
was dedicated, 1853, it was by far the finest building in the 
state. The Milwaukee Sentinel, speaking of it in 1856, 
says: "This building is the largest and best of its kind in the 
West." Dr. Alfred Brunson in his dedicatory address was 
even more extravagant and said, as a college building **it 
will compare favorably with any similar one in the United 
States, if not in the world." President Cook collected about 
him a most able faculty and the college won a fine reputation 
for scholastic work, but he was not a financier and the school 
went behind each year, until in despair of bringing it through 
financially he resigned. He was succeeded by Dr. Russell Z. 
Mason, who was connected with the college as professor of 
natural science, and was regarded as the man wlio could lift 



160 



Samuel Plantz 



it from bankruptcy to prosperity. The trustees strictly 
enjoined him not to run the institution further in debt. 
Soon after his election he went to Boston, where Governor 
Lee Claflin and Mr. Lawrence gave him $10,000 each. 
Besides these gifts he raised $20,000 to clear off the indebted- 
ness on the school. President Mason was not simply a 
financier. He was a scholar and a man of noble character 
and of great influence over his students. He tells, in a brief 
statement of his presidency, that when he assumed charge 
there were between 300 and 400 students, and that the 
endowment fund of $50,000 had been entirely consumed in 
running the college. 

It was during President Mason's administration that the 
Civil War broke out. He makes this interesting statement 
about it: 

The guns were leveled, and fired on Fort Sumter. The country was 
alarmed but resolved. Lawrence University was not slow to declare 
itself for the Union. A war meeting was called to meet in the college 
chapel. I was called to the chair; though not strictly according to my 
ecclesiastical training and relations, I claim the honor of making the 
first war speech that was made in the community, if not in the state. 
There were other speeches made that evening by Dr. Davis, Prof. 
Phinney, Prof. Pomeroy. These speeches all bore fruit. Enlistments 
were numerous. Prof. Pletschke and Prof. Pomeroy both enlisted that 
evening and both raised companies and later died in the army. . . . 
In every subsequent call of Pres. Lincoln for volunteers some of our 
young men enlisted. I think in one case an entire class, which if I 
remember rightly was the class which would have graduated in 1864. 
... I think I run no risk of a failure when I challenge any similar 
institution in the country to show a greater per cent of its pupils and 
graduates and faculty who responded to the call for men in the procla- 
mations of President Lincoln and Governor Randall. 

He goes on to speak of the addresses in the college, of the 
Honorable Fred Douglass, the Reverend Henry Ward 
Beecher, and Bishop Matthew Simpson — all among the 
greatest orators of their day, who made a great impression 
and received a large response. 

Much could be said of the service of Lawrence College 
in the war, but it will be sufficient to quote the following 
sentence from one of the speeches of Colonel J. A. Watrous: 



Lawrence College 



161 



Lawrence University has no occasion to blush for the part her sons 
played in the great war. She furnished hundreds of men who stood in 
that proud, steadfast wall of blue and performed the duties of private 
soldiers: she furnished many company commanders: she furnished men 
who commanded regiments: she furnished an adjutant general for the 
Iron Brigade: she furnished staff officers and chaplains: and I do not 
recall one of her sons who came out of the army with a tarnished reputa- 
tion or a record for inefficiency. 

President Mason resigned the presidency in 1865, and 
Dr. George M. Steele of Massachusetts was elected to fill 
the vacancy. Dr. Steele was a man with a leonine head, a 
deep voice, an abundant humor, a rugged personality; he 
was also a good scholar. For fourteen years he was one of 
the foremost citizens in Wisconsin, a public speaker much 
sought after, and a natural leader of men. He wrote for the 
North American and other magazines, and published books 
on political science and other subjects. At one time he ran 
for Congress. He pursued the policy as an administrator of 
cutting the garment to the cloth, so that there was no 
marked development in the institution. During what is 
known as the Methodist Centenary Movement for Educa- 
tion, something more than $50,000 was secured for endow- 
ment. The greatest mistake of Dr. Steele's administration 
was the sale of twenty acres of the college campus — a 
failure to appreciate the future needs of the institution 
which it is diflScult to understand, but which was induced 
by the poverty of the school and the great demand for 
funds. The real importance of Dr. Steele and the largest 
i success of his administration are found in the great influence 
of his personality upon his students. Dr. Olin A. Curtis, 
for many years professor of systematic theology at Boston 
University and later at Drew Theological Seminary, and 
author of one of the best books on theology written by an 
American in recent years, says: "In twelve years of student 
life, in four countries, I have had twcnty-ciglit teachers. 
But I have not the least hesitancy in saying GecM-ge M. 
Steele was the greatest teacher of them all. ... He could 



162 



Samuel Plantz 



create for a student a new world. . , . His class-room was 
a place of large horizons." This is high praise from a man 
who had studied with Borden P. Bowne in this country and 
with Dorner and Luthardt in Germany. After being fourteen 
years with the college, Dr. Steele resigned, tired of the 
financial struggle. 

For four years Dr. E. D. Huntley, known as a lecturer 
and preacher, chaplain for a time of the United States Senate 
and pastor of Metropolitan Church, Washington, was 
president. He was an orator but not a scholar. He was 
elected largely because of his ability to raise money, and in 
this he succeeded, securing a legacy of $50,000 from Charles 
Paine of Oshkosh and other smaller sums from many sources. 
During his administration the president's home was built 
and the Y. M. C. A. organized. Dr. Huntley's health broke 
down under the strain and he resigned. 

The successor to President Huntley was a graduate of 
Lawrence — Dr. Bradford P. Raymond, a fine scholar, edu- 
cated in this country and Germany, and a man of admirable 
personal qualities. He was a great preacher, and published 
articles and books of value. He found the task of raising 
money tedious, but was at home in the class room. He was 
also a fine administrator, winning students by their confi- 
dence in him and by his justice and sincerity. He did much 
to expand the curriculum, introduced elective studies, and 
brought to the college that great scholar and teacher Dr. 
Henry Lummis, who for breadth of learning, inspirational 
power in the class room, intellectual keenness, and debating 
power was probably the equal of any man who has taught 
in Wisconsin. For twenty years this man of encyclopedic 
learning and of gracious personality taught at Lawrence and 
gave new impulses to scores of young lives. The second 
building of importance was erected in President Raymond's 
time — Ormsby Hall, a dormitory for women, being built 
in 1888. The next year he was called to the presidency of 



Lawrence College 



163 



Wesleyan University at Middletown, Connecticut, over 
which he successfully presided for twenty-five years. 

Dr. Raymond was succeeded by Dr. Charles W. Gal- 
lagher, who did much to bring the college before the people 
of Wisconsin and who raised considerable money, most of it 
never being realized by the college, owing to the failure of 
two contributors who gave $25,000 each but were unable to 
meet the obligations they had assumed. It was at this 
time that Underwood Observatory was built and equipped. 
After four years of service Dr. Gallagher handed in his 
resignation. He was succeeded by President Samuel 
Plantz, the present incumbent. 

During the past twenty-eight years Lawrence has had a 
steady development. Its plant has been increased by erec- 
tion or purchase until it now has fifteen buildings. Its 
equipment has also been greatly extended. The library 
of 8000 volumes has now over 41,000. A museum has been 
built up which is one of the largest collections owned by any 
institution of college rank in the country. The 53 courses of 
study in the college have increased to 293. The endowment 
of less than $100,000 has grown to nearly $2,000,000. The 
faculty of 9 persons is now 63, and the student attendance 
in the college department, which was 83 in 1895, was the 
last year 870. The college has developed a strong conser- 
vatory of music, but has dropped the academy, the business 
college, the school of expression, the school of art, etc., which 
it had when President Plantz assumed control. Its total 
attendance in college and conservatory last year was 1287. 
The college has property, plant and endowment, now valued 
at nearly three and a half million. It has various honorary 
organizations, like Phi Beta Kappa; the American Associa- 
tion of University Women; Tau Kappa x\lpha, an honorary 
debating and oratory fraternity; Pi Delta Epsilon and Thola 
Sigma Pi, honorary journalistic fraternities. It also has 
thirteen social fraternities and sororities. The college has 



164 



Samuel Plantz 



come to be recognized as one of the strongest in the Middle 
West and as maintaining high scholastic standards. 

In closing this account of the history of Lawrence Col- 
lege, in which a wealth of material has been omitted because 
of the necessary brevity, a word should be added about the 
influence of the college on the state and nation. Nearly 
14,000 young people have studied for a longer or shorter 
period at Lawrence. Of this number fully 3000 have taught 
for a time in the schools of the state. Nearly 400 have 
become lawyers, over 350 clergymen, more than 200 physi- 
cians and dentists, 80 editors, and many more are inventors, 
engineers, business men, keepers of homes, and representa- 
tives of various occupations and callings. Lawrence has 
graduated United States senators, congressmen, governors, 
judges of circuit and supreme courts, members of legisla- 
tures, college presidents, artists, authors, scientists, and men 
high in the councils of the church. It has sent about 50 
missionaries to various parts of the earth. It has graduates 
who are teaching in more than a dozen of the largest univer- 
sities from Harvard down. No one can estimate the diam- 
eter of its influence. It is not a private institution, but 
belongs to the state and nation. In the last war it had over 
500 of its students, graduates, and teachers in the service. 
It seeks to maintain the highest Christian ideals, to mold 
character as well as impart knowledge, and to stand for 
those principles in our civilization which are the basis of its 
progress and security. The location of the college makes it 
certain that its growth will steadily continue, and that its 
service to society will be multiplied with the flight of the 
years. It has just celebrated its seventy-fifth birthday, but 
is still only in its youth, and the period of its largest service 
to humanity is yet ahead. 



MEMORIES OF A BUSY LIFE^ 

General Charles King 
military and naval officers i have known 

Looking over the memoranda from which the first 
number of this series was dictated, I find some sixteen pages 
that escaped us at the time and that have to deal in great 
measure with the mihtary influences that bore upon me from 
earhest boyhood. I have told how my father, being a 
member of the Board of Visitors to West Point, in June, 
1849, took mother, my sister, our faithful Milwaukee nurse 
Ellen, and my nearly five-year-old self on a wonderful 
visit to the East.^ In all his martial splendor, day after 
day that week in June, my eyes followed General Winfield 
Scott, little dreaming that seventeen years thereafter I 
should be one of his funeral escorts at that very point. 
Later in that summer of '49 I saw still more of my hero, and 
incidentally was properly castigated for assuring him of my 
utter disapprobation of the civilian dress which he wore 
when summering at his country home adjoining my grand- 
father's place, "Cherry Lawn," on the southern outskirts of 
what was then called Elizabethtown, New Jersey. 

The single track of the Jersey railway ran southward 
along the back of grandfather's orchard, and the event of the 
summer day to me was the passing of the evening express 
from Jersey City on its way to Rahway, New Brunswick, 
and so on to Camden and the ferry to Philadelphia. (There 
are four tracks now, and a hundred huge trains of the 
Pennsylvania system pass that spot unnoted in the course of 
twenty-four hours.) Then there was dwelling not far away 
from us the town tailor, another American citizen with 

1 This is the fourth installment of General King's interesting memories. Tiic earlier 
parts appeared in the March, June, and September issues of this year's magazine. 
^ Wisconsin Magazine of History, v, 219. 



166 General Charles King 

military aspirations as keen as my own, and as enthusiastic 
a worshiper of General Scott. He was deeply attached to the 
two households of Scott and King. He made the clothes of ; 
my uncles and repaired those, at least, of the heads of the 
two households. He always brought his handiwork in 
person, in hope of a chat, and during the summer of '49 
he attached himself eagerly to my father that he might draw 
him out about West Point, and later, as it transpired, about 
Wisconsin. He sought a wider field, he frankly owned, for | 
his genius. He prided himself on the cut of his clothing, and ! 
borrowed my father's uniforms — the natty frock coat of the i, 
Engineers and the gorgeous tail coat of the Adjutant Gen- ; 
eral, both the workmanship of a famous sartorial artist of 
the 30's in New York City — and that summer this promi- 
nent citizen of Elizabethtown won for himself a nickname 
that for several years supplanted his own modest patro- [ 
nymic. "Heavenly scissors!" he had exclaimed, on his 
first study of these martial robes, "what a cut!" And as : 
"Heavenly Scissors" he was known from that time forth 
until his removal to Milwaukee. 

Filled with prophetic enthusiasm for the possibilities of 
his new western home, father had sounded its praises in 
Albany, and it is quite possible that he had not a little to do 
with the fact that famous families of that old Dutch com- 
munity — like the Colts, the Bloodgoods, and even Uncle i; 
Billy Cramer — were moved, with certain eager young bar- 
risters like Dan Shaw and Charles Apthorpe Hamilton, to 
transfer their lares and penates via the Erie Canal to 
Buffalo, and thence by boat around the lakes. So, too, a '■ 
bit later came Robert Eliot and Gabriel Bouck, classmates 
at the old Albany Academy, though Bouck tarried not in 
Milwaukee, but went on to find a home at Oshkosh. When i 
early in the 50's "Heavenly Scissors" found a partner, the 
firm of Swain and Magie rented a store adjoining that of ! 
Bradley and Metcalf, on the west side of East Water 



Memories of a Busy Life 



167 



Street a few doors south of Wisconsin, and there our Jersey 
tailor laid the foundation of his future fortune. James A. 
Swain became a famous character in old Milwaukee, 
achieved his ambition to bear a military title on the staff 
of an old-time governor, and succeeded in getting the Mil- 
waukee vacancy to West Point for his son, in succession to 
such men as Galbraith Miller, E. Frank Townsend, and 
John J. Upham. But, like John Hathaway, young Swain 
found mathematics too much for him and was never gradu- 
ated — a matter his proud old father took grievously to 
heart. Swain had left Milwaukee for good and all when I 
came back there in '66; he had moved South, it was said, 
and I never expected to see him again. But, back from the 
Apache campaign in Arizona in '75, with my right arm in a 
sling, I had reached Memphis, Tennessee, and spent a long 
Sunday at a dreary hotel, waiting for the evening train 
to Washington. Just about six in the evening a handsomely 
appointed carriage and pair drew up at the entrance. A 
tall, distinguished looking gentleman, faultlessly dressed, 
stepped out, glanced about him, lifted his silk hat, and asked 
if I was Lieutenant Charles King and whether I had ever lived 
in Milwaukee. It was "Heavenly Scissors." He had made 
a fortune (in cotton, not wool), it was later told me, and had 
a beautiful home in the suburbs. A recruiting ojBScer had 
mentioned the fact that a wounded cavalryman, Lieutenant 
King, was at the hotel, and Swain had come on the chance of 
its being his little boy friend of twenty years earlier; you 
can fancy what a talk we had in the half hour before train 
time. 

And General Scott in '75 was still his soldier idol. In 
Swain's opinion the Civil War had developed no leader to 
^;qual him. It will be remembered that as soon as Congress 
provided, early in '62, for the retired list. General Scott was 
prevailed upon by his closest friends, as well as liis i^liysi- 
nan, to avail himself of the opportunity. President Lincoln 



168 



General Charles King 



treated him with the utmost courtesy and deference. Scott 
had been a general in the regular army nearly half a century, 
was well along in the seventies and aging fast, yet he had so 
long been the nation's foremost soldier that he hated to give 
way. During the fall and winter months of 1859 and 1860, 
and until March, 1861, he lived in West Twelfth Street, a 
few doors from Fifth Avenue, having declared it impossible 
to serve as general of the Army in the same city with his 
fellow Virginian, John B. Floyd, secretary of war. Dur- 
ing those two winters my grandfather occupied with his 
family the house at Number 28 West Fourteenth Street, 
and no matter what I might be doing any other night in the 
week, even a general-alarm fire would not warrant my fail- 
ure to be on hand promptly at ten o'clock every Thursday 
night for the most important duty of my boyhood. 

Regularly at eight o'clock, escorted and convoyed by 
either an aide-de-camp or his faithful orderly. General 
Scott would slowly and ponderously ascend the broad steps 
to our front door, be admitted with immense show of homage 
by the Irish-English butler, Daniel, and ushered into the 
parlor, where he would be welcomed by the entire household 
— my grandparents, with one married and four unmarried 
daughters, an uncle or two, and possibly visitors — and there 
the General would sit in solemn state, conversing with the 
elders, enjoying the music — ^for two of the daughters 
played admirably, and the youngest, Mary Alsop (she who 
became Madame Waddington, and is, except for my incon- 
spicuous self, the only survivor), sang delightfully and was 
his special favorite. At 9 :30 the hissing urn was brought in 
and tea was served, though dinner was only just over at 7:30, 
and as the city clocks struck ten the General would rise, 
everybody else would rise, he would bid each lady a cere- 
monious good-night, be conducted by my grandfather to the 
front door, and there turned over for escort and safe conduct 
to the fifteen-year-old lad, who was never addressed by his 



Memories of a Busy Life 



169 



Christian name by any member of the household — there 
being yet another and younger boy Charles, the son of my 
uncle C. L. King. From September, 1858, to their last days, 
every member of the old household hailed him as "Milwau- 
kee," and he was proud of it. 

Ten minutes it took the huge warrior, hero of many a 
battle in the wars of 1812 and 1846 and '47, with his diminu- 
tive escort to reach the Twelfth Street home; and all the 
way the General would talk affably of West Point and my 
ambition to enter, of the Army as a career, etc. — always with 
kindness and sympathy, yet with a certain reserve. He 
knew my grandfather's hope that I could be made to forget 
it in favor of Columbia and its law school, only just then 
opened. Yet he said if ever he could help me obtain the 
appointment he would, and in 1860 he could have done so 
easily, but, as I have stated, except my silent father the 
entire family opposed the one great hope and wish of my 
boyhood, until they were at last convinced it was all useless. 
Then in the spring of 1862, after Upham had been ap- 
pointed instead of myself. General Scott was importuned 
with results I might have anticipated. Indeed, I did not 
wish to ask him, but my grandfather had said, *'Go." 

It was so characteristic of Scott that the picture is still 
vivid in my mind's eye. He was then occupying rooms on 
Fifth Avenue in the old Brevoort House, and in his dressing 
gown and loose attire, was nursing a gouty foot and his new 
and deep grievance. He barely heard me through, but with 
uplifted hand spoke slowly and impressively. "My young 
friend, I would do much for you, more for your father, and 
ilmost anything for your grandfather, but tliat General 
Scott should ask a favor of this administration is out of the 
question." I bowed, took my leave, told my grandfather 
iust what had happened, and yet refrained from saying 
1 could have told you so." He and George W. Blunt, botli 



170 



General Charles King 



devoted friends and adherents of the General, were together 
at the moment, and the latter spoke. 

"Scott is simply fretting himself to death. I doubt if he 
can live a year." ! 

But he did; he lived nearly five of them, and it was my 
fate or fortune to be with or near him as the end drew nigh. . 
He had come to live the last months of his life at West J 
Point, and every fair day, in his open carriage, would be i 
driven slowly about the beautiful elm-shaded roads sur- 
rounding the plain, eagerly watching for and scrupulously i 
returning the salutes of the sentries and cadets, or the bows i 
of civilians. For half a century he had been the great 
"I Am" of the Army. For thirty years or more its foot 
regiments had been drilled and manoeuvred according to 
Scott's Heavy Infantry Tactics, but by 1862 these had given 
place to Hardee's Light Infantry Tactics, adapted from the 
French. The stately old grenadier salute of the regular [ 
service had been replaced at West Point by a jaunty, grace- 
ful, finger-tip touch of the cap visor, with a downward and [ 
forward sweep of the hand and arm. Something told me the I 
dying veteran disliked it. I was the adjutant of the Corps f 
of Cadets in the fall of '65 and, remembering the old-time ! 
Mexican War salute Scott himself had taught me when a j 
little shaver of five, I made a suggestion to a few cadets — 
like Churchill, Capron, Heintzelman — whose fathers had n 
fought under Scott. The next time we saw the General's 
open carriage approaching, instead of walking straight ; 
ahead and passing him with the cadet salute of the day, we 
''lined up" along the roadside several paces apart, and > 
as he came nearly opposite, each in turn squarely faced him, i 
raised the hand, palm to the front, fingers extended and 
joined, the tips just touching the visor, in the rigid, ramrod 
salute — his own salute — of the days of our fathers ; it was a 
joy to see his instant recognition of our purpose, and his i 
obvious delight in our homage. General Cullum, then 



Memories of a Busy Life 



171 



superintendent and long a member of his staff, told relatives 
i of mine who came up for a visit, that nothing had given the 
i old warrior such pleasure as the sudden and unexpected 
I demonstration of his old salute tendered by the young 
soldiers of the Corps of Cadets. In June, 1866, we fired the 
last volleys over his grave. 

In the beautiful autumn of 1863, nearly two years after 
his retirement, General Scott, having somewhat recovered 
his health and spirits, was living at Cozzens Hotel a mile 
below the Point, basking in the sunshine and rejoicing in the 
adulation of the many attractive women there assembled. 
A bevy of them usually hovered about his big armchair, and 
occasionally he would don his full dress uniform and pose 
for Brady or Frederick's camera man. And then one day, 
in the handsome uniform of a major general, came the hand- 
somest soldier in the Army of the United States, recuper- 
ating from the wounds of Gettysburg — another Winfield 
Scott, but with the surname of Hancock — and the super- 
intendent of the Academy sent me one glorious Saturday 
afternoon, in all the pomp and circumstance of my corporal's 
chevrons, with his authority to go to Cozzens and present 
myself to this magnificent corps commander — the man of 
whom Meade had said, "Hancock was superb today!" 

And thereby hangs a tale Colonel Watrous loved to tell, 
and I wish he were yet alive to tell it for you ; but it is on file 
at the War Department in the eflSciency report of the 
youngest Iron Brigade man to my knowledge yet alive 
today. 

It was of a stormy afternoon in late September of 1861. 
It was on the banks of the Potomac, just opposite Chain 
Bridge. The Sibley tents of the Sixth Maine Infantry were 
still standing on the broad plateau which lay between the 
overhanging bluff that skirted the river road from Washing- 
ton, and what was called the Georgetown Pike, perhaj^s five 
hundred yards to the north. The Sixth Maine were in 



172 



General Charles King 



bivouac with the rest of General W. F. (Baldy) Smith's big 
brigade (he had three of General King's regiments as well as 
five of his own), over beyond the wooded heights on thei 
south bank of the broad Potomac. The Sixth Wisconsin, j 
however, had pitched their tents on the north side of that ] 
pike; their sentry line on their eastward flank was but 
forty or fifty paces from the headquarters tents of General 
King, his staff, and the telegraph station, and one of these 
sentries, with his rifle at "secure" and his coat collar up 
about his ears, was a twenty-year-old private of Company 
G- — Jerome Watrous, of Fond du Lac. 

General King, with his Milwaukee commissary. Captain 
J. L. Hathaway, and his New York Seventh Regiment aide- 
de-camp, Benkard, had gone in to Washington. His Mil- 
waukee adjutant general, Bob Chandler, and his editorial 
Green Bay Advocate quartermaster, Charles D. Robinson, 
were away on some duty, leaving only two or three orderlies, 
Cary Tuckerman of the Second Wisconsin, and myself to 
look after matters at headquarters, when Sentry Watrous 
caught sight of a long column of infantry coming slowly 
plodding up the pike, drenched and bedraggled with thej 
downpour. Half a dozen mounted officers were at the head^ 
of the column, and two of these spurring ahead turned out i 
from the road and came swiftly trotting up to the front of 
the general's "marquee," the biggest canvas on the plateau. ^ 
Instantly the orderlies sprang to attention and stood at the i 
salute, recognizing the horse equipments of a brigadier 
general. 

"Is General King here?" asked the foremost rider — the 
tallest, handsomest man the Wisconsin boys had yet seen atr 
the front. 

"No, sir, gone to Washington," promptly answered the 
smallest and least conspicuous of the group. 

"Any of his staff here?" [ 
"Yes, sir, I am," was the answer, in all the valorous 



Memories of a Busy Life 



173 



importance of sixteen years and five feet four. And the big 
general was too much of a gentleman to laugh. 

"Well," said he, "I was told I could find a mounted guide 
here to lead me by the shortest route to General Smith's 
command. 

**I can take you, sir. I go there every day," said the 
youngster; and Watrous saw it all, though he could not hear. 

Five minutes later the small orderly, on a big, mettle- 
some bay, was riding side by side with the tall general down 
the ramp the Engineers had carved out of the bluff side, and 
past the saluting guards of the Third Vermont into the long, 
dim, tunnel-like vista of the old Howe truss bridge that bore 
away to the southern shore. Every now and then the Gen- 
eral curiously studied the boy soldier by his side. His own 
horse and those of his staff were showing signs of weariness ; 
the orderly's, fresh as a colt and rejoicing in an opportunity 
to show off before strangers, was dancing and curvetting. 
As I have told you, Alexander Mitchell had given me my first 
mount — a devil-may-care little Shetland — when I was only 
seven, and I had been riding more or less all my boyhood; 
even in New York when living in Fourteenth Street, thanks 
to the kindness of that youngest and dearest of my aunts — 
she who is known to so many American readers of the last 
decade — I had been able to ride almost regularly, for she 
had a beautiful, spirited saddle-horse she was far too busy 
to mount more than once or twice a week, and in the good- 
ness of her heart it became ''Milwaukee's" pride and privi- 
lege to exercise him for her, and the saddle had become 
almost a home to him. 

And so that stormy autumn day I found my tall, 
unknown General intently watching my horse and occa- 
sionally glancing curiously at me. He had asked a few 
questions as we neared the Virginia shore, as to the char- 
acter of the road ahead, the distance, etc. Presently he 



I, 



174 General Charles King 

said, "Isn't that a pretty big horse for a lad of your size? 
How old are you?" 

^'Seventeen next month, sir." 

**Indeed! You look much younger. Who taught you to 
ride?" I 

''My father, sir, if anybody. He's a West Pointer, too," 
I ventured. jl 

"Oh, you are General King's son. You ought to be 
be going to the Point one of these days." 

"That's been my hope and ambition these last three ! 
years, General, and I wish you would tell him that you agree il, 
with me." |! 

He threw back his head and laughed a hearty, ringing | 
laugh. "Indeed I will and if air goes well, possibly I can ! 
help you one of these days — My name's Hancock." | 

And so it happened as we began the ascent of the winding 
road up Pimet Run, that the first time that knightly soldier 
and brilliant general crossed the Potomac at the head of his | 
brigade a Milwaukee boy was his guide; and so it later [ 
happened that late September afternoon, in the big parlor at j 
Cozzens Hotel, he gravely presented the stripling cadet j 
corporal to the ladies of the party as "one of my young 
veterans." 

Yet — will you believe it? — the very next time I rode 
before him, he ordered me placed in arrest. 

It was in New Orleans, the winter of 1867-68; as major • 
general of the Army, Hancock had come to command the 
Department of the Gulf, and the garrison of New Orleans i 
assembled in his honor was passing in review under the 
Camp Street gallery of the old headquarters building, 
opposite LaFayette Square. The magnificent general, with 
his staff and a few invited guests, stood near the east end of 
the gallery. I think his chief of staff on that occasion was the j 
General Hartsuff who was a passenger on the Lady Elgin the 



I 



Memories of a Busy Life 



175 



night of her ill-fated run in September, 1860, from Chicago 
for Milwaukee. 

Farther along the gallery toward the west was Mrs. 
Hancock with a bevy of ladies. The long column of infan- 
try, their fronts extending from curb to curb, had marched 
handsomely by, and then came Light Battery K of the First 
Artillery, in which I was second lieutenant. Heading the 
battery, with its beautiful horses and glistening guns, rode 
our soldierly captain, Billy Graham, famous in the Army of 
the Potomac. Midway between their lead drivers, each in 
his own platoon, rode the two first lieutenants, and bringing 
up the rear — the post of the chief of caissons — bestriding the 
most beautiful charger in the column, my Kentucky-bred 
"Genesee," came the General's guide of six years before. 
Each in turn as he passed underneath the station of the 
reviewing officer on the gallery, the captain and lieutenants 
lowered their sabres in salute, returning to the carry after 
passing six yards beyond him. 

And then, just beyond that point, leaning over the gal- 
lery railing, fluttering their handkerchiefs and waving 
joyous greeting, all smiles and welcome (and some of them 
mischievously laughing, for well they knew the rigid eti- 
quette of the regular service), were Mrs. Hancock and a 
score of the Army ladies, most of them young, many of 
them pretty, and all of them objects of our chivalrous 
attention — all of them now waving salutation to me, the 
rearmost officer of the entire column. What was I to do? 
Review regulations prescribed that having passed the 
general, head and eyes should be straight to the front; but 
"Genesee" was arching his neck and tossing his head, pawing 
and dancing sidewise now, so that I was squarely facing 
them. I could not doff my gold-braided "schako" with its 
waving scarlet horse-tail plume. I couUl not bear to ]>ass 
without some return of their delightful greeting. I took my 
chance. Up went the sabre to the gleaming poise, then swept 



176 



General Charles King 



downward in the full salute, and the deed was done. A 
moment later, and two or three of the youngest, most 
thoughtless of the group had rushed to the reviewing point: 
"Oh, General Hancock, General Hancock^ did you see how 
beautifully Mr. King saluted Mrs. Hancock?" 

''What!" exclaimed the General. "You don't mean it! 
Really so? Most unsoldierly! Most improper! Hartsuff, 
see to it that that young officer goes back to barracks at 
once in close arrest." 

And there was to be a dance at the General's spacious 
house that very evening and I had been designated to lead 
the "german," as it was called in the North, but New Orleans 
society folk more accurately called it the "cotillion." True 
or not, I do not know, but one of the ladies told me later it 
took the united pleadings of Mrs. Hancock and her St. 
Louis relatives to induce the General to recall that order. 
It would have served me right if he had not. 

At one of the dances in New Orleans the previous winter, 
I had been assigned by the floor manager to a place in the 
same set (we were dancing the lancers) with two very dis- 
tinguished Confederates — Generals Beauregard and Paul 0. 
Hebert. They were courteous, but not cordial. Five years 
later, on my second detail in New Orleans, General Hebert 
had become president of the Jockey Club (Metairie), and 
it was he who picked me to ride for the United States in the 
international race on Ladies' Day, the ninth of April — 
oddly enough, the anniversary of Appomattox. ^ By that 
time he had become cordiality and courtesy personified. 

But perhaps the most remarkable meeting and associa- 
tion with these prominent leaders of the Southern side in 
the great Civil War was that of which I have previously 
spoken — with Lee's old war dog and greatest corps com- 
mander, Longstreet. He had been the President's guest in 
Washington, as he had been present at Grant's modest 

8 Wis. Mag. of Hist, v, 239-240. 



Memories of a Busy Life 



111 



wedding in St. Louis a quarter of a century before. He 
was now, in 1873, wearing the Union blue again, as major 
general of the Louisiana State Militia, and was doing his best 
to protect the governor and legislature from the riot tactics 
of the unreconstructed. General Emory, commanding the 
Department, had been ordered to preserve a strict neutrali- 
ty, but he had a warm regard for Longstreet dating from 
Mexican War days. I was Emory's junior staff oiBBcer, and 
for some months had been employed in writing from his 
dictation all his numerous reports and despatches to the 
War Department, many of which had had to be ''coded." 
I had also carried and delivered most of his messages to 
Governor Warmoth in the days when Louisiana had two 
legislatures, and to Warmoth's successor when Louisiana 
had a negro lieutenant governor. I had had to be in close 
touch with the marshal and his deputies, with the chief of 
police and his subordinates, and knew, of course, most of the 
rendezvous of the riotous element. The police force of 
New Orleans, under the orders of the governor, had been 
organized, armed, and equipped as a regiment of infantry, 
a battery of field artillery, and a squadron of cavalry; con- 
sequently the Southern orators claimed that the state was 
maintaining a military force contrary to the constitution, 
and scores of Democrats in Congress assembled held the 
same view. 

When Emory withdrew his troops from the city to the 
adjacent barracks, leaving Longstreet and the Louisiana 
militia to preserve the peace, he nevertheless *'kept in 
touch," as the military expression is. Longstreet was 
frequently sending to headquarters for information, and I 
was frequently sent to Longstreet. Twice or thrice my 
instructions were to remain with him until some order had 
been carried out, and to bring General Emory full repcMt of 
everything that transpired. And so it happened that I saw 
much of the great Confederate leader, and heard from his 



178 General Charles King 



own lips details of stirring events during the Civil War; 
but I never ventured to ask him the inside facts as to the 
exact advice he was reported to have given Lee, urging 
against the fatal frontal attack at Gettysburg, and advising ] 
that he manoeuvre Meade out of the strong position from i 
Gulp's Hill to Round Top simply by marching by night | 
around Meade's left (southern) flank, seizing the roads to 
Baltimore, interposing between Meade and Washington, 1 
and compelling him to "let go." I longed to know the real | 
truth of his opposition to Pickett's great and final assault 1 
on the Union center, held by Hancock's corps, on the last | 
great day of the battle. Longstreet had with him in New | 
Orleans only police and militia officers of the "carpetbag" I 
type. All the old Gonfederates held aloof from him, as 
was to be expected, and his heart was heavy. Young as I ! 
was, I, too, was a West Pointer and a representative of the ; 
old Army he had so long loved, and he actually seemed glad | 
to have me with him, to talk with me about kith and kin ; 
he had well known in former days; seldom in my life have I 
had so interesting an experience. 

At Jackson, Mississippi, I had seen and eagerly studied | 
the famous cavalry leader Forrest. In New Orleans I [ 
had met General Beauregard, who was very courteous, but 
distant and reserved. At the Metairie Jockey Glub I had . 
seen much of Generals Buford, Hebert, and Westmore of 
the old Army, and had been presented by General Emory ' 
to his devoted old friend General "Dick" Taylor — all I, 
prominent officers of the Confederacy . At Louisville, long i 
years later. General Simon B. Buckner had most graciously 
welcomed a little deputation of Sons of the American > 
Revolution, of which I happened to be secretary; and in 
Chicago I had been honored by two hours of the most 
brilliant and delightful talk ever I heard in tete-a-tete, 
with no less a personage than Colonel Watterson himself; 



Memories of a Busy Life 



179 



but of the few great Southerners it has been my lot to meet 
and know, Longstreet interested me by far the most. 

An object of my boyish reverence before the war was a 
major in the Quartermaster's Department, of whom General 
Scott, my grandfather, and all the family much approved. 
He had left his sabre arm at Molino del Rey when second 
lieutenant of the very battery in which, just twenty years 
later, I held the same rank and position. A dignified, 
courteous gentleman, a devout member of my uncle Andrew 
Patterson's church at St. Paul, Minnesota, he had married 
my godmother, father's eldest sister. That empty sleeve 
of his I gazed on with awe unspeakable, and when I guided 
him about the streets on his only visit to Milwaukee, I 
thought my playfellows lacking in respect that they did not 
lift their caps to him. It was only because they had never 
been taught that deference to anybody. He was a North 
Carolinian, and to the infinite chagrin of General Scott 
went with his state and fought throughout the war — General 
James G. Martin, of distinction in the Southern army. 

Just about the time of that memorable visit, another 
Southern oflScer came to Milwaukee — one who later became 
known to the entire world. My resentful recollection of 
him for long years thereafter was that for an entire week I 
was at his side or just behind or just before, and doubtless 
very much in his way, and he never once spoke a word to me. 

Of very different make and character was his associate 
on the trip. Both were captains in the old Navy, and had 
been sent to Milwaukee to board at that point the little 
revenue cutter A. V, Brown, a sailing schooner commanded 
by Captain Mitchell, with instructions to examine into and 
select sites for lighthouses at the entrance to Green Bay and 
the lower (northern) end of Lake Michigan. My father, a 
former officer of the Engineer Corps of the Army, liad l>een 
asked to meet and join them, and Captain Miteliell was 
good enough to invite me. Day after day, evening after 



180 



General Charles King 



evening, the other captain — cordial, cheery, and companion- 
able — made himself agreeable to everybody aboard, while 
his brother officer — tall, gaunt, silent, and morose — paced 
the deck in self-communion, and finally left without having 
made a friend. It was Raphael Semmes, afterward captain 
of the notorious Alabama, sunk by our Kearsarge in sight of 
Cherbourg. Father, then United States minister at Rome, 
in spite of his haste to reach the scene, was too late to 
witness that famous battle. 

So much for the Confederates it has been my luck to 
know. Of Union officers, either as boy or man, I have met 
and known far more: Scott, Halleck, McClellan (twice I 
had ridden to him full speed with despatches from up the 
Potomac) , Sherman, Sheridan (our first commander in New 
Orleans), McDowell, Mansfield, Wadsworth, Thomas (just 
after the war, at West Point), Kearny and "Ike" Stevens 
(the last when commanding the Seventy-ninth Highlanders 
in father's brigade at Kalorama) — two famous generals 
killed the same day at Chantilly, Virginia, in 1862; Hooker, 
Pope, Keyes (once upon a time Scott's favorite aide-de- 
camp in New York City), Augur, Hatch, Gibbon, Hancock, 
Ayres, Crawford, Griffin, Ricketts, Charles F. Smith (when 
he was in command at Governor's Island, just about the 
outbreak of the war), William F. Smith, and finally, long 
years after the war, that born soldier Nelson A. Miles. 
Others of the war time officers were Bayard, the gallant 
cavalryman, who died of wounds at Chancellor sville; 
Upton, youngest and among the greatest; Schofield, Crook, 
Terry, J. H. Wilson, Howard, Merritt, my colonel in cavalry 
days; Custer, Carr, and many more. But of all these the 
man I most revered was Upton, to my thinking the finest 
soldier of his day and generation. 

He came to West Point as commandant in June, 1870, 
when I was junior instructor in "tactics." I had known 
him in the summer of '66 when he was there trying out his 



Memories of a Busy Life 



181 



new system of drill regulations, and he had then been very- 
kind to me. In 1870 he had lost his wife, was in deep 
mourning, and so many of his kith and kin came to console 
him that the quarters of the commandant of cadets were 
all too small for their accommodation, and it frequently 
happened that he came over to sleep in my rooms in the 
angle of cadet barracks, where a bed was always ready for 
him. I would come home from the club, or perhaps a 
dance, and generally find him reading his Bible. He would 
lay it aside and chat with me on war history — principally 
of the recent campaigns in the South — until midnight, 
then say it was time to turn in, and before seeking his 
pillow would kneel at his bedside and pray long and earnestly, 
for Upton was a devout Christian — a soldier of the "church 
militant," as one or two Southern cadets discovered in 
'59 and '60, when they reviled him for his abolition senti- 
ments. He died all too soon, but not until he had written 
the best essay on the proper military policy of the United 
States that ever was penned, and yet it was not until Elihu 
Root became secretary of war that it ever saw the light; 
it lay hidden in one of the desks of the War Department, 
suppressed, forgotten later, but it was an illuminating 
document when finally given to the world. It is my belief 
that that paper was discovered by Major General William 
Harding Carter, who when Upton was commandant of the 
corps was a member of the cadet company which I com- 
manded and instructed; and it was Carter, I am almost 
confident, who brought it to the attention of the War 
Secretary. 

So much for the great soldiers of the Civil War. As to 
our great sailors, my admiration went out beyond measure 
to Farragut, the most famous of his day, yet tlic simplest, 
kindliest, most courteous, and most approachable of tluMu 
all. He spent the summer of '66 at West Point— his only 
son, Loyall, being a member of the senior class. I was the 



182 



General Charles King 



junior in age and rank of all the officers that summer on 
duty at the Academy; nevertheless I was instructor of the 
senior class at the mortar, siege, and sea coast batteries. 
Day after day the Admiral would come down to watch the 
firing, would of course be invited into the battery, and would 
chat as cordially and chummily with me, a smooth-cheeked 
second lieutenant, as though I had been a ship mate of many 
a voyage. 

Dewey I met for the first time in 1874, at La Paz in old 
Mexico. He was skipper of the Narragansett then, on hydro- 
graphic survey of the Gulf of California. Some of his sailors 
on liberty got into difficulty with a large force of Mexican 
troops, and I happened to reach the spot just in time to 
avert what might have been serious consequences, to use 
my authority as an officer of the Army over the enlisted 
men of the sister service, and to herd them ahead of me 
toward the dock, where my boat happened to be in readiness 
to take me out to the waiting steamer; with the aid of the 
consul we got those sailors beyond the reach of the exasper- 
ated Mexicans. Before my steamer left harbor that evening 
a most gracious and grateful message came from Captain 
Dewey, inquiring for the name of the officer who had 
befriended his frolicsome men. Ten months later, at the 
mouth of the Colorado, when I was being taken to San 
Francisco very badly wounded, the Narragansett lay in the 
offing and Dewey was kindness itself to me ; had me brought 
aboard his ship until mine was ready to sail, and there I 
could be in far greater comfort. The next time we met was 
aboard the Olympia in Manila Bay on Christmas Day, 1898, 
when, with three of my staff officers, I went out to call 
upon him and renew the old California acquaintance. 
After the outbreak of the Insurgents, he came day after 
day up the Pasig in his beautiful launch to visit my 
headquarters at San Pedro Macati, from which point the In- 
surgent lines were in view and occasionally some skirmish- 



Memories of a Busy Life 



183 



ing going on, in which he took Kvely interest. In many- 
ways Dewey reminded me of Farragut. 

And Dewey was with me "the maddest day I ever knew." 
As I think I told you, a newspaper man asked me recently to 
tell him what was the most exciting moment I could recall. 
I could not do so then, but possibly it was this. At all 
events, the newspaper men who brought me the paper that 
started the excitement were inclined to think so. 

The battle of Santa Ana, as told in the previous number, 
had brought great results — the heaviest loss to the enemy of 
any of the combats in the Philippines — the capture of all 
of their artillery, most of the small arms, and very much 
of the ammunition in their hands, as well as two store- 
houses filled with military supplies. With the exception 
of Haan's company of Engineers and Dyer's Light Battery 
of the Sixth Artillery, it was fought entirely by my brigade 
against a much larger force of Pio del Pilaris division. We 
buried 161 of the enemy upon the field, and had ourselves 
sustained a loss of 17 killed and 71 wounded out of perhaps 
1700 men engaged. Our division and corps commanders 
had been lavish in their praise, and our comrades of the 
First and Second divisions in their congratulations. Now, 
every officer and man was eager to see how the news was 
received at home, and the newspaper brought out from 
Manila, one afternoon in mid-March — the San Francisco 
Examiner — told us. Copied from the despatch published 
the previous evening in the New York Evening Post — the 
strongest anti-administration paper in the country — was 
the announcement that the fight at Santa Ana by General 
King's brigade of western volunteers was simply a massacre 
of hundreds of helpless, half-naked, ignorant hill men, 
armed only with bows and arrows — a wanton and cruel 
slaughter, or words to that effect. 

I never saw so many men in a fury of rage as avssenibled 
about the little plaza of San Pedro Macati that March 



184 



General Charles King 



afternoon, and their brigadier was the maddest of the lot. 
With the exception of two luckless Chinamen who owned a 
little truck garden on the river bank, and in the early dawn 
got mixed up with the enemy when they broke and ran 
before the dash of Fortson's battalion of the Washingtons [ 
on what we called the Mound Redoubt, every mother's son i 
of the 161 dead left on the field was in the complete uniform . 
of the Insurgent Army, and equipped with either the Mauser 
or Remington magazine rifle. There wasn't a "hill man" 
within miles of the field. The whole story was a contempt- i 
ible slander that even Mr. Editor Godkin's own special | 
correspondent at Manila promptly and publicly denounced. 
And the sole reparation made by Mr. Godkin's widely read 
journal was the editorial statement to this effect: '*We are 
glad to be assured that the story at the expense of American 
soldiery seems to have been untrue." 

Now, up to that time there had been a few — a very 
few — ofloicers and men who were a bit wobbly in their politi- 
cal leanings. Reared as stanch Democrats they were not 
quite sure that, the consent of the governed not having been [ 
asked or accorded, we were justified in retaining control of i 
the Islands. After this episode their wrath turned them to 
stalwart backers of the administration, and of a declaration 
emanating from brigade headquarters which read somewhat 
as follows: "Under the guidance of the God of Battles that 
flag has gone up at Manila, and by the Eternal it shall not 
come down at the beck of a Godkin." ; 

MILWAUKEE IN THE WORLD WAR 

The next question of the interviewer who wished to I 
know the maddest moment of my life, was what he termed 
the * 'gladdest." I answered neither at the time, and it is 
difficult to answer the latter now. The afternoon and the , 
thirty-six hours immediately following the battle of Santa ' 
Ana would not be a bad guess. The praise and congratula- j 



I 



Memories of a Busy Life 



185 



tion that came from every one of our superiors, the assur- 
ance that I should at once be recommended for the full rank 
of major general, and the demonstrations of the officers and 
men of the brigade were enough to delight the heart of any 
soldier; but setting aside family or domestic occasions for 
rejoicing, I wonder if anything ever gave me keener sense of 
elation than what happened right here in Milwaukee soon 
after our declaration of war against Germany. 

By that time, through no fault of its own, the city of my 
home and love had a very bad name at Washington. It is a 
long story — a story that then could not well be told, but 
there is no reason now why it should not. Names in most 
cases are not to be mentioned, but here are the facts. 

Between the reports of secret service officials and those 
of prominent citizens — well meaning, no doubt, but quite 
misinformed — the War Department had been led to believe 
that conspiracy, sedition, treason, and heaven knows what 
all lay dormant in our law-abiding old city, and that every 
man of German birth or name was deservedly an object of 
suspicion. Time and again secret service men came to me, 
declaring they had evidence of the disloyalty of some of the 
very best and worthiest officers of the Wisconsin Guard then 
being drafted into the service of the United States. The 
major generals successively in command in Chicago, and 
therefore in charge of the military district of which Wiscon- 
sin was a part, were old and intimate friends. The first. 
General William H. Carter, was relieved and sent to com- 
mand at Honolulu shortly before the declaration, and then 
came Major General **Tom" Barry, who had been our 
adjutant general in Manila when I joined there in '98, and 
who knew me as thoroughly as I knew him. 

Hardly had he assumed command when he sent for mo to 
show me reports of dangers ahead in Milwaukee, of German 
sympathizers who were preparing to resist the registration, 
burn elevators, armories, manufacturing plants, blow up 



186 General Charles King ' 

railway bridges, and play the mischief generally. At that 
moment I was being told of young men of ability, but of 
German name, who were being denied admission to the 
officers' training camp at Fort Sheridan — some of them, as I 
believed, of fervent loyalty, and one of them the son of the i 
leading spirit in every patriotic enterprise in our city. I 
wrote an indignant protest to General Barry, and he over- 1 
ruled the secret service, to the end that we gained in the n 
young gentleman whom the secret service would have ex- i 
eluded a very excellent officer, and one of proved valor over- 1| 
seas where, had the Germans got him, his peril indeed might J 
have been great. And his was not an individual case; there 
were others. ] 

General Barry knew that I was in close touch with the ' 
chief of police and the detective force, and that such things < 
could hardly get a start without our knowing it. All the [ 
same there came within a month, sometimes late at night, j 
telephone or telegraphic orders to investigate at once such t 
and such a report of German spies caught red-handed with 
tools of their trade in hand, defying the chief of police at 
West AUis — of threatened uprising among the workmen in 
some of our great manufacturing plants. I would investigate 
and find nothing but darkness and absolute quiet where 
there was supposed to be a crowded and seditious meeting. 

Then our local committee of safety was possessed with ^ 
the idea that we were sitting on a volcano destined to blow 
us sky high, and they besieged the governor at Madison and 
General Barry in Chicago with appeals to mobilize the > 
Second Wisconsin Infantry, one of the finest in the country, , 
and place it in camp here at the fair grounds — take all those v 
officers and men from their homes, shops, offices, and desks in 
Sheboygan, Oshkosh, Appleton, Fond du Lac, etc., and bring 
them here to protect Milwaukee against some utterly 
imaginary enemy. The governor declared it entirely un- j 
necessary, and General Barry told me he told the committee 



Memories of a Busy Life 187 

he would not do it unless I could be made to see that it was 
necessary. A midnight council was held in the home of one 
of Milwaukee's most prominent and distinguished citizens, 
and I was summoned from the bedside of my invalid wife. 
I found gathered there upwards of a dozen of our foremost 
men — many of them warm, personal friends — and for more 
than an hour they argued and pleaded. The city was in 
peril; the regiment was absolutely needed to give a feeling 
3f security to the American population; the secret service 
oeople had told them of the existence of seditious bands all 
)ver the neighborhood; and yet I could not be made to see 
t or believe it. I could not and would not recommend the 
nobilization, either to the governor or to the commanding 
general, and there it ended. There came to see me — as he 
;aid, under orders from Washington — a distinguished colonel 
)f the staff, and his mission was to ask if, under the circum- 
itances, it would not be advisable to order to Milwaukee a 
egiment of the National Guard from some southern state, 
md he went back with the answer that in my judgment it 
should be most unwise. He asked what disposition we had 
Qade, in the event of attack, to defend our scattered militia 
Tmories, and left apparently satisfied. 

But still the secret service was discovering, and the 
Secretary of War was being worried with reports of, direful 
hings which might happen to Milwaukee, and finally came 
he dies irae — the day on which all able-bodied men capable 
f military service were to register at something like 150 
recincts within the city limits; and now at last the long 
mouldering, long threatened outbreak was to come. In- 
amed by German propaganda, inspired by German oratory, 
nd influenced by German gold, the Sons of Herman, a long 
xtinct organization, was to resurrect and rise in its wrath, 
re the city in a hundred places, and overwlichn police, 
leriffs, and the newly organizing State Guard before 
utside aid could reach us; even General Barry at Chicago 



1 



188 General Charles King 

was getting a bit apprehensive, because more incessant and 
insistent were the demands from Washington. 

And still the chief of police, the chief of detectives, and 
our own vigilant officers of the Guard insisted to me that 
there was nothing to warrant any such rumors or reports. \ 
My orders from General Barry were to be constantly in 
touch with the chief of police throughout the eventful day, | 
and to report by wire the first symptom of disorder. And i| 
all that blessed day I watched and waited; hour after hour I 
passed without sign or sound of trouble; at last came night- ' 
fall and the final reports to police headquarters; and just 
about 8 :30 p. m. there went from my hand over the Western 
Union to Major General T. H. Barry, Commanding Central ; 
Department, Chicago, the despatch which read about as I 

follows : t 

I- 

Registration complete and the only disorder from start to finish a | 
fisticuff between two young American citizens, of possible German 
descent, over the question of which had the right to register first. 

Barry shouted over that message and relayed it on to 
Washington, where it was in the hands of the War Secretary 
by ten o'clock. A fortnight later he told our adjutant i 
general that he guessed he had been considerably misin- 
formed as to matters in Milwaukee. [ 

That episode, probably, gave me about the "gladdest" 
hour. 



THE ELECTRIC LIGHT SYSTEM AT APPLETOX 
Louise P. Kellogg 

The faith of Wisconsin business men in the epochal 
inventions of the nineteenth century is illustrated by the 
action of a group of Appleton citizens with regard to the 
electric light. Thomas A. Edison had been for some time 
developing the incandescent electric light, machines and 
apparatus for supplying power for this purpose. In the 
winter of 1880-81 a central station for demonstration pur- 
poses was in operation at Menlo Park, New Jersey; in the 
year 1882 the Edison central-station utility was available 
for public use. The first commercial central station was 
erected in London and put into service in April of that year, 
but did not become a permanent institution in the English 
metropolis. Before that time, however, plans were being 
carried out for the utilization of this means of lighting in the 
United States. In December, 1880, the Edison Electric 
Illuminating Company of New York was organized, the 
first corporation on a permanent basis to develop the Edison 
central-station system. In May of the next year property 
in Pearl Street, New York City, was acquired, and the 
work of laying the underground conductors was begun. 
Not until September 4, 1882, was the Pearl Street station 
placed in permanent occupation. 

Meanwhile the Western Edison Electric Light Company 
of Chicago had been incorporated May 25, 1882, under the 
laws of Illinois, with territorial rights for Illinois, Wisconsin, 
and Iowa. This company was the predecessor of the 
present Commonwealth Edison Company. ^ Forty years 
ago this summer, therefore, Edison's electric-lighting system 
was first placed upon the market in the West. A gnnip of 
Appleton mill owners and citizens had the enterprise and 

» Letters of William E. Keily, June 20 and Aug. 29, 1922, Chicago. 



190 



Louise P. Kellogg 



the foresight to experiment with this new system of Hghting, 
and thus to make their city of note in the annals of elec- 
tricity. 

Some time in July one of the engineers of the Western 
Edison Light Company, P. D. Johnston, was invited to 
Appleton to explain the new lighting system to a group of 
its business men, of whom H. J. Rogers was the leader.^ 
Rogers, who was the president of the Appleton Paper and 
Pulp Company, was at the time building a new residence 
on Prospect Avenue on the heights overlooking the river; 
he and his associates became very much interested, and 
determined to test the possibilities of electricity for lighting 
both their mills and their homes. They hoped in time to 
extend its use still farther, for the Crescent said, '*Some of 
our capitalists are determined to light College Avenue by 
electricity if they pay for it themselves. 

After satisfying themselves by examination that the 
new system was practicable, the Appleton investors entered 
into a contract with the Western Edison Light Company 
for two Edison ''K" dynamos of a capacity to carry 550 
lamps, to be driven by water power.^ This contract was 
signed August 18, and some time after that Edward T. 
Ames, a construction man and electrician, was sent from 
Chicago to install the plant in the paper company's prop- 
erty.^ 

The historical question at issue has been the length of 
time required for the wiring and adjusting, and the date on 
which the power was first successfully applied to produce 
light. It has been stated on high authority that the Apple- 
ton plant was the first central lighting plant opened in the 
United States. The Pearl Street generating station in 

^ Appleton Crescent, July 29, 1882. Johnston, who was a mechanical rather than an 
electrical engineer, worked for the Western Edison Light Company from 1882 to 1885. 
3 Aug. 12, 1882. 

* Letters of William E. KeQy, cited above. 

^ Mr. Ames died in St. Joseph, Michigan, in February, 1922. 



Electric Light System at Appleton 



191 



New York City was, as we have seen, opened September 4, 
1882. Some of the claimants for the Appleton priority 
have asserted that this plant began operations as early as 
August. The finding of the record of the contract in the 
Commonwealth Edison Company's files, and the contem- 
porary statements of the local press, prove that it took 
nearly six weeks to install the first dynamo in the paper 
mill near the upper dam at Appleton. Although not the 
first in the United States, the Appleton system was the 
earliest in use in the West, and the first to be operated by 
water power. 

The mill in which Mr. Ames installed the first dynamo 
in the West was what was known as a beater mill, containing 
two new beating machines recently acquired by the paper 
company. Both this mill and another belonging to the 
same company a mile farther east were wired, as well as the 
new residence of President Rogers. 

About this time a rumor circulated throughout the city 
that Mr. Rogers, who was president of the local gas com- 
pany, was merely buying the electric rights in order to keep 
them from competing with his gas business, and that there 
was no intention of actually utilizing the contract with the 
Edison people for lighting purposes. Investigation proved 
this to be an idle rumor. Early in September the reporter 
sent to examine the matter found that both the mill and 
the Rogers residence were being wired and "if it [the electric 
light] proves an unquestioned success, as of course it cannot 
Fail to, then the light will be substituted generally for gas in 
dl our public and private buildings and the gas will be 
cheapened, used for heating, cooking, and running light 
machinery.''^ Thus the Appletonians proved themselves 
true prophets and ready believers in American invent ive- 
less. 

By the twenty-third of September the newspapers 

« Appleton Crescent, Sept. 9, 1882. 



192 



Louise P, Kellogg 



announced that one of the generators had arrived, and that 
a test of the new Hghts would be made the next week. On 
Wednesday, the twenty -seventh of the month, all was ready 
for the test, but upon the application of the power the lights 
failed to appear. It was supposed that the failure was due 
to the excessive moisture caused by the steam of the mill, 
and proposals for insulating the copper wires were made. 
Meanwhile, however, Mr. Ames had been summoned by 
telegraph from Chicago; he immediately detected some 
slight error in the arrangements, which he was able to 
eliminate. Saturday, September 30, the power was once 
more applied to the dynamos. Then there burst from the 
hanging pear-shaped globes the pure, steady, incandescent 
light with which the world has since grown so familiar. The 
experiment was an approved success, the faith of the mill 
owners was justified; so enthusiastic did the observers be- 
come that the buildings illuminated were declared to be 
"as bright as day."^ About the same time the experiment 
was tried with gratifying success in the residence of Mr. 
Rogers. This was the first residence in the West to be 
exclusively lighted by the Edison system. 

The water wheel used to drive the dynamo was the same 
one which drove the new beating machines, and because of 
the varying loads carried by the beaters, the speed of the 
water wheel and of the dynamo greatly varied. Sometimes 
the voltage was so high that all the lamps in the circuit 
were burned out. After a number of experiences of this 
kind, the dynamo was removed to another part of the 
building and driven by a wheel of its own. The second dy- 
namo called for in the contract was originally installed in 
the Vulcan mill at the opposite end of the city. But the 
owners soon decided to erect a central building between the 
two mills, and a small frame shack was quickly raised to 
which both dynamos were transferred. This building was 

7 Crescent, Oct. 7, 1882. 



Electric Light System at Appleton 



193 



the first central station for commercial incandescent light 
in the West, the precursor of the great generating stations 
of today found in all our cities. By December, 1882, three 
or more residences, five or six mills, and a blast furnace 
were lighted by the Edison bulbs. The local paper boasted 
that Appleton then had more electrically lighted buildings 
than any other city in the United States. ^ 

Some of the appliances of the original plant are still in 
existence, 9 and the first engineer, William D. Kurz, is still 
engaged in electric service at Appleton. From Mr. Kurz's 
recollections some of the early experiences in operating the 
plant are given, There were no meters or gauges of any 
kind, the operator's eyes being the only gauge. Service 
was from dusk to daylight only, so all lights came on in 
the evening as soon as the service was started. The custom- 
ers paid a flat rate per month ; the monthly receipts at first 
totaled barely $300. Each lamp for all-night service was 
paid for at the rate of $1.20 per month; if used only till 
ten o'clock in the evening, the rate was eighty-four cents a 
month. All customers bought their own outfits. The 
lamps cost $1 . 60 apiece, and their filaments w^ere of bam- 
boo. 

"One of the popular pastimes in the early days," writes 
Mr. A. C. Langstedt of Appleton, ''was the hunting out 
and cleaning up of short circuits. These mains and feeders 
in the early years were all of bare copper wire. . . . A 
little windstorm, or anything out of the ordinary, a branch 

^ Crescent, Dec. 2, 1882. According to the Edison Electric Illuminating Company 
Bulletin for Oct. 14, 1882, the second dynamo was used to light the residences of 11. 1>. 
and A. L. Smith, the Appleton Blast Furnace, A. W. Patten's Paper Mill. Fleming's 
Linen Mill, and the Appleton Woolen Mill. According to the same publication for Apr. 6, 
1883, the lights were placed in the Waverly Hotel early in January, and gave perfect 
satisfaction. This information was furnished by Charles E. Neil, present editor of the 
National Electric Light Association Bulletin. 

' A lamp and socket taken from the original plant and mounted on n board with 
portions of the machinery have lately been presented to the Historical Museum at Madi- 
son. 

These experiences were embodied in a paper read. Mar. 2 1, 1 022. before t he Wisnm- 
sin Electrical Association by A. C. Langstedt, himself connected with the operating of the 
first station. 



I 

194 Louise P. Kellogg 

falling off a tree, would fall against these wires and short 
circuit them, and then the company shut down the plant, 
as it had no fuse protection, and all hands had to go out 
and find where the trouble was. It took sometimes an hour 
and sometimes a day and in the mean time there was no ' 
service." ! 

Such were the humble beginnings of the Edison electric 
central-station service in the West. A few years later Apple- 
ton obtained an electric railway, which was purchased by 
the lighting company, and the consolidated properties were 
operated by the Appleton Edison Light Company. This | 
has now become the Wisconsin Traction Light, Heat and ' 
Power Company, which supplies fourteen surrounding 
municipalities and villages, runs the interurban railway, ; 
and operates its power lines over an area of more than fifty \ 
square miles. | 

The enterprise of the early Appleton business men has j 
thus been more than justified. ''Appleton," writes, Mr. T. j 
Commerford Martin, one of the chief collectors of Edison- I 
iana, 'Vill ever remain high on the list of notable plants, 
with claims to real distinction that no discovery of conflict- j 
ing dates can disturb. There is merit and glory enough for I 
every pioneer plant and person in this utterly modern field 
of advance." 

1^ Letter to the present writer, June 12, 1922. 



BEAVER CREEK VALLEY, MONROE COUNTY^ 
DoANE Robinson 

The civil township of Sparta consists of town 17 and the south 
half of town 18 in range 4 west. Beaver Creek takes its rise in a 
big spring in the northwest corner of section 25 in town 18, and 
running five miles south enters La Crosse River in the north- 
western part of section 24 in town 17, the junction being in the 
city of Sparta. It is a beautiful little valley, hemmed in by rugged 
bluffs, above which the notable Castle Rock stands sentinel. 
With its warm southern exposure, opening directly down into the 
city of Sparta, the geographical situation is ideal. 

My parents, George McCook and Rhozina Grow Robinson, 
with three children — William Charles, Josepha Matilda, and 
Ella Kate — settled in October, 1855, upon the southeast quarter 
of the southeast quarter of section 35 and the south half of the 
southwest quarter of section 36. At that time there were three 
other families living in the district: Hugh Lawson, Alonzo 
Moseley, and one McCollester. Moseley lived one and a half 
miles north of Sparta, Lawson a mile and a half farther north, 
and McCollester a mile still farther up the valley. The Robinson 
plant adjoined Lawson's on the south. Lawson and Robinson 
were from the same locality in Gallia County, Ohio, and were 
related by marriage. Moseley was from Cattaragus County, 
New York; in the spring of 1856 Daniel Moseley, an uncle of 
Alonzo's, located upon the west side of the highway, midway 
between Lawson's and Robinson's. In 1859 McCollester suc- 
cumbed to the gold craze, sold his place to Henry Mierow, and 
cleared out for Pike's Peak. 

Settlement thereafter was rapid; by the time the census of 
1860 was taken there were seventeen families and nincty-ono 
persons in the district. Water Street, the main thoroughfare of 

^ Mr. Robinson's contribution was solicited for the Town Studies of the JVi.tn-tnsiti 
' Domesday Book, in expectation that it would illustrate the social history of the town of 
Sparta. This it does most admirably; as, however, Mr. Robinson writes about these h>cal 
matters in so charming a manner, we have decided to give the renders of onr mn^i.-irinr the 
opportunity of reading his article. 



196 



Doane Robinson 



Sparta, was projected directly north through the district, and the 
settlers with the exception of five families were located along this 
highway. It was indeed a notable road, the chief avenue leading 
to the great northwestern section of Wisconsin. When winter 
came, closing the Mississippi to navigation, all the traffic from 
the East to St. Paul and northeastern Minnesota passed before 
our door. Great four-horse stagecoaches left Sparta every 
morning and with frequent relays traveled day and night over 
this road. Great caravans of merchandise going into the north 
country formed an almost continuous procession; all agricultural 
products of an empire came down to the market at Sparta; fifty 
teams in procession loaded with grain and pork were no infrequent 
spectacle. This thoroughfare maintained its importance until 
the building, about 1867, of the West Wisconsin (Omaha) Rail- 
road from Chicago to Black River Falls and farther north. The 
primitive conditions existing are illustrated by one simple fact. 
This road crossed a tamarack swamp, about thirty rods in width, 
which was at our place. A corduroy bridge of heavy logs had 
been thrown across this swamp, and for more than ten years the 
tremendous traffic to the north country jolted across this corduroy 
and no effort was made to improve it. One hundred dollars 
properly expended would at any time have made an excellent 
turnpike upon this log foundation. I can still hear the grumbling 
and cursing of travelers as the big stage rumbled and bounded 
over the logs, the white horses upon a keen gallop and the pas- 
sengers bounding from their seats and bumping their heads oni 
the coach roof. 

The settlers from the first appreciated the necessity of pro- 
viding educational facilities for their children, and in the summer * 
of 1857 Clarissa Moseley, the fifteen-year-old daughter of Daniel," 
was employed to teach the youngsters, the sessions being held 
in the upper room of the Moseley home. That same year they 
contracted with John Teasdale, a young Englishman, native of : 
Kirkby Moorside, Yorkshire, England, who came to America in 
1850 and learned the carpenter's trade at Johnstown, New York, 
to build a substantial frame schoolhouse. This school was 
located sixty rods south of our place, on the west side of the road, ' 
on the south bank of the tamarack swamp. Teasdale was paid 



I 



198 



Doane Robinson 



for this structure in school district warrants, the contract price 
being $400. He did not sell his warrants at once, when they were 
at par. The great financial depression of 1857 came on, and 
being compelled to raise money he sold the warrants at thirty 
cents on the dollar. The panic of that year fell heavily upon 
the settlers. Farm produce brought almost nothing, and the 
money received frequently proved to be utterly worthless. 
Another illustration of the stress of the times is shown in the story 
of Peter Herring, a young German bachelor who came here before 
that period. He worked "grubbing" for Teasdale all day for one- 
half the lower jaw of a pig. Teasdale's wife was Sarah Seymour, 
an Ulster woman. They had three sons — ^Howard, Frank, and 
Joseph. Frank died in childhood; Howard is still one of the prom- 
inent and dependable men of Monroe County; Joseph is a farmer 
near town. 

The census of 1860 gives vital records (not always correct) 
of all the families then in the district, except the Lawsons, who 
were entirely missed. Hugh Lawson was a Scotch-Irishman who 
came to Ohio from western Pennsylvania, where he was born, 
his ancestors having emigrated early in the eighteenth century 
from Ulster to Windham, New Hampshire. He retained much 
of the quaint idiom of his race. His wife was Margaret Ann 
Cline, whom he married in Gallia County, Ohio. He settled in 
Beaver Creek valley in 1854, and in June, 1855, his wife and 
children joined him there. In 1860 they had Mary, eight; 
Samuel Robinson, seven; James Hill, aged one. Afterward Alice, 
Florence, and Robert were born to them. Daniel Moseley and 
his nephew Alonzo married sisters — ^Amanda and Eunice Hunt, 
of Cattaragus County. Their father, known as Colonel Hunt, i 
and his son John Hunt with his wife Jane, soon joined them, if 
they did not immigrate at the same time. The Hunts lived in an i 
adjoining neighborhood until the war came, when the father i 
enlisted and his family came to live in our valley. 

Several families came in 1860 too late for the census. At the i 
very head of the valley, close to where the great highway crossed 
the big ridge which separates the waters of the La Crosse from 
those of Black River, John Winters and his wife, Wilhelmina 
Benson, with their children, John and Wilhelmina, settled. Both 



Beaver Creek Valley 



199 



the parents were of generous build and fine examples of the 
German immigrant. Next to them settled Charles Benson, a 
brother of Mrs. Winters and a veritable giant. He was married, 
and as I recall had one child, Bertha. Winters and Benson 
hewed out farms among the white oaks, and the second year had 
fine crops of winter wheat. Benson purchased a grain cradle to 
harvest his crop. The fingers dragged down the grain and he 
tried in vain to adjust them. His temper got the better of him and 
he caught up the contraption and broke it to pieces over a stump. 
He seized the scythe and bent it around a young white oak. At 
this juncture John Winters and his wife came along, and observing 
the havoc Benson had caused, concluded that he should be 
punished for his conduct; at the behest of his wife John proceeded 
to the business. They were of almost equal strength — Benson 
short and powerful. Winters tall and lithe. They battled man- 
fully , "Mene" looking on impartially until they clinched and were 
rolling in the fine winter wheat; then she, who was "as good a 
man as either of them," waded in, dragged them apart, soundly 
boxing the ears of each. It was years before the brothers-in-law 
were again friends. 

Charles Benson's mother, a widow, with her son Fred, 
settled next south of Charles. Adjoining the Bensons on the 
east lived David J. Kelsey with his large family, from western 
New York. The Teasdales above mentioned came next, and then 
Henry Mierow, a Luxemburg Frenchman, on the McCollester 
place. He was a thrifty, worthy citizen, German speaking and 
of the Lutheran faith. Religious services were regularly held at 
his house, being served by a German shoemaker named Couch- 
man, from Sparta, who was a lay preacher, devoted to his calling, 
and who walked out every Sunday to the Mierows — a four-mile 
trip. Peter Herring, the German bachelor, lived across the road 
from the Mierows. Some time during the war he married Mary 
Schmidt, the daughter of a new settler who at that time found 
a place in the bluffs back of Winters. When Peter and INIary were 
married the neighbors chari varied them. I recall the efi^orts of 
my father and my elder brother Will in producing wierd musical 
instruments for the occasion, and it was the great dis;i]^]>ointmcnt 
of my young life that I was not permitted to participate. 



200 Doane Robinson 

Seth C. Clark came from Gloversville, New York, in 1860» 
and opened up a farm adjoining Mierow on the south. He was 
an old acquaintance of John Teasdale, the latter having promoted I 
his coming. His wife, Lucretia Mosher, and children — Edward, 
Mary, and Francis — accompanied him. Seth Clark was one of 
the most complacent persons I have known, utterly satisfied with i 
himself and all that was his. Withal he was a good man and a 
good citizen. His philosophy has been justified, for at ninety- * 
seven he is still living (1922) with his daughter, Mrs. John Black- 1 
burn, two and one-half miles north of Sparta, in perfect health 3 
and full possession of his faculties, and as well satisfied with I 
himself as ever he was in his life. Along Clark's south line a 
lane leads west from the main road about one mile to where i 
Aleck Nicol, Peter Francis, Patrick Davis, and Jacob Mierow i 
lived. Aleck Nicol was a Scotch carpenter, and his wife Ann was i 
a trained shepherdess. Later they bought the south half of i 
Daniel Moseley's farm and built a house directly across the road i 
from our place, where they spent the remainder of their lives. In 
the early days Aleck was seriously addicted to drink, but in 1865 | 
he joined the Good Templar order and from that time was a [ 
notable and consistent advocate of temperance. Peter Francis' [ 
family consisted of his wife Mary, his father Peter, who was 
seventy-nine in 1860 and the only venerable man who crossed my j 
youthful horizon, his daughter Eliza, and sons George Thomas 
and William Henry. The Francis' were of French birth; Mrs. 
Francis was German, and all spoke the German language. Pat- f 
rick Davis, a good natured Irishman with a large family, lived j 
adjoining Nicols. 

Returning to the main road, we note that Erastus Pomeroy ' 
lived next south of the Clarks. He was married to Elmira Forbes,* 
and had in 1860 one child. Flora. A son died in 1859. Chester 
Pomeroy was the first to die in the valley; it was his death thati 
first brought consciousness of that crisis to my mind. Then 
came the Lawsons, Daniel Moseleys, and Robinsons, of whom Ii 
have above written. Going south across the tamarack swamp, 
Ben C. Emery, a young bachelor from Maine, had in 1859 settled 
upon an eighty, making his home at our place. Ben was a mighty 
good fellow who formed an attachment for father that continued« 



Beaver Creek Valley 



201 



as long as they lived. He never met a member of the family 
anywhere but he asked, "What is your father doing of?" Before 
1860 Norman D. Fitch, a New Yorker, settled on a hundred-acre 
tract south of Ben Emery's. Soon after the war the family re- 
moved to western Michigan. 

About 1861 a family named Cornwell located on an eighty 
across the road from the Fitches. They were relatives of the Kel- 
seys. They did not remain long, and I have no vital records 
concerning them. Next south of the Fitches a family named 
Felch settled, but soon sold and removed to Sparta. Samuel 
Blackburn, an Ulster Irishman, and his Presbyterian family 
acquired the Felch place, and it is still in the family. Mr. Black- 
burn came from Elgin, Illinois, where he had been employed in 
the watch factory. I remember among his children John, Robert, 
Samuel, Mary, and Esther. I think there were others. John 
married Fanny Clark, daughter of Seth, and lives on the old 
place. Saladen Forbes, a brother of Mrs. Erastus Pomeroy, 
had a little place on the west side of the road south of the Black- 
bums. He had two sons, Frank and Lewis. His brother Lorenzo 
and his sister Selucia lived with him. They left early in the 
sixties to live at Wonewoc. Across from the Forbes place was 
Nathan B. Aldrich. The census shows the family to have been 
of Maine, but I am morally certain they were of New Hamp- 
shire. Before the war father and Nate Aldrich worked together 
a great deal and the families were intimate. Frank Houghtaling 
lived on a forty south of the Aldriches. I think the land was 
owned by Samuel Hoyt, a brother of Mrs. Aldrich. Alonzo 
Moseley, the first settler in the district, was across the road from 
the Houghtalings. 

Two other families should be mentioned, for although they 
resided in an adjoining school district, the children did for a time 
attend our school and always aflfiliated with the activities of our 
neighborhood. They were the families of John Q. Ellis and John 
A. Clark, who lived on the west side of Beaver Creek, directly 
west of our schoolhouse and but a short distance from it. Tlioy 
were from Maine. Ellis was Clark's uncle, but they were of about 
the same age and always closely associated. Clark's father and 



202 



Doane Robinson 



mother lived with him. They were cultured people and always 
an influence for good in our affairs. 

The settlers in the valley were simple, honest, neighborly 
folks, all exceedingly democratic and living very plainly, but 
unconscious that they were not living upon the fat of the land. 
They were generally a moral, religious people. The largest farms, 
of 160 acres each, were those of Daniel and Alonzo Moseley. For | 
the most part the farms were confined to eighty acres and several ' 
were of only forty. Even the larger farms had but a relatively j 
small portion under cultivation. Just how a family of seven or j 
eight persons subsisted upon the returns from forty acres of rather 
thin soil is one of the problems in domestic economy which is il 
rather beyond me; but in truth they were fairly clothed, well fed, [ 
and above all cheerful and happy. The neighborly relations and 
the care and consideration the settlers held for each other are ; 
finely illustrated by a circumstance affecting our own family. 
In 1862, when many of the neighbors were in the war and every- 
one was straining intensely under the public burdens, my father 
was attacked with typhoid and for weeks was at the point of 
death; as he began to mend, mother was afflicted and also five of ] 
the six children. The scourge was upon us from mid-August until I 
New Year's; every physician but one. Dr. Milligan, was in the| 
service and soon he, too, was taken with typhoid. We were wholly 
dependent upon our already overburdened neighbors. Not for a 
moment were we neglected; never was there a night during that 
long and weary siege that good Samaritans did not sit at the 
bedside of the afflicted. From about September 1 until Christmas, , 
Sarah Teasdale, meantime keeping up her own home and even 
helping her husband in the fields, nursed us through every alter- 
nate night. All of the heroic were not in the South during the war. 

Politically the settlers were chiefly Republicans. As I recall, | 
only Hugh Lawson and my father were Democrats. When the 
war of 1861 came on, these people were stirred to the depths and,! 
considering that most of the men were encumbered with large 
families, sent an extraordinary number to the front. I have notj 
the official records, but at an early date in the conflict Nathan B.| 
Aldrich, Norman D. Fitch, Erastus Pomeroy, John Winters; | 
Lorenzo Forbes, John Hunt, and Charles Benson were in thef 



Beaver Creek Valley 



203 



service, where they continued until the end of the war. WiUiam 
J. Curran (Major William Curran, for many years connected with 
the adjutant general's office at Madison), whose home was at 
Hickson, Trempealeau County, and Alexander McPheeter, whose 
home was at Leon, were attending our district school when they 
enlisted. McPheeter died before his regiment left camp at Madi- 
son. All the others returned at the close of the war — Major 
Curran with one leg missing. Fitch and Winters bearing honorable 
wounds, Lorenzo Forbes a living skeleton from Andersonville. 
Out of a total of seventeen men in the district able to bear arms, 
nine were in active service. Two single men in the settlement — 
Peter Herring and Ben Emery, each under thirty — did not enlist, 
and they were the subjects of much criticism. It was to show the 
feeling of the neighbors that Peter was charivaried when he mar- 
ried instead of enlisting. 

The families not represented at the front were loyal and 
utterly devoted to the Union cause, and exerted themselves to 
the extreme in the production of food and supplies for the army, 
in the care of soldiers' families, and in sending comforts to the 
men in arms. Even the smallest children had their assigned tasks 
to perform in that time when the flower of the land was below 
Mason and Dixon's Line. I recite but a common circumstance 
when I tell how my brother Will, fifteen years of age, bound his 
station behind the reaper; and when in 1864 the straw was un- 
usually short, as lad of seven, it was my task to accompany Will 
and pull straw from the standing grain for bands to bind up the 
gavels. Father's old Kirby hand-raking reaper cut most of the 
crop in the valley, and throughout the weary harvest I trudged 
along pulling bands and laying them on the gavels for Will's use. 

Daniel Moseley and his family were our nearest neighbors 
and our dearest friends. Daniel was a Republican but seldom 
drawn into the political debates that shook the countryside in 
those strenuous days; but at some time in his earlier years he had 
heard Wendell Phillips speak, and had enthroned him as his 
political deity. He never tired of singing Phillips' praise. The fol- 
lowing verses printed very many years ago abnost literally de- 
scribe an incident of that period : 



204 



Doane Robinson 



Uncle Daniel Moseley, he 
And Aunt Manda, just the same, 
Up on Beaver used to be, 
'Bout as docile like and tame 
As any folks I ever see. 

Uncle Daniel, long and slim. 
Mind you some of Abram Link- 
oln, being awkward boned like him. 
Worked and drudged until, I jink. 
His old back got in a kink 
Like a grape vine. He's so meek 
Never heard him brag I think, 
'Cept that he'd heard Phillips speak. 

Father, he was Democrat, 

But Uncle Daniel reckoned that. 

He guessed he wasn't anything. 

And 'twould bother you to bring 

Better friends, till long one June, 

There came Greeley's old Tribune, 

Telling how a copperhead. 

Rotten egged, the paper said, 

Wendell Phillips. Then and there 

Uncle Dan began to rare. 

He come loping down the lane. 

Making for our house a sayin, 

*'Any copperhead that 'sails 

Wendell Phillips, live or dead. 

Has got to just lick me," he said. 

I always thought that father had 

A faculty for getting mad, — 

He slopped down his milking pails. 

"Them sentiments that you assails 

Is mine," he says, "and only blood," 

He says, a stomping through the mud, 

"Can wipe that there insult away," 

And they were squaring for the fray, 

When mother in between them slips 

A shaming them, and Aunt Amanda ran 

And ketched ahold of Uncle Dan. 

And father took his milking pails 

And changed his coat. 

'Twas Sunday night. 

Along 'bout early candle light. 

And he and all our people pokes 

Away to church with Moseley's folks. 



Beaver Creek Valley 



205 



From the first the school was the pride of the neighborhood, 
and its social and religious center. As I recall it, the schoolhouse 
was always overcrowded for both school and public gatherings. 
Clarissa Moseley, Selucia Forbes, Esther Emery, Hattie Nash, 
Arthur K. Delaney (afterward a conspicuous figure in Dodge 
County affairs), Adeline Chamberlain, Adeline Nichols, Georgia 
Rawson, Nathaniel P. Bateman (soon after superintendent of 
pubhc instruction in Montana), Blanche Root, Ira Metcalf, 
Francis Wright, Eva Nash, Libbie Chamberlain, and Agnes 
Goodwin were the teachers of my period, which ended in April, 
1867, when I was ten years of age. In the winter of 1864-65 a 
Good Templars lodge was organized, and held its meetings in the 
schoolhouse. Aside from its splendid moral influence, it afforded a 
delightful social feature to the community. With few exceptions 
all of the neighbors were consistent members. Several very 
striking reforms were effected in men who had before been ad- 
dicted to strong drink. Perhaps no other influence so awakened 
the social consciousness of the locality. 

From my earliest recollection Reverend Frederick Walrath, 
a local Methodist minister residing upon a farm near the Milwau- 
kee depot at Sparta, preached at regular intervals on Sunday after- 
noons. I doubt if he ever had any material compensation for his 
services. He was a preacher of the old circuit riding school, who 
entertained his congregation with stories of religious frenzies which 
he had witnessed. Everyone in the neighborhood attended church 
with fidelity, except the Germans at the upper end of the valley 
who had services of their own, as before stated. So far as I can 
recall, all the settlers were Protestants except the family of 
Patrick Davis. Few, however, were regular communicants. I 
think now only Daniel and Amanda Moseley, who were Metho- 
dists, and Nathan and Elinore Aldrich, who were Baptists, were 
actual church members. In the winter of 1866 Adventist mis- 
sionaries came among us and conducted meetings in the school- 
house; three families adopted that faith — the Daniel Moseley s, 
the Aldriches, and the family of Peter Francis. The meetings 
caused some sectarian feeling, which soon died down. The throe 
families of converts I believe continued steadfast in the new faith 
until the end. 



206 



Doane Robinson 



Every spring about corn planting time we organized a Sunday 
school, with John Q. Ellis as superintendent; this was con- 
tinued until cold weather. As my recollection serves me, we began 
each year with the gospel of John and committed to memory 
ten verses each week. Usually in the winter time Louis Graves or 
S. C. Miles came out from Sparta and taught singing school. 
Spelling school was an institution, and the social and literary 
activities of the year culminated in "the exhibition" when school 
let out in March. 

It is rather remarkable that so few of these pioneer families 
intermarried. So far as my information goes, only the marriage of 
John Blackburn and Fanny Clark, and that of George Francis 
and Houghtaling, united any of them. 

I do not recall that any member of a pioneer family ever was 
under arrest or accused of a crime. There never to my knowledge 
was the jfaintest suggestion of a scandal or hint of immorality 
among them. 

1 believe all of the original stock except Seth Clark are gone. 
Most of the boys and girls who played about the old schoolhouse 
in my time are grandparents, and some of them great-grand- 
parents. A few only have representatives left upon the old 
homesteads. The descendants of those pioneers are scattered into 
almost every community of the West. I have not been able to 
follow many of them, but I have not been informed of one that 
has not been a creditable citizen of his locality. So far as I know, 
no one of them has risen to place of high distinction^ in any avenue 
of life, but hundreds of them are holding positions of responsibility 
and honor. 

2 This statement might well be questioned in view of the position attained by the 
writer of this article. 



DOCUMENTS 



DIARY OF A JOURNEY TO WISCONSIN IN 1840^ 

Review of Journal. The afternoon on which I left Mr. Hill's 
was pleasant but warm and I was surprised as much as delighted 
at having rendered so satisfactory an example of my pedestrian 
exploits. Was somewhat fatigued on arriving at Mr. King's 
but a bowl of good mush & milk aided by a sound night's rest in 
an airy apartment wholly revived & 5 o'clock in the morning found 
me earnestly plodding my way. By deviating 100 rods from the 
road I was enabled to stand beside the crystalled Lake & gaze on 
its mirrored surface. The land about the E[ast] end or foot is 
rather low & marshy being the source of a fine stream which 
empties into fox river at the Cornish- Ville Ferry & which must in 
time prove a valuable mill seat. On the north side of the lake 
were encamped 5 family wagons from Indiana on their way to the 
Territory Laden with squatters. The water on this prairie is 
good well water & is obtained by digging from 20 to 30 feet. After 
walking 6 miles I took breakfast at Mr. William's where I stopped 
over-night when going down after which 14 miles^ brought me to 
the house of a Mr. Disbrow about 1 o'clock p. m. where I overtook 
a load of land-seekers among whom were Mr. Toppen of Scoharrie 
Co. & Mr .[Carey of Montg[omery] Co. N. Y. They had dined here 
& were just leaving Mr. T. intimated that I would find "hard- 
feed." Indeed, on entering the house every sense of cleanliness & 
order & decency was violated. I dared not look around me for 
fear of discovering to the inmates signs of horror & astonishment. 
But I must make my presence accountable, accordingly I called 
for a bowl of milk the simplest & most likely to be clean of any 
thing I could imagine & by scarcely touching the bread was en- 
abled to dispose of the milk to the satisfaction of my hostess. 

* The following is the second installment of the diary of Frederick J. Starin, of which 
the first appeared in the September number of this magazine. The first portion of this 
installment consists of a review which the writer makes of his return journey from Illinoip, 
for which see pages 93-94 ante. 

^ This ferry was at the junction of Crystal Lake outlet with Fox River. It was the 
site of an old Indian ford. 

^ Within this distance the traveler passed from Illinois into Wisconsin. 



208 



Documents 



But in conclusion and without the particulars allow me to call it 
the filthiest, & most disagreeable house I have seen this side the 
lakes. By walking five miles farther I reached the house [of] Elder 
Lake on Bigfoot Prairie, & in the evening saw Mr. Trimball 
respecting his farm This Prairie is wholly free from Sloughs, 
has a few good springs & is remarkably level & adapted to agri- 
cultural purposes. Remaining at the Elder's untill 7 o'clock in 
the morning, when I set out for Beloit The weather was warm 
and after leaving the prairie wended a weary way of 7 miles 
through the openings between Big-foot & Jefferson Prairies, which 
are unbroken except by an occasional slough The surface is 
gently rolling — Jefferson prairie is yet but thinly settled & has an 
elevated rolling surface. From the house of Mr. [Charles] Tuttle 
who lives on the west side till within 4 miles of the river I passed 
through openings the most pleasant and delightful I ever saw. 
The Timber was white. Burr & Pin oak. Then striking the prairie 
& pursuing as I was directed the most traveled road found after 
I had proceeded near two miles that it was closed & had not been 
traveled in some time. Now here was a predicament The turtle 
creek before me & no means of crossing, a shower black as night 
approaching from the southeast, aware that I was on the wrong 
track, & no house in sight nor living being. I however instinc- 
tively started back up the creek and after walking & scrambling 
more than a mile over a bramble heath broken by the washing ol 
the stream & the rain threatening every moment to descend ir 
torrents upon me I at last found myself within a hundred yards ol 
a small barn built house on an eminence, in my eagerness to arrive 
at which I had till now over-looked the fact that it was beyonc 
the creek. Here was another dilemma. The rain beginning 
already to patter freely on my outspread umbrella. The creel 
before me & the house beyond it a wet back or soaked feet wa 
inevitable so I off with my boots, & waded, reached the house t 
saved my back but got two feet of my length completely drenched 
after adjusting my boots & socks once more & taking a luncheo] 
The sky was clear, & a stiff walk of two miles bro't me to the dooi 
of the Beloit Hotel. I was much charmed with the appearance c| 
the place. It contains about 400 inhabitants, is bounded on th| 

j 



Diary of a J ourney to Wisconsin 



209 



west by Rock river & south by the Turtle creek, at the mouth of 
which is a Grist mill & saw mill. There is on[e] Hotel, 2 stores, 1 
church school house & a number of small but neat dwellings in 
the place. It is laid out in a grove & is at once a smart, healthy, 
romantic & delightful place. The Banks on the opposite side of 
the river are high BlulBFs supported by level & extensive prairie. 
The river is at this place a clear and gravelly bottomed stream 
about 5 feet deep & 20 rods wide, & I here first saw the self- 
propelling rope-ferry boat. Left by way of the river road found 
some very fine situations in the grove along the east bank of the 
river which varies in width from H to 13^ mile beyond which it 
is Prairie 5 to 6 miles in width. After following the river 7 miles I 
took the Prairie road & touched it again opposite Wisconsin City,^ 
where I arrived about 3^ past 12 o'clock 12 miles from Beloit. 
I here proposed crossing to see that celebrated city, & after pad- 
dling, rocking, pitching heaving, getting my knees & Baggage wet 
in an old wornout leaky Indian dug-out I finally landed, and lo! 
the city had vanished or never was, all that could be seen was the 
skeleton of a frame building scattered in fragments over the site, 
well seasoned & sprung. Was much delighted with the high bluffs 
southwest of Rock-port covered with a growth of young pin-oak 
and altogether a place where I think I could spend my days. 
Rock-Port is situated on a plain elevated about 6 or 7 feet above 
the bottoms — consists of 3 dwellings & one barn, and better water 
I never saw than I found at the door of an Old gentleman who 
seems to spend there the evening of life in the enjoyment of every 
blessing of paradise. About 3^ a mile north & across the river is 
Janes Ville the County Seat of Rock Co. & not a very pleasant nor 
thriving place Here I found an opportunity to ride across Rock 
Prairie 9 miles & Put up for the night at Mr. Steam's 3 miles west 
of Johnstown P. O. A lack of good water is the only difficulty 
here. 

Sunday June 14th 1840— Mr. Pratt & myself passed the fore- 
noon at church at the house of Mr. [Azor] Kinney & in the after- 
noon Mr. Norman Pratt & I went to section 1 — where we found 
the largest spring I ever saw on a lot belonging to my brother. 

* Wisconsin City was a "paper town" laid out in 1 830 on the west side of Uo< k River 
just below Janesville. Part of its site is now within the city limits. 



210 



Documents 



Monday June 15th 1840— Examined the E. J/^ of the s[blank 
in MS.] this A. M. & JournaHsed in the afternoon. In the evening 
two of Mr. Pratt's sons the Old Gentleman himself & another 
young man oflfieiated as musicians, & unadorned and unticketed 
there was a simultaneous gathering of "Girls & Boys" untill it 
finally ended in a lively & cheerful dance. I cannot but remark 
how forcibly my reflections were carried back to those often 
envied evenings of olden-time when the yeomen pioneers of the 
Mohawk would collect in one of their best Log-cabins and pass 
the merry, merry night. . . . 

Tuesday June 16th 1840 — Passed most of the day, in writing 
home. Had music at Mr. Norman Pratt's this evening. 

Wednesday June 17th 1840 — This afternoon Mr. Pratt 
succeeded in getting the foundation framework of his barn laid, ' 
& in completing the preparations for raising which is to take place 
tomorrow after-noon. 

Thursday June 18th 1840 — This after-noon about 60 men 
succeeded in erecting the frame of Mr. P's barn, which is 50 feet 
square Was gratified to find that here as well as elsewhere in 
the Territory the use of ardent spirits is wholly abandoned on 
such occasions. And the whole affair was conducted with more < 
order & less noise than any I had ever before witnessed. 

Friday June 19th 1840 — First heard of the appropriations 
made for improving the Wisconsin harbors on Lake Michigan. 
To wit: $25,000 for Milwaukie $ ,000 [sic] for Racine $ ,000 [sic] 
South Port. Green Peas on the 6th & 8th of June. 

This after-noon there was a goodly number of Ladies visiting 
at Mr. Pratt's, Mrss McGoon & Earl. Sat up till 1 o'clock for 
the purpose of ascertaining the true meridian of this place from 
the polar Star, from which The Magnetic was found to vary 
6°12'E 

Saturday June 20th 1840 — Having the offer of Mr. A. B. 
Weed's horse to ride I accepted it & rode to Fort Atkinson this 
afternoon, which is 8 or 9 miles distant. At the fort (which is 
now demolished, & never was anything more than a few pickets i 
occupied by Gen. Atkinson during the Black-hawk war,) there is 
but one house owned by a Mr. [Dwight] Foster who keeps the 



Diary of a J ourney to Wisconsin 



211 



Ferry. Returned by way of Finch's who lives on sec. 30 Town 
5 R 14 The River land is mostly openings on which some fine 
improvements have been made, & some comfortable locations may 
be found. In consequence of the lowland near the mouth of Bark 
River & the great quantity of water grass &c. in Rock river it 
proves to be rather Fever & aguish about & below the Fort. 
From Finche's to White Water Prairie it is nearly all rolling 
openings. Was overtaken & well sprinkled by a shower from the 
Southwest which continued till near sun-set & was succeeded by 
an unusually bright & well-defined rainbow. 

Monday June 22nd 1840 — Dr. Tripp having come out as far 
as this place [Whitewater] on Saturday with a load of Oats on his 
way to Fort Winnebago, intending to proceed to-day, I made 
application for & succeeded in obtaining a chance to ride with 
him. Dea. W. B. Johnson's team was to accompany him laden 
with flour. Accordingly we set out this morning about ten o'clock 
in the direction of Rock Prairie the northern part of which we 
crossed. Came to the river 23^ or 3 miles above Janes Ville at a 
place called Htlme's Ferry ^ where we crossed by means of a pole 
Ferry-boat. At this place there are no bottoms & the road 
approaches the river in a ravine which seems to have been formed 
for the very purpose. The prairie along the river is bordered by a 
strip of beautiful level openings. The stream here is as large as 
at Beloit & has a clean gravel bed. The opposite bank has a 
gentle ascent from the water's edge & is rendered romantic & 
delightful by a Beautiful growth of burr-Oak with which it is 
covered, beyond this we crossed a small prairie 3 miles in 
length & put up at a house on the western extremity of it owned by 
a Mr. [Charles] McMillan 

Teusday June 23d 1840 — Started this morning about 7 o'clock 
k passed through some fine openings for about 4 miles after which 
it became broken, hilly, very shrubby k uninteresting. On sect. 
15, town 4 Range 10 there lives a Mr. [Samuel] Lewis, whose 
house was the last we saw untill we came within a mile & a half 
of Madison, where after riding all day we stopped for the night 
at a Mr. [Abel] Dunning's 

"This ferry was on one of the main roads leading from Madison. Sec H'/.*. Ui>i. 
Colls., vi. 369. 



I 



212 Documents 

The country through which we passed is principally high Bluffy 
openings, very destitute of water so much so that we were unable 
to obtain any for drinking, untill we reached a small lake west of 
the 3d lake called "dead lake" [Lake Wingra] at the head of which 
we found several beautiful rock springs. The uninhabited state of j 
this section of country I conclude can be attributed to nothing but j 
a scarcity of water in as much as the surface was very level & \j 
well adapted to farming in every other respect between 4 & 7 miles I 
from the Capital.^ 

Wednesday June 24th 1840 — Feeling a desire to have an > 
opportunity of seeing the Capital I set out on foot in advance of [ 
the teams for the city there to await their arrival It is situated j; 
on high ground between the third & fourth lakes. The Capital is 
built of lime stone of a yellow colour & is large & commodious but j 
is yet in an unfinished state. There are two public houses 2 stores 
& 2 Printing offices in this place besides a few shops & a number of 
dwelling houses. Contains about 3 or 400 inhabitants. Have no V 
manufactures nor machinry of any kind. The people are very 
avaricious, are professed enemies & take every possible advantage \ 
of strangers, & to me the whole fabric seemed founded on selfish- ' 
ness, reared at the expence of the credulous & duped people & • 
tottering now to its very base with the ague of speculation. The 
Country immediately about Madison is very illy adapted to 
farming & is yet unimproved. Four miles beyond we came to 
Winnebago prairie across which we traveled 23 miles finding but 
one house which is 7 miles from Madison. This prairie is high & 
rolling & at the north end very bluffy, & on it we crossed but two | 
streams of living water, put up for the night at the city of 
Pauquette^ which consists of one log cabin owned & occupied by \ 
a Mr. Rowen [Wallace Rowan], & is the Stage house & city Hotel. 
Two lines of stages run semi- weekly between Fort Winnebago & 
Madison. Pauquette was named in honor of an Indian trader' 
whose widow now lives 2 miles above the portage on the Wiscon- 
sin river, he having been killed by a young chief of the Winnebagos 

^ In all probability the tardy settlement of Dane County was due, not so much to 
lack of water, as to distance from the lake ports and the absorption of the best land by k 
speculators, who sold higher than the government price. i 

^ The town then called Pauquette is now Poynette; it is said that the change of name j 
was due to the post office officials at Washington misreading the word Pauquette. ^ 

t 



Diary of a J ourney to Wisconsin 



213 



by the name of Mazamonneekah who was tried at Green bay & 
sentenced to be hung but escaped thro, a crevice not in the 
prison but the law. The murder was committed 4 years since^ 

Thursday June 25th 1840 — Between this place & the Portage 
the soil is light & sandy and somewhat springy. The surface is 
rolling & covered with a fine growth of white yellow & burr-Oak. 
We arrived and took breakfast on the southwest side of the Port- 
age about 8 o'clock A. M. The Wisconsin & Fox rivers here 
approach within Ij^ miles of each other & then as if by mutual 
consent bend directly from each other and flow in opposite direc- 
tions the waters of the one finally falling into the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence & the other into the Gulf of Mexico The land between 
them is low & marshy for several miles in extent and so level that 
in times of Freshets they flow alternately into each other A 
canal between them has been under contemplation for some 
time, but nothing more than the turf has yet been removed On 
the Wisconsin there are a few trading houses & a tavern, near 
Fox river there is a store kept by Mr. [Henry] MerriP a tavern 
store house & black smith shop. The site of the Fort is on a 
beautiful, elevated plain in the bend of Fox river & is a very 
healthful & pleasant location There is a store in the parade 
ground called the settler's [sutler's] store, directly opposite the 
Fort is a dwelling house & a trading house of the North Western 
Fur Company.^" 

On Teusday last The Eighth Regiment of U. S. left here for 
Prairie du Chien where the Winnebagos are now collected for 
their removal beyond the Mississippi. During our stay here I 
had an opportunity of bathing in the Wisconsin. It is a shallow 
stream much obstructed by sand bars, yet small steam boats have 
succeeded in ascending as far as this place. Great quantities of 
Pine lumber are annually rafted down to the Mississippi from The 
Pinery up the [river?] The water is filthy & considerably stained 
yet it is drank at the Portage. Having disposed of our Grain we 
returned to Pauquette in the evening. 

Friday June 26th 1840 — We were detained untill 2 o'clock 

" For this incident see Wis. Hist. Colls., vii, 355-358. 
' For the reminiscences of this pioneer see ibid., 366-403. 
The American Fur Company, founded by John Jacob Astor. 



214 



Documents 



P M in consequence of the straying of an indian Pony which 
Dr. T. had bo't from Mr. Rowen for floure when going up. James 
E. Williams Mr. Johnson's teamster & I then left him & came on 
as far as Mr. Bird's on section 28 town 8 Range 10, where we staid 
for the night 

Saturday June 27th 1840 — This morning we started in a 
southerly direction untill we struck the road leading from Madi- 
son to Astallan [Aztalan] which we then followed over a hilly, 
unsettled & inferior tract of land, some parts of which were 
covered with a heavy and promiscuous growth of Timber. On 
approaching & after passing a small lake in town 7 range 13 we 
again found openings & marks of cultivation. At its outlet there 
is a small settlement and a saw-mill.^^ Arrived at Mr. [Benjamin] 
Babcock's near the ancient city about 3 PM. & concluded to 
remain, which gave me an opportunity of viewing the ancient 
ruins of which I had heard so much 

Sunday June 28th 1840 — ^Last night we experienced a severe 
thunder gust from the south. This morning we started about 8 
o'clock & arrived at White Water 1 o'clock P. M. 

Monday June 29th 1840 — I set out to-day about 11 o'clock 
A M for Milwaukie on foot and arrived at Dr. Tripp's house about 
7 o'clock P. M. and spent the night there. 

Teusday June 30th 1840 — Having to walk 28 miles to-day I 
felt inclined to take an early leave and set out accordingly at 
5 o'clock in the morning and walked as far as [A.] Orendoreff's 
Hotel on Fox river, where I breakfasted Beyond the river there 
were several trees lying across the road, which had probably been 
blown down on Saturday night during the gale, took dinner at 
Mr. [Nathaniel] Rogers' about 11 o'c Met Mr. Jacob McKonkey 
on his return from Milwaukie where he had been for the purpose of 
taking his brother James who was going east on the first Boat. 
Arrived at the town about 4 o'clock P. M. & stopped at the 
Milwaukie house kept by Mr. Graves Found Mr. McKonkey 
at the Steam Boat Hotel & wrote home with [sic] him. The inde- 
pendant Treasury bill passed this day. 

Wednesday July 1st 1840 — After having purchased some small 

" For the early settlement of Lake Mills, see Wis. Hist. Colls., xi, 417-434. 



Diary of a J ourney to Wisconsin 



215 



articles wbich were sent for by some persons at White Water & 
forwarded them by a Mr. [Phineas F.] Morrison from near Ft. 
Atkinson I started for Racine about 3^ past 12 o'clock & arrived 
about H past 8 in the evening Stopped at the Racine House. 
It is a beautifully situated town at the mouth of Root river, on a 
high level bluff with an extensive view of the lake. There are 
3 or 4 stores, two hotels, a court house and several neat dwelling 
houses in the place & between 3 & 400 inhabitants. 

Thursday July 2nd 1840— Called on Mr. M M Goodwin with 
whom I became acquainted on board the Steamboat this spring 
& who was now attending the dry-good store of a Mr. [Philo] 
White. Left Racine about 2 o'clock P. M. & walked out 14 miles 

Friday July 3d 1840 — Started at past 5 this morning & 
breakfasted at Rochester a small place on Fox river 23 miles from 
Racine. There is here but little else than a saw-mill & two stores, 
passed through spring prairie. Honey Creek Pra. &c and arrived 
at the foot of the Bluff 5 miles East of White Water having walked 
35 miles and here my lameness rendered it impracticable for me to 
proceed although I intended to have got through this evening. 
I therefore stopped for the night, made a supper of hot pan-cakes 
& dried venison & rested my weary bones on the hearth before 
the fire. The Land OflSce closes to-day at 4 o'clock P. M. 

Saturday July 4th 1840 — Started this morning about 4 o'clock 
& arrived at White Water about 6 found the people all sleepy 
both old & young having attended a party at Mr. Powers'^^ the 
night previous 

Sunday July 5th 1840 — ^^I attended church this forenoon at 
Mr. Wm Birges house, where the Rev. Mr. [Daniel] Smith lectured 
from Eccl. XI, 9, on the impropriety of dancing, referring on the 
occasion to the Ball day before yesterday. 

I Monday July 6th 1840 — To day I accompanied Mr. Norman 
Pratt on horse-back to Elkhorn Centre the County seat of 
Walworth Co. where the County commissioners had met for 

"David J. Powers came from Vermont to Wisconsin in 1888; he and liis brother 
Samuel settled first at Whitewater and aided in developing the water power; the next year 
D. J. Powers founded Palmyra. He was a member of the assembly in IS.'iS, secretary of 
the State Agricultural Society for many years, and owner and editor of the Wiaconsin 
Farmer. He was also an early member and curator of the State Historical Societx . His 
death occurred in 1909. 



216 



Documents 



transacting some business. One of them Col. [William] Bowman 
has recently been engaged in taking the Census of the County 
which resulted as follows, Town of Spring Prairie — 658 — Geneva 
467, Elkhorn— 441— Troy— 432, Darien 232 Walworth 230— 
Delavan 150. Total— 261013 

Teusday July 7th 1840 — This afternoon with the assistance of 
F. Pratt I laid out ten acres for breaking on Henry's lot north of 
the mill 

Wednesday July 8th 1840— Went to Mr. Humphreys^^ this 
morning for the purpose of having him break some land, & he 
agreed to be ready to-morrow morning. 

Thursday July 9th 1840 — ^Expecting the breaking team along 
about I employed myself clearing & burning old wood from the 
ground. The sun was excessively hot in the P M, & having to 
work near the fires I sweat most profusely. Mr. Humphrey came 
not. 

Friday July 10th 1840— This A. M. I drew off most of the old 
dead trees with Dr. Tripp's Oxen — and in the P. M. attended a 
raising (of a barn) at Mr. Teatshorns [John Teetshorn] 

Sunday July 12th 1840 — To-day in company with Messrs. 
Philarmon Pratt & P. C. Muzzy & a number of ladies I rode out. 
Went to Mr. [Norris F.] Haws's stopped a short time & then 
attended church at Mr. Humphrey's where Mr. Smith preach'd 

Monday July 13th 1840 — To-day about noon Mr. Humphrey 
came on to "Break up" ten acres of land for Henry on the south 
end of his lot north of White Water. Commenced a family School 
To-day Mr. Pratt commenced cutting wheat. Mr. [Richard , 
Hoppin cut rye on Friday last. 

Teusday July 14th 1840— This afternoon I clear'd off Tops 
Mr. Humphrey broke his plow. 

Wednesday July 15th 1840 — This afternoon I went witl 
Messrs. Smith & White looking land in town 4 Range 15. 

Thursday July 16th 1840— This A. M. went into town 5 Rang< 

15. 

^3 These towns in 1840 embraced the entire area of Walworth County, which now coe * 
tains sixteen towns. 1 

" Joseph and James G. Humphrey settled in 1839 on section 7 of what is now th; 
town of Richmond. 



Diary of a Journey to Wisconsin 



217 



Friday July 17th 1840— This P. M. I went to Mr. [Justus] 
Carpenter's to employ him to break some but finding him absent 
went to Mr. Daws' on Sect 29, Town 5 R. 15, who informed me 
that he was attending church. Returned and measured Mr. 
Pratt's Breaking of this season which was 81 acres 2 ros. & llj^ 
Poles. 

First New Potatoes to-day, & large ones too. 

Saturday July 18th 1840 — This afternoon I rode out alone into 
town 4 R. 15, to the Island &c. 

Sunday July 19th 1840— To-day Mr. Muzzy, Powers & 
myself rode out on horse back to Brink's MilU^ Rockwel's Ferry, 
Mr. Mays Finch-town or Koshkonong, &c. Messrs. White & 
Smith moved in to-day. 

Monday July 20th 1840— This A M. I went to see Mr. Car- 
penter about breaking some. And in the P M. took a tramp to 
Sect. 22 & 23 T. 4, R. 14 & 20 & 29 Town 4, R 15. 

Teusday July 21st 1840— This P M I went on sects. 10 & 1. 

Wednesday July 22nd 1840 — ^About 3 o'clock this afternoon I 
set out for Milwaukie. Having an opportunity to ride with Old 
Mr. Perry as far as his house I arrived at Dr. Tripp's about 8 
3'clock Thursday morning having staid at Mr. Whitcomb's over 
night. Mr. Carpenter agreed to break 

Thursday July 23d 1840— Left the Doctor's about 9 o'clock & 
arrived at Milwaukie on foot about sunset. Stopped at the Mil- 
vvaukie house, found the land office closed and not to open untill 
Teusday the 28th. 

Friday July 24th 1840 — Spent to-day in purchasing pine lum- 
ber for & writing to my brother Left the money with which I 
iiad calculated to buy land on Sect. 10 Town 4 Range 15 with Mr. 
H Fletcher clerk in the register's office 

Saturday July 25th 1840— Left Milwaukie about 5 o'clock 
this morning on foot and arrived at Dr. T's about 4 P. M. 

Sunday July 26th 1840— This AM. the Dr. Mr. Whitcomb & I 
went fishing on the lake. Left there about Yz past two P M & 
arrived at White Water 8 in the evening 

First Green Corn at Mr. Pratts to-day. 

*'Abram Brink, who came to Wisconsin in 1838, built a sawmill on Wliitrwatcr 
Creek, in the southern portion of Jefferson County. 



218 



Documents 



Wednesday July 29th 1840 — To-day Mr Loomis stacked 
about 5 tons of hay for me. Indications of Fever & ague. 

Thursday July 30th 1840— Mr. Asaph Pratt left for Madison 
Co. New York this morning 

Friday July 31st 1840 — First Oats cradled on Mr. Pratts 
Land to-day. 

Saturday Aug'st 1st 1840— Left White Water about 8 o'clock 
this morning for Milwaukie & arrived at Dr. Tripp's aboul 
3 o'clock P.M. 

Sunday Aug'st 2nd 1840 — Left the Doctor's about 8 o'clocli, 
this morning and arrived at Milwaukie 6 o'clock in the evening 
Found the letter containing the duplicates which was the object o ■ 
my journey just mailed to be sent on to Whitewater 

Monday Aug'st 3d 1840— Left Milwaukie 10 o'clock A M. 5| 
arrived at the Dr's 3^ past 8 in the evening. Whitcomb takei 
sick this A M | 

Teusday Augs't 4th 1840 — Left the Dr's 8 o'clock & arrive( 
at White Water 5 P. M. Yesterday the Dr. commenced Fittin, 
up his house 

Saturday Aug'st 8th 1840— Messrs. [A. B.] Weed and [Samue ' 
Taft went to Beloit to return to-morrow. I sat up with Mi 
Whitcomb this night. 

Monday Aug'st 10th 1840 — First melons — Mrs. Mead < 
Mrs. [Oliver C] Magoon visited at Mr. P's 

Teusday Aug'st 11th 1840— Dr. Tripp came out this PIV 
Mrs. Birge visited Mrs. P. 

Wednesday Aug'st 12th 1840— Dr. T. returned Mr. [Zeral 
Mead & I run a line between us. 

Thursday Aug'st 13th 1840 — ^Benjamin Whitcomb died th 
morning about 7 o'clock of an inflamation of the bowels — after a 
ilness of 10 days. Dr. Tripp came out again 

Friday Aug'st 14th 1840 — Mr. W. was burid to-day aboi 
noon. I 

Saturday Aug'st 15th 1840— Mr. Powers & I visited the hid 
bluff 6 miles east of White Water 

Sunday Aug'st 16th 1840— Philarmon Pratt & I went blacj 
berrying beyond Bark River Swam the river going & on o l 



i 



Diary of a Journey to Wisconsin 



219 



return waded but were so unfortunate as not to get a single berry. 
Com.[menced] b[oa]rdng. at Powers' noon 

Monday Aug'st 17th 1840— This P. M. I went with two 
gentlemen from Honey creek Prairie looking land. 

Teusday Aug'st 18th 1840— Mr. Pratt's teams went to Troy 
for wheat. [Prosper] Cravath, [Azor] Kenney, [Calvin] Pike & 
CO. crossed Bark R. 

Wednesday Aug'st 19th 1840 — Mr Rowen From Fort. Winne- 
bago was here on his way home via Kushkonong. 

Thursday Aug'st 20th 1840 — Freeman Pratt went to Troy for 
wheat with Team. 

Saturday Aug'st. 22nd 1840— To day I rode with Geo. A. 
Hibbard Mail carrier as far as Capt. [Samuel L.] Porter's & walked 
from there to the doctor's. Spent the time most agreably in 
hunting, fishing & meloning untill 

Friday Aug'st. 28th 1840 — when I again rode to White Water 
with the Doctor. Staid at Mr. Pratt's this evening. 

Saturday Aug'st. 29th 1840 — The Doctor returns to-day 
Mr. Pike leaves. Mr. Powers & I Drew agreement. 

Sunday Aug'st 30th 1840— Mr. Smith Preaches to-day at 
Mr. Wm Birge's house.^^ 

Monday Aug'st 31st 1840 — To-day I assisted Mr. Powers 
rafting lumber from Bark River Mill. 

Friday Sept 4th 1840 — To-day I assisted Messrs. Powers & 
Birge. 

Saturday Sept. 5th 1840 — Meeting of the Commissioners of 
common schools took place at the house of Mr. McCrackin on 
Heart Prairie to day. 

Sunday Sept 6th 1840— Called on Mr. Mead to-day PM. 

Wednesday Sept. 9th 1840— A cotillon Party at Mr. Mead's 
this evening. Dr. Tripp came out to-day about 2 P M. &c &c. 

Thursday Sept. 10th 1840 — The Doctor returned to-day noon. 

Friday Sept 11th 1840— Surveyed an eighth of Sect. 13 T. 4 
R. 15. For Jeremiah Dodge 

Sept 12th 1840 — Saturday. Surveyed a sixteenth of Sect. 33 
T. 5. R. 15. For Mr. A. B. Weed Caucus to-day P. M. 

" William Birge came to Whitewater in 1837 and built one of the earliest pristinills on 
the site. He was the father of Julius Birge, now a prominent manufartvircr of St. Louis. 



220 



Documents 



Sunday Sept. 13th 1840 — To-day I intended to take a ride on 
ho[r]se-back but was Prevented by an attack of head ache and 
pain in my back. Therefore instead of taking a ride a dose of 
Calomel & Jalap was substituted. Mr. Muzzy rode to Jains Ville 
to-day and injured Mr. Birge's horse. 

Monday Sept 14th 1840 — Geo. Brown came out to-day with 
the Dr.'s Ox team to get out timber for his house. Took an 
Emetic this evening. Mr. Joseph Powers returned from the south 
this P. M. with the fever & ague. 

Teusday Sept 15th 1840 — To-day I feel no head-ache nor pain 
of any kind but rather a cold vacancy at the stomach. 

Wednesday Sept. 16th 1840 — Started this morning about 7 
o'clock with Mr. [Joseph] Nichols and his team for Milwaukee 
expecting to find my brother & his family there. I felt very well 
untill within 4 miles of Dr. Tripps when I began to feel chilly and 
in a few minutes commenced shaking quite comfortably & sup- 
posing it only the effect of the weather I walked untill I became 
quite warm, and on arriving at the Doctor's having a violent 
fever I concluded to stop untill Mr. N. returned. This being my i 
first fit of the ague it was no less a gratification than a satisfaction. 

Thursday Sept. 17th 1840 — Had no shake to-day and felt 
quite comfortable. The Doctor returned from White Water this 
PM 

Friday Sept 18th 1840 — Commenced shaking to-day about 11 
o'clock & felt quite uncomfortable the remainder of the day. 

Saturday Sept 19th 1840 — This morning about 8 o'clock the 
Doctor started for Elkhorn at which place the county convention \ 
is held to-day. Mr Nichols returned about one o'clock & I rodej 
to Whitewater with him. I 

Sunday Sept 20th 1840 — Commenced shaking this morning | 
about 9 o'clock. 

Henry & Ela^^ arrived here about 6 o'clock this evening, having 
come from Chicago by land in a one horse wagon having left 
Jacob with the goods on the S. B. at that place to return to Mil- 
waukee. 

Monday Sept. 21st 1840 — Ela & I rode over to and made a visil 

1' The diarist's brother Henry Starin and his wife. 



1 

i 



Diary of a Journey to Wisconsin 



221 



at Mr. Mead's this afternoon. This morning about 7 o'clock 
Henry started with two of Pratt's teams for his goods at Mil- 
waukee. 

Teusday Sept. 22nd 1840 — Commenced shaking to-day about 
8 o'clock. 

Wednesday Sept. 23d 1840 — In consequence of too violent ex- 
ercise this A M. riding on horseback to Mr. Mead's & of eating too 
freely of melons I bro't a shake upon me to-day about 1 o'clock 
P. M. a very unwelcome circumstance, having found it very 
tedious & undesirable once in two days. Henry returned this 
evening about ten o'clock with two loads, Mr. Nichols being on the 
way with the third & last. 

Thursday, Friday, & Saturday Henry was engaged at Re- 
pairing & Preparing Mr. Birge's old house & on Saturday evening 
had it in order for living. Mr. [Sidney S.] Workman's house was 
raised this afternoon. 

Sunday Sept. 27th 1840— 

Monday Sept. 28th 1840— Election For the town of White 
Water held to-day at D. J. Powers' Hotel. 52 votes Polled. 

Teusday Sept 29th 1840 — To-day I experienced the first 
remission of the ague, having taken Dr. Mowl's Medicine since 
last Thursday. 

Wednesday Sept 30th 1840 — Militia muster to-day at Mr. 
Esterlee's on Heart Pra[irie]^^ 

October 1st 1840 — Thursday — Henry & I went to the village 
to-day for the first time since my ague. Mr. Hoppin went to 
Milwaukie to-day. 

The weather is rainy & unpleasant this A. M. Towards night 
it becomes clear and quite pleasant Wind in the S. W. Dark, 
Rainy & Stormy night — 

Oct. 2nd 1840 — Friday — To-day I transfered the purchase of 
Power's Place to the Pratts 

Cloudy and rainy this A. M. Cold, windy snowy and rainy 

" George Esterly, born in 1809 in New York state, removed in 1836 to Wisconsin and 
the next year opened a farm in the town of La Grange, Walworth County. He was the 
inventor of the Esterly reaper, for which the first patent was obtained in 1844. In 1S.>() n 
factory for its production was opened at Whitewater; during the Civil War and thorcnffor 
the Esterly reapers were widely employed in harvesting. 



Documents 



P. M. Wind in the S. W. hard all day and continues all night. 
Froze very hard in the night. 

Oct. 3d 1840 — Saturday — Henry went on sect. 1. Clear with 
a cold S. W. wind all day. Bright clear night. 

Oct. 4th 1840— Sunday— Henry & Ela went to Mr. [Wilham 
K.] May's to-day. Clear & pleasant with a S. W. breeze — all 
day — Bright night 

Oct. 5th 1840 — Monday — Drew up some wood & fenced about 
the hay-stack. Clear. S. W. wind. Bright & Pleas't night. 

Oct. 6th 1840 — Teusday — Henry and I started with single 
wagon for Koskonong, Pra. Du Lac,^^ Janes Ville, Beloit &c. this 
morning, but in consequence of my exercise yesterday I got nc. 
farther than Mr. [Thomas K. Le] Barren's before I commenced 
shaking & was compelled to stop and let him proceed. Aftei' 
shaking I succeeded in walking as far back as Mr. [George B. 
Halls. 

Cool morning. N. W. wind. Clear. Bright moon at night - 
Oct. 7th 1840— Wednesday— Rode out to White Water wit! 

Mr. Halls this morning S. W. wind clear & Pleas't. Brighli 

night. 

Oct. 8th 1840— Thursday— S. W. wind AM. & clear. N. 
wind P. M. & Dark & Rainy. 

Oct. 9th 1840— Friday— Mr. Pratt's teams went to Milwau 
kee. N. E. wind not much rain A. M. P. M. cold & windy. 

Henry returned this afternoon — 

Oct. 10th 1840 — Saturday — Dark & Rainy all day — clears of 
at night & the wind changes from N. E. to S. W. 

Oct. 11th 1840 — Sunday — S. W. wind clear Bright moon 
shiny night. 

Oct. 12th 1840 — Monday — Mr. Pratt's teams returned fron 
Milwaukee with goods for tavern. S. W. wind clear. Brigh 
moon. 

Oct. 13th 1840— Teusday— Henry & I went on Sect. 10, witl 
compass & chain. 

Doctor Tripp came out to-day. 

S. W. wind clear Bright moon at night > 



18 Prairie du Lac lies in the southern part of the town of Milton, Rock County. 



Diary of a J ourney to Wisconsin 



223 



Oct. 14th 1840— Wednesday— Mr. Pratt moved to-day. 
Surveyed city -lots — ^half-day. Fires commenced running S. E. 
From here N. E. wind very warm sun. Bright moon 

Oct. 15th 1840— Thursday— Fires (NE) (E) & (SE)— Mrs. 
Tripp returned from the east to-day. S. C. L. [Surveyed city 
lots] half-day. N. E. wind cool, clear. 

Oct. 16th 1840— Friday— Cool N.E.w.AM. N.E. wind with 
rain P. M. 

Oct. 17th 1840 — Saturday — East wind and rainy AM. South 
wind & clear P. M. Rainy night. 

Oct. 18th 1840 — Sunday — Had a light shake of the ague to- 
day. Clear with S. wind, a heavy shower at night. Mr. & Mrs. 
Pratt visited this evening. 

Oct. 19th 1840 — Monday— West wind and clear all day — 
Jeremiah Dodge raised a log house on Sect. 13^ T. 4, R 15. 

Oct. 20th 1840— Teusday — Mr. Carpenter went to Milwaukee 
to-day. Cold morning. N. W. wind and clear. Rainy night 

Oct. 21st 1840 — Wednesday — House warming at Cha's Hamil- 
ton's. This evening — N. W. wind clear & Pleas't. Bright 
night. 

Oct. 22nd 1840 — Thursday — Very hard west wind, clear. 
This evening I saw five fires burning in different directions 

Oct. 23rd 1840 — Friday — Froze very hard last night, very 
hard cold west wind all day. 

Oct. 24th 1840 — Saturday — Doctor Tripp moved here with 
his family to-day — Hard frost last night cold west wind & 
Freezing all day. Snowy & Blustery P. M. 

Oct. 25th 1840 — Sunday — cold west wind and raw. Bluster- 
ings of snow all day. 

Oct. 26th 1840— Monday. Started on horseback for Milwau- 
kee Racine &c about noon. Stopped for the night at the house of 
John Spoor, S. W. M» S. 3 T. 4 R. 17. 

Very cold morning, moderates near noon Cool soutli west 
wind all day. 

Oct. 27th 1840. Teusday— Passed through Mukwonago. 
Prairie Ville^o to-day & stopped for the night at Mr. Thos. INI. 
Riddle's on Sect 29, T. 7, R. 21. 

" Prairieville was the early name of the present Waukesha. 



224 



Documents 



S. W. wind. A. M. moderate. P M. smoky and appearance 
of rain. 

Oct. 28th 1840— Wednesday— Passed through Milwaukee 
staid at Mr. [Walter] Cooley's 

S. W. wind cloudy Part of the day — moderate. 

Oct. 29th 1840 — Thursday — Stopped at Racine, & contracted' 
to teach the winter school, left about 2 PM & staid at Mr. [John 
B.] Wade's 9 m. E. of Rochester 

N. E. wind cloudy A. M. Rainy PM. but clear cold and 
windy towards night. 

Oct. 30th 1840 — Friday — ^Passed through Rochester, Spring 
Prairie, Troy and arrived at White Water in the evening. , 

Cold morning west wind & cloudy. 

Oct. 31st 1840 — Saturday — Fires Burned down between th(j 
two branches of the White Water to-day. 
S. W. wind clear warm & Pleas't. 

November 1st. 1840. Sunday — White Water Prairie bumeci 
this P.M. S. W. Wind. Warm & Pleasant all day. 

Nov. 2nd 1840. Monday. Burnt Stack S. W. wind, clear i 
warm & Pleas't. 

Nov. 3rd 1840 — Teusday. — ^Run lines on sects. 1 & 10. 
S. W. Wind & clear, AM. N. E. wind, cloudy & some rain P. M 

Nov. 4th 1840. Wednesday. Dark & cloudy. 

Nov. 5th 1840. Thursday. H & E. visited Mr. Mead's thi; 
P. M. 

Very foggy & cloudy A. M. Clear and Pleasant P. M. Nc- 
wind. 

Nov. 6th 1840. Friday. Surveyed city lots all day. Syl 
vanus Wilcox came here — Heard of the accident of the S. B! 
Missouri near Saginaw Bay, On the 23d Oct. 

West wind Clear, warm & pleasant all day. 

Nov. 7th 1840. Saturday — Mr. Wilcox, Henry & I starte* 
for 111. this A. M. 10 o'clock. Passed over Rock Pra. & staid a 
Mr. Richard Inman's. Cloudy with south east wind and som 
rain. 

Nov. 8th 1840. Sunday. Passed thro. Beloit & stopped a 
Rock-ford for the night. D. Howel. Cold & hard N west wine 
Flying clouds. 



Diary of a J ourney to Wisconsin 



225 



Nov. 9th 1840. Monday. Proceeded down the river as far as 
Kishwaukee — & then up the Kishwaukee to Newburg — where 
Mr. W. left us. Staid at Mr. Enix's on the road to Beloit. S & S.E. 
wind, clear all day. Very cold & chilly night. 

Nov. 10th Teusday. Passed thro. Beloit & staid at Mr. 
Timothy Burnum's on Rock Pra. South East wind — clear, ex. 
Smoke of fires. 

Nov. 11th Wednesday. Passed thro. Johnstown & arrived at 
White Water 2 o'clock PM — South E. wind cold rain AM. 
P.M. Breaks away. 

Nov. 12th 1840. Thursday. Surveyed city lots all day Cold 
benumbing N. W. wind all day. 

Nov. 13th 1840— Friday— S. C. L. H & E visited Dr. Tripps 
Alternately clear & cloudy — chilly wind. 

Mr. [Benjamin] Staunton's Family arrived to-day. 

Nov. 14th 1840. Saturday. Finished S. C. L. Cold N. W. 
wind & Blustering. Cloudy. 

Nov. 15th 1840 — Sunday. This morning I started for Racine. 
Rode as far as Rochester with Henry. 

Cold frosty morning with 3^ inch snow — cold & unpleasant 
N. W. wind all day. 

Nov. 16th 1840. Monday. Left Rochester this morning 
past 6 o'clock on foot, and arrived at Racine 4 o'clock P. M. 
Snow }/2 inch at Fox river & 2 inches at Racine 

Clear, Cold N. W. wind. 

Found court Sitting & The Trustees unprepared for a school 
untill next week in consequence of plastering the room. Com- 
menced Boarding at Mr. [Albert G.] Knights. 

Nov. 17th Teusday. Cold N. W. wind & clear 

Nov. 18th Wednesday NW & W. wind cloudy & mod. 

Nov. 19th 1840. Thursday — West wind moderate with 
strong indications of snow. 

Nov. 20th 1840. Friday— N.E. wind M. moderate Com- 
menced snowing at 4 P. M. 

The Court finished its business & adjourned this P. M. 

Nov. 21st 1840. Saturday. The snow which commenced 
falling yesterday P. M. changed to rain & to-day we experience 
a hard N. E. wind accompanied with rain. 



226 



Documents 



The Schr. Liberty ran ashore this night 12 miles below this 
place, on her way to Chicago. 

Nov. 22nd 1840 — Sunday — Storm still continues. Wind 
hard E. SE. 

Nov. 23rd 1840 — Monday — W. wind, clear & pleasant A. M. 
Cold W. wind & cloudy PM. 

Schr. Milwaukee anchored in the bay with a cargo of shingles 
from Manitowoc. 

Nov. 24th 1840— Teusday— W. wind cold & cloudy A.M. 
PM. Blustering cold. 

Nov. 25th 1840. Wednesday — West wind clear Warm sun. 
Thaws some. 1 

Nov. 26th 1840. Thursday— N & NE. wind cold clear a m\ 
cloudy p. m. 

Nov. 27th 1840. Friday — South wind clear warm sun' 
Thaws. I went up the lake & far as Mr. [Levi] Blake's. 

Nov. 28th 1840. Saturday — S & SW. wind clear warm 
sun & thaws considerable. The Schr. "Michigan" with a cargc : 
of Salt anchored in the Bay last night. For Wright & Co ' 
Sailed likewise with salt for Milwaukee. 

Nov. 29th Sunday — ^West wind clear & comfortably warm 
I attend church at the Court house this P. M. Mr. Moulthop 
[Rev. L. F. Moulthrop, Methodist] 

Nov. 30th. Monday. Very cold sharp west wind in th( 
morning, cold. Freezing & clear all day. Clear, moonshiny 
night Commenced School this morning. Had 17 schollars. 

Jan'ry 1st. 1841. Friday- 
To-day the elated Whigs hold a festival at Milwaukee fo] 
the purpose of celebrating the result of the late political contes 
which was an unprecedented Victory over their opponents am 
the Elevation of W"" H. Harrison to the Presidency & Johi 
Tyler to the Vice Presidency. (Electoral Vote 234, to 60.) 

Snow here is rather scarce but nevertheless, the runners ar« 
ironing to a state of complete Schorchification. 

I never before saw people so wholy enamored with an^ 



Diary of a J ourney to Wisconsin 227 



•ecreation, as the people of Racine are this day with that of 
oleigh-riding. 

This evening I enjoy the society of a party of old and young- 
old people who had assembled at the house of L. Filer for the 
purpose of celebrating the occasion. And verily did they sustain 
ts dignity. 

January 2nd 1841 — Saturday — 

This is truly coldest day that I have thus far seen in Wiskon- 
iin. The air is piercing, clothes seem no impediment to the 
searching Zephyr. 

Jany. 3d 1841 — Sunday — 

Attended church at the courthouse this a.m. where Mr. 
Rev. Jason] Lathrop [Lothrop] Lectured To-day Lake Michi- 
gan resembles a sunlit cloud of vapor. 

Jany. 4th 1841. Monday. The County Com. of Racine Co. 
2onvened to-day. I commenced boarding at Mr. [John A.] 
CarswelFs. Report of an indian's being shot in McHenry Co. 
111. 

\ Jany. 5th 1841. Teusday. Suffered to-day from a severe 
3old. 

Jany 7th 1841. Thursday. Commenced boarding at Mr. 
Briggs' 2 miles from town. 

Jany. 9th. Saturday 1841. Walked to Southport Kenosha 
to-day with Mr. [Harrison K.] Fay. Having never visited the 
place previously. 

Jany. 17th 1841. Sunday. Last week was to me one of no 
extraordinary occurrences. On Thursday evening there was a 
ball at Myers & Graves' of the Milwaukee house. Several of our 
citizens attended. 

Jany. 24th 1841 — Sunday — Last week as the preceding one 
affords no matter for record. Except that I boarded at the 
Racine House 

Feby. 5th Friday, 1841. The weather being cloudy I had 
despaired of seeing the eclipse of the moon which was to take 
place this evening, but before 3 P. M. the sun emerged from his 
obscurity. . . . The eclipse was total and remained entire 45 
minutes. 



228 



Documents 



Friday Feby. 19th 1841 — To-day I closed my school at 
Racine. . . . 

Saturday Feby. 20th 1841 — Found an opportunity to ride 
with a gentleman by the name of [Charles] Taylor as far as Mr. 
[Robert] Augurs 43^ miles from Troy found the road destitute 
of snow and rather muddy. Left Racine about 9 o'clock and 
arrived at Mr. Augurs about 8 in the evening 

Sunday Feby. 21st 1841 — Left Mr. Augur's this morning 
about 7 AM. on foot, took Breakfast at Mr. [John or George; 
Robison's at Troy, and arrived at White Water about 2 P. M,! 
found the people all well and the village Progressive. 

Monday Feby. 22nd 1841 — Being somewhat fatigued fron]* 
yesterday's tramp I spent most of the day at home in quietude j 

Wednesday Feby. 24th 1841 — Established three corners oi 
Mr. Muzzy's land on Sect. 31, Town 5, Range 14 E. 

Thursday, Feby. 25th 1841 — Henry & W"^. Birge made i 
bargain for land on Sect. 4. 

Friday Feb'y 26th 1841 — ^Willard B. Johnson teams started 
for Milwaukee and I finding myself unprepared did not accom 
pany them, as I had anticipated, and staid this evening at Mr 
Pratt. 

Saturday Feb'y. 27th 1841 — Surveyed for Mr. Birge on Sect 
4. to-day— P.M. 

Monday March 1st. 1841— 

Teusday March 2nd 1841 — Run the north line of sect. 4,fo 
Mr. Birge to-day assisted by Van Horran [Thomas Van Horr 
& [Warren] Earle — this evening accompanied Mr. Robiso: 
[Charles Robinson] on a legal errand to Mr. Humphreys. 

Wednesday March 3d 1841 — Started this morning 9 o'cloc 
with N & F. Pratts teams for Racine by way of Milwaukee- 
Staid over-night at Fox River. 

Thursday March 4th 1841 — Started 8 o'clock and arrived i 
Milwaukee 6 o'clock in the evening. Cold raw and unpleasar 
E. wind 

Friday March 5th 1841 — Had an opportunity to ride as ii 
as Mr. Chad — [?] 8 miles from Racine, from there on foot, arrive 
at Mr. Killip's about 7 o'clock in the evening. 



Diary of a J ourney to Wisconsin 



229 



Friday March 12th 1841 — The last week has been distin- 
guished for the uniform and delightful weather with which we 
have been favored. . . . 

It commenced snowing and blowing from the Northeast this 
evening, and 

Saturday morning, March 13th the ground was covered with 
an inch of snow, all of which however disappeared under the 
influence of a melting sun at 3 PM. Protracted meeting com- 
menced here last Teusday by Rev. Ordwell [Rev. Moses Ordway] 
from Prairie Ville. 

Mr. Smith, a mormon Priest preached at the Court house this 
evening. 

Sunday March 14th 1841 — To-day it is clear and pleasant 
with a brisk lake-breeze. 

Monday March 15th 1841 — Snow storm with south-east wind 
pretty brisk in the morning but in the course of the day it changed 
to North East and continued to blow all night 

Teusday March 16th 1841 — Wind and storm rather abated 
lea[v]ing about 5 inches of snow on the ground about 10 AM 
the weather moderated and cleared up. 

Wednesday March 17th 1841 — The weather to-day is quite 
moderate the snow is wasting fast. 

Thursday March 18th 1841 — Snow vanishes to-day at night 
there is none left but it is pretty muddy. Noticed to-night the 
first thunder & lightning this spring. 

Friday March 19th 1841 — The morning is ioggy and ex- 
tremely mild. Pigeons commenced flying this morning for the 
first time this spring, about 10 o'clock AM. we were favored 
with a fine thunder shower from the North west which lasted 
but an hour when it cleared up and was very pleasant during the 
remainder part of the day. 

Saturday March 20th 1841 — Very clear, bright warm and 
pleasant all day I went gunning up Root River this AM. 
Sugar boiling. Roads getting dry & dusty 

Sunday March 21st 1841— Messrs. Killip & Hurley wont to 
Milwaukee on horseback. Some cooler than yesterday yet 
clear & pleasant. 



Documents 



Monday March 22nd 1841 — Cloudy and rainy A. M. Clear 
PM. cloudy night. 

Tuesday March 23d 1841 — Roads are very soft and muddy. 
Root River about Breaking up — Clear 

Saturday March 27th 1841 — During the last three days the 
weather has suffered a variety of changes and we have had a 
good share rainy, wet & muddy weather. This evening old 
Boreas begins to blow his pipe from the North East and fails 
not to give a moderate sprinkling at the same time 

Messrs. Killip & Hurley returned from Milwaukee this even- 
ing about 7 o'clock. i 

Sunday March 28th 1841 — The Northeast wind continues to j 
blow very violently, accompanied with some rain, and thus united 
they form a complete tempest. Ice all gone from the lake shore j 
yesterday. 

Monday March 29th The North east wind still continues to] 
blow, and the rain ceases not. A terrible frown on the lake 1 

Teusday March 30th It snowed a little last night, & this 
morning it is somewhat cold the N. E. wind still continues light : 

Wednesday March 31st Cool east wind & the rain has 
ceased. Schr. Wisconsin down from Chicago this evening aboui 
9 o'clock was hailed with joy as the first vessel this spring. Sh( 
put out on monday from Chicago and after having been blown 
about 2 day's during the unusual storm made the harbor agair 
on Teusday evening and this morning put out again bound foj 
Manitowoc, after a cargo of lumber, C. S. Wright 

Thursday April 1st 1841 — Racine Corporation Bill acceptec 
to-day .^^ A schooner passed down the lake supposed to be th( 
Michigan this afternoon 

Friday April 2nd Mr. Goodwin & I went shooting ducks uf 
Root River to-day PM. 

Monday April 5th 1841 — The Board of County Commission^ 
ers met to-day. 

Port of Chicago, March 25th Schr. Drift Capt. Boughtoi 
arr. from St. Jo. with Lumb. Schr. Ottawa Capt. Nicholsoii 

21 Feb. 13, 1841, the territorial legislature passed an act of incorporation for Racine f 
which was to take effect when adopted by two-thirds of the voters within the limits of th ; 
village. The diarist here reports the passage of the referendum. [ 



Diary of a Journey to Wisconsin 231 



arr. from St. Jo. with Lumb. Cleared Gen. Thornton Capt. 
Harding, pass'rs. fr. St. Jo. March 29th Schr. Ocean, John 
i Giles, pass'rs. Muskegon. Schr. Drift, light fr. St. Jo. Schr. 
jOttawa light fr. St. Jo. March 31st Schr. Memee, Capt. Dan 
Shelley— freight Mich. city. Schr. Wiskonsan, Capt. Jno. 
Jackson, pass. T. Rivers Schr. Mich. Russel Crary, freight 
for Twin Rivers. 

Wednesday April 7th 1841 — A schooner supposed to be the 
Michigan passed to-day going south Dr. Wm. Kennicott re- 
paired my teeth to-day. 

Thursday April 8th County Commissioners adj. 

Thursday April 15th Schr. Wiskonsan passed on her way 
north. Bridge finished 

Erie Canal navigation commenced to-day 

Sunday April 18th Mr. Hurley and I walked down to wind 
point on the beach, collecting curiosities — &c 

Wednesday Apr. 21st Rec"^ intelligence of the death of 
Jacob H. Gardinier to-day. . . . 

Friday April 23d 1841 — Paper from C. B. Freeman 

Saturday Apr. 24th Went to Southport to-day with Mr. 
Bigelow of Troy NY. & Harrison Reed. Schr. Meme North. 
Schr. Columbia south. 

Sunday Apr. 25th Mr. [Rev. Stephen D.] Peet of Mil. 
Preached Steam Boat Western, passed here 12 o'clock to night 
Being the First this spring. Not being expected she passed with- 
out landing. 

Teusday Apr. 27th Great Western down about 3 P. M. 
Landed one family and some goods Mr. Case and family left. 
15 cords wood 

April 29th 4 schrs. up. 30th. 

May 1st 1841 Steam Boat Madison Down from Chicago 
for Buffalo 5 o'clock PM. Passed. Scarcely stopping 

Sunday May 2nd 1841 — Quarterly meetings 

Monday May 3d. Mr. Stevens left for Bloomington 111. 

Thursday May 6th. Steam Boat Illinois up 10 o'clock eve. 
Passed without stopping 



232 



Documents 



Friday May 7th Lieuts Webster & Hagrun went north on 
stage for Green Bay. Extra Stage to Milwaukee. 

Saturday May 8th S.B. lUinois Down. Stopped & tooki 
passengers, 10 o'clock evening. | 

May 9th 1841— Steam Boat Missouri up 6 o'clock AM. Noj 
passengers. 

May 11th S.B. Western up 9 o'clock AM 

May 11th S.B. Missouri Down 5 o'clock PM. 

May 14th S.B. Western Down 6 PM 

May 15th S.B. Constellation up— 5 AM 

May 16th S.B. Constellation Down 6 P. M. 

May 16th S.B. Madison— up 6 PM. i 

The two boats met here and the presence of a number of! 
other craft on the Lake combined with pleasantness of the dayi 
presented an admirable spec. 

Sunday 16th Monday & teusday were very warm and. 
pleasant days in fact the first weather suitable for May we have] 
yet had. 

Teusday May 18th. S.B. Madison Down 10 PM wooded, 
and was detained untill 2 o'clock A merry time aboard by the , 
Bravos of Racine 

Wednesday May 19th To-day and last Saturday I assisted f 
in getting out timber for the harbor Steam Boat Bunker Hill 
up 5 PM. Landed 8 passengers & some freight. Banker ague. 

Thursday May 20th 1841— A.B. Hibbard left for Madison. 

Friday May 21st. 1841— Steam Boat Bunker Hill Down 5 
o'clock P. M. : 

Saturday May 22nd 1841 — ^Yesterday & to-day I plowed od 
E. Filers Place.^ 

Monday May 24th. Moses Vilas and I were engaged leveling 
Main Street for Grading. 

Teusday May 25th Planted corn &c. &c. 

Thursday 27th I. [J.?] A. Hibbard's Stage wagon 

Friday & Saturday. Hard N.E. wind. Schr. Columbia ol 
Milwaukee blown off. 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 



WHAT WE REMEMBER 

General Charles King, in a communication printed in 
the September number of this magazine, displays charac- 
teristic gallantry and good sportsmanship in the way he 
assumes responsibility for an error that found its way into 
his published reminiscences. The error itself amounts to 
little, and as General King usually refreshes his memory 
from written contemporary records he is an accurate writer. 
He spoke of Governor Jerry Rusk's popularity with the 
crowds gathered at the funeral of General Grant, and as- 
cribed it to his quelling of the Milwaukee riots — an executive 
act which gave the Badger governor national fame. On 
further reflection General King remembered that "the 
funeral of General Grant took place in the late summer of 

1885, the Milwaukee riots occurred in the late spring of 

1886. " Thus the two things could not have been related 
as cause and effect. 

And yet. Rusk " *took' with the crowds even the year 
before he became a national figure. ... It must have been 
his leonine physique, or, possibly, his phrase *Those men 
need bread, not bayonets,' used on another occasion." 

The incident contains a warning for the less careful 
historical student. The lesson is that our memories, when 
they volunteer testimony concerning events of long ago, 
should ever be treated as potential perjurers, and handled 
with all the rigor employed by the cross-questioner in a 
court of law. 

The degree of accuracy with which the mind reproduces, 
years afterwards, impressions it has received depends pri- 
marily on the conditions under which such impressions wore 
originally made upon it. In general, incidents that arouse 
the emotions at the same moment in which they arrest the 



234 Editorial Comment 

intellect are reproduced more perfectly, those appealing 
only to the thinking faculty less perfectly. Grandfather^ 
last words all his own children remember and transmit ii 
turn to their children. Unfortunately, to the second genera! 
tion, and still more to the third, his words are vague, unemo | 
tionalized, almost meaningless, and fail of accurate reproiij 
duction. 

But the mind, on its intellectual side, presses to the aid | 
of the memory when the latter is in trouble. Anythin;|| 
which ought to be remembered, if it cannot be reproducer! 
is apt to be reconstructed. Where memory fails, imagina 
tion gives a cue and tries to satisfy the craving for complete!' 
ness. The results of such reconstructions often posses; 
very faint resemblances to the original impressions, element 
having been substituted from many sources various! , 
related to the experience which proves irrecoverable. Tha] 
is the way in which, quoting one American humorist, w< 
come to "know so many things that ain't so." 

The ''will to believe," using that expression not irrevei ' 
ently but in its observable relation to mundane thing.' 
plays an important part here also. If we simply cannc* 
recall what happened, and must perforce reconstruct, ho^ 
natural to reconstruct according to a plan which please 
us ! The court witness whose memory is vague, by dint ( 
vigorous cudgeling from examiner and cross-examine 
recalls some things. But all of them happen (?) to be favo: ' 
able to the side for which he is testifying. The politicj 
orator whose historical information is nil, at any momei 
can recall a few facts which support the contention he hi 
just put forth. If we watch ourselves closely, we may I 
surprised at the difficulty of stating the simplest remen 
bered incident without coloring it in some measure to su 
our momentary personal situation. 

Cases in which supposititious facts unconsciously wilk 
by the narrator were substituted for the actual facts whic 



What We Remember 



235 



i could not be clearly recalled are historically very common. 
' At the laying of the corner stone of Bunker Hill monument, 
fifty years after the famous battle, forty "survivors," the 
"venerable men" of Webster's apostrophe, gave in their 
written "verified" narratives of what happened on that 
ground in June, 1775. "These testimonies," says Chan- 
ning,^ "for the most part, were 'mixtures of old men's broken 
memories and fond imaginings with the love of the marvel- 
ous. Some of those who gave in aflSdavits about the battle 
could not have been in it, nor even in its neighborhood. 
They had got so used to telling the story for the wonder- 
ment of village listeners, as grandfathers' tales, and as 
petted representatives of the Spirit of '76, that they did not 
distinguish between what they had seen and done and what 
they had read, heard, and dreamed.' " 

At the opposite side of the continent, nearly a century 
subsequent to Bunker Hill battle, was developed a contro- 
versy over the saving of Oregon which has come to be known 
as the Whitman Question, Did Dr. Marcus Whitman, the 
loyal missionary pioneer, make his overland trip from 
Oregon to the East in 1842-43 in the hope of affecting the 
political destiny of the Oregon country, and did he accom- 
plish such a result? The most scrupulous and thorough- 
going investigation of contemporaneous records convinced 
historians that he did neither of those things, and that he 
Qever claimed to have done them. Yet his missionary 
associates, forty years after the events, believed themselves 
capable of recalling words, phrases, and incidents spoken 
by Dr. Whitman before his tragic death as a Christian 
martyr, which proved both that he intended to and actually 
did save Oregon "from being traded off to England, in the 
Ashburton Treaty, for a cod fishery," despite the fact that 
jthe Ashburton Treaty was signed, sealed, and delivered 
[before Whitman started east.^ 

* History of the United States, III, 169, note. 

* A good review of all the evidence, and an enlightening discnssion, is in E. G. Ronrne, 
Essays in Historical Criticism (New York, 1901), "The Ivegend of Marcus Whitman." 



236 



Editorial Comment 



In the cases cited the witnesses, or affiants, professed 
to be giving their recollections of what happened according 
to their own personal experience. If such testimony, 
usually called ''first-hand evidence," is liable to reversal 
when confronted by unimpeachable proofs like contempo- 
raneous records, what shall we say of the evidential character 
of traditions of events or facts twice or thrice removed 
from the original witness of them, particularly when self- 
interest or the will to believe in a certain way is prompter? 
Such "evidence" of course is worthless, and yet we occa- j 
sionally meet with attempts to employ it for historical j 
purposes. "I [an eighty-seven-year-old woman] remember 
when a little girl hearing my grandmother say that her 
father told her" is a formula which men have been thought- 
less enough to embody in solemnly worded affidavits. In 
fact, at this writing we have a sheaf of such documents at 
the State Historical Library. Thereby hangs a tale which 
I will perhaps impart to our readers in a later issue of this \ 
magazine. 

Joseph Schafer 



i 



TO MEMBERS 

The membership committee of the Society, J. H. A. 
Lacher chairman, has planned the membership campaign 
for this year. One main feature is to ask every member to 
present the claims of the Society to at least one friend or 
acquaintance who, in his opinion, not merely would make 
a desirable member but would receive a distinct benefit 
from such membership. 

We suggest that the life membership, costing $20, would 
ordinarily prove much cheaper than the annual membership 
at $2 . 00 per year, and we urge that you ask your friend to 
consider taking a life membership. All members are entitled 
to receive, free, the Wisconsin Magazine of History and 
other publications. The History of Agriculture in Wisconsin, 
now coming from the press, will be ready for distribution 
to members within a few days. A volume of the Wisconsin 
Domesday Book Town Studies will be ready in a few months. 
The Proceedings for 1922 will be distributed probably in 
January, 1923. 

At the annual meeting of the Society on the nineteenth 
of October, 1922, it was resolved to send free to members 
all volumes which are paid for out of the income of the 
Burrows Fund, but only on request, the idea being that the 
editions of these books in the Domesday Series should be 
limited to the effective demand. The History of Agricul- 
ture is the first of these publications, and it is earnestly 
requested that every member who desires that volume free {it 
will be sold for $2.00, the price of a years membership) 
write at once to indicate that fact. New members as well as 
old will receive the book. 



THE SOCIETY AND THE STATE 



During the three months' period ending October 10, 1922, there were i 
seven additions to the membership roll of the State Historical Society. ( 
One of these enrolled as a life member, John W. Hancock of Roanoke, 
Virginia. 

Six persons became annual members, as follows: Reverend Henry I 
Colman, Milwaukee; Walter Distelhorst, Sheboygan; J. H. Kolb, j 
Madison; Mrs. Charles J. Mcintosh, Milwaukee; Mrs. E. A. Munz, j 
Milwaukee; Robert J. Usher, Chicago, Illinois. j 

R. A. Adams of Minneapolis, Minnesota, changed from annual to j 
life membership. j 

■I 

In the Question Box of the March number of this magazine the j 
Society published some material relating to the history of Rhinelander. j 
We have recently received a communication from William B. Shaw of | 
New York City, associate editor of the Review of Reviews^ in which he [ 
gives additional data concerning the early days of that city. It is our | 
plan to publish this interesting letter in a future issue of the magazine, i 

A notable gift to the Society has been received from W. B. E. 
Shufeldt of Oconomowoc, in a marble reproduction of a Greek statue > 
called the ^'Crouching Venus of the Vatican." With this Mr. Shufeldt] 
also presented Henry W. Elkins' oil painting of Mount Shasta, a finel 
example of American landscape art. The Society will hold these gifts 
in trust, hoping the time may soon come when an art gallery may become 
part of the state's public enterprises. 

The Society has received from Mrs. J. A. Watrous of Milwaukee, 
the gift of a considerable number of her husband's papers. A description 
and estimate of the same will appear in a later issue of this magazine. 

BISHOP SAMUEL FALLOWS 

Although English born. Bishop Fallows, who died in Chicago, ! 
September 5, was distinctively a Wisconsin man, having come to thU 
state while it was still a territory and when he was a lad of thirteen. Thf | 
Fallows farm was twelve miles east of Madison; there young Samue 
grew up and thence he came to the University, where he graduated ir 
1859. After marriage with Lucy Bethia Huntington, he became prin 
cipal of what was then Galesville University and was there when Lin 
coin's call to arms thrilled his patriotic spirit. Enlisting in 1862 a; 
chaplain, he became in 1864 lieutenant colonel of the Fortieth Infantrj 
and the next year colonel of the Forty-ninth, being brevetted brigadie; j 
general at the close of the war. General Fallows then entered the activ* | 
ministry of the Methodist Episcopal church, and was successively pasto | 
of two of the largest Milwaukee churches. In 1870 he was elected statu 
superintendent of public instruction, and reelected for a second term 
From 1866 to 1874 he was regent of the State University. In the lattef 



Jambo Creek Monument 



239 



year he became president of Wesleyan University, Bloomington, Illinois, 
I where he remained until he entered the Reformed Episcopal church, and 
I thereafter made his home in Chicago. His interest in and affection for 
Wisconsin never waned. As the oldest alumnus of the University he 
gave its affairs his heartiest support. A man of universal knowledge and 
deep human sympathies, he touched life at all points of progress, never 
losing in his broad outlook the highest viewpoint. Whatsoever things 
were noble, pure, and of good report appealed to him. No son of Wis- 
consin has done her more honor. His legacy to oiu* Society of his papers 
and correspondence ensures the perpetuation of his memory for genera- 
tions to come. 

JAMBO CREEK MONUMENT 

Somewhat unique and unusual was the dedication on June 11 last, 
of a tablet to Jacques Vieau, known to the Indians as Jambo, who in the 
late eighteenth century had a jackknife fur trade post on a Manitowoc 
County stream. This stream took from him the name of Jambo Creek. 
The Community Club of this place, determined to perpetuate the memory 
of the early trader, arranged for a fine bronze tablet to mark the site 
of the first building in the county. The tablet was unveiled by two great- 
great-granddaughters of the trader, Leona and Ethel Vieau. Addresses 
were delivered by Honorable Emil Baensch, president of the Manitowoc 
County Historical Society, and Dr. Joseph Schafer, our superintendent. 

INTERNATIONAL COURTESIES 

In 1920 the city of Milwaukee presented to the ancient city of 
Strasbourg a tablet commemorating the return of that city to its alle- 
giance to France. In return the mayor of the French city, on behalf of 
his municipality, has this summer given to Milwaukee a facsimile of a 
mediaeval manuscript formerly preserved at Strasbourg, compiled there 
in the twelfth century. This manuscript, called Hortus Delicarum, the 
Garden of Delicacies y is a religious history of the world. It is illustrated 
with miniatures of great beauty. This precious gift will be preserved in 
the public library. 

AN EARLY REPUBLICAN 

The cradle of the Republican party is thought to be Ripon, Wiscon- 
sin, where in the early spring of 1854 meetings were held to protest the 
Nebraska Act, and whence the same year a call issued for a state con- 
vention to form a new party, later called Republican. Among those who 
signed the call was Edwin U. Judd, then Free Soil chairman for the first 
congressional district of Wisconsin. Mr. Judd lately died in the state 
of Washington. Although the Michigan convention for 1854 met a 
few days earlier than that of Wisconsin, Mr. Judd always maintained 
that the initial impetus arose at Ripon, and that the honor of propound- 
ing the name "Republican" belonged to Alvin J. Bovay of thnt place. 
Mr. Judd was approaching his ninety-seventh birthday; not loni: hrforo 
his death he received congratulations from President Harding, the 
leader of the party he had helped to found. 



240 



The Society and the State 



GOLDEN JUBILEE OF ST. MARY*S COLLEGE, PRAIRIE DU CHIEN 

St. Mary's College, Prairie du Chien, celebrated the fiftieth anni- 
versary of its foundation during the week of June 12, 1922. The college 
occupies a portion of the former site of Fort Crawford, erected in 1829 
by Colonel Zachary Taylor and used at interrupted intervals for military 
purposes until 1864. In this year that portion of Fort Crawford Reser- 
vation occupied by the officers' quarters was purchased from the govern- 
ment by Honorable John Lawler, who presented the gift to the School 
Sisters of Notre Dame for the erection of a girls' boarding college, which 
was formally opened in 1872. 

An interesting feature of the golden jubilee celebration was the 
presentation of two original productions — one a pageant written for 
the occasion by a member of the faculty, portraying in six episodes the 
history of Prairie du Chien and St. Mary's. This pageant was staged on 
the east campus, the entire student body participating in the perform- 
ance. The second production was an original play, "The Rose of 
Prairie Town" a story of early social life in the Prairie's pioneer days. It 
was composed by two college students — Margaret Martin, '22, of Omaha, 
Nebraska, and Adeline Fitzgerald of Lansing, Iowa. 

CHURCH ANNIVERSARIES 

A number of Lutheran churches celebrated this summer the several 
anniversaries of their founding. One begun seventy-five years ago was 
the Norwegian church in the village of Keyser, Columbia County, which 
was organized in 1847 by Reverend J. W. C. Dietrichson. The golden 
or fiftieth jubilee was celebrated by St. Paul's Church of Stony Hill, near 
Shawano; by a church of the same name in Prairie Farm Township, 
Barron County; by the Maple Creek church near New London; by the 
Otter Creek church in Iowa County, not far from Dodgeville; by the 
church at Orfordville; and by the Swedish Lutheran church of Sand 
Lake, Polk County. 

Among the Evangelical Lutheran celebrations were those of Salem 
at West Granville, and Immanuel at Theresa, seventy-five years old; 
St. John's at Monroe, and Trinity at Stettin near Marathon, sixty years 
old; the Friedens Kirche of Rosendale and the Trinity Norwegian of 
Norden, fifty years old in August. The year after the Peshtigo fire, was 
begun St. John's Evangelical Church in the town of Grover, several of 
whose members were survivors of the great conflagration. 

A group of emigrants from Lippe, Germany, who settled in the town 
of Herman, Dodge County, founded seventy-five years ago the Imman- 
uel Reformed Church. This event was suitably celebrated last August. 

In Rock County, east of Janesville, a Scotch colony founded in the 
same year the Rock Prairie United Presbyterian Church, which this 
year observed its seventy-fifth anniversary. 

Another country parish with an interesting history is the Bethel 
Methodist Episcopal Church not far from Elkhorn, which in August 
held a two days' service of remembrance. One feature of the occasion 



Highways and Bridges 



241 



was music by the choir who first sang in the church at its opening fifty 
years before. 

Likewise the Richmond Methodist church of Walworth County 
attained and celebrated its half-century mark last September. 

The present Cathedral of St. John, seat of the Catholic archbishop- 
ric of Milwaukee, was commenced seventy-five years ago. A memorial 
service was held this summer in honor of the laying of the corner stone 
for this historic edifice. 

One band of the Iroquois Oneida Indians has always affiliated with 
the Episcopal church; their fine church building on Duck Creek was 
struck by lightning July 17, 1920, and entirely destroyed. Nothing 
daunted, their devoted missionary, Reverend William Watson, under- 
took the work of reconstruction. Contributions were sought throughout 
the entire country, and June 11 this faithful band of Indian Christians 
had the pleasure of seeing the consecration of their new thirty-thousand- 
dollar church. Bishop Weller performed the consecration service, one 
feature of which was the exhibition of the first organ brought to Wiscon- 
sin for this church by Eleazar Williams. 

HIGHWAYS AND BRIDGES 

The opening of state highway fifteen, which makes a continuous 
cement road from Green Bay to the Illinois border, connecting there with 
Sheridan Drive to Chicago, has evoked reminiscences of the days when 
this route was an Indian trail over which mail was carried on the back of 
a foot runner. Several excellent historical articles on this early road 
have appeared in the state newspapers, under the auspices and author- 
ship of the secretary of the Wisconsin Good Roads Association. 

The new bridge recently completed across Wisconsin River at Sauk 
City replaces the historic toll bridge used there since the time of the 
Civil War. One of the toll collectors still resides near the northern end 
of the bridge, and furnished his reminiscences for the ceremony incident 
to the new bridge's opening. 

AN OSHKOSH BANK 

The pioneers of Wisconsin had a natural distrust of banks. Their 
experiences with the panic of 1837, which occurred at the beginning of 
the territory's peopling, led the first constitutional convention to intro- 
duce an article forever prohibiting any banks in Wisconsin. For this and 
other reasons this first constitution was rejected; nevertheless, when 
Wisconsin became a state (1848) there were few banking institutions in 
our borders. A bank, therefore, which can show seventy years of opera- 
tion in Wisconsin is an historical institution. The old Commercial 
National Bank of Oshkosh commemorated this year its seven tietli birth- 
day. It was organized with a capital of four thousand dollars and char- 
tered before Oshkosh became a city. Through all the years, with many 
changes, the organization has maintained a continuous existence, and 
has had no small share in the upbuilding of the *'Sawdust City." 

The last number of our magazine featured several articles on early 
Platteville. As supplementary material on the same subject we note \ he 



242 



The Society and the State 



Autobidgraphy of Frederick G. Hollman. Hollman was born in Germany, 
came to America in 1819 as one of the Vandalia, Illinois, colony of 
Germans. In 1827 he sought the lead mines, and the next year began 
mining at Platteville, which became his permanent home. At his death, 
which occurred in 1875, he left a manuscript account of his life which is 
now published by R. I. Dugdale. It furnishes many detailed and 
interesting data on the founding and founders of this early mining town. 

THE JENKIN LLOYD JONES PARK 

Sunday, October 1, a large concourse of people gathered at Tower 
Hill on Wisconsin River to dedicate the new state park. It is believed 
that five thousand or more people concentrated at this place, on this 
beautiful autumn day, to pay tribute to the historical setting, and to the 
continued influence of the prominent man for whom the park is named. 
The exercises were in charge of Miss Lutie Stearns, chairman. Reverend 
John Favill of Lake Mills offered the dedicatory prayer. The historical 
background was interestingly described by Dr. Joseph Schafer, super- 
intendent of our Society, himself a native of the region in which Tower 
Hill stands. He described the early lead mining interests of southwest 
Wisconsin, and the importance of a manufactory for shot near the mines. 
He told of the old shot tower on the hill, older than the territory of 
Wisconsin itself; of the building of Old Helena before 1832 and its 
destruction in the Black Hawk War; of the waning of the importance of 
shot making, and the final abandonment of the old tower. Zona Gale 
was chosen to speak of the personality of Reverend Jenkin Lloyd Jones 
and his influence on the state, nation, and humanity. It was his wish 
that this site, replete with historic associations, where were held under 
his auspices for many years congresses on social welfare, should be given 
to the state. His widow and other members of the Tower Hill Associa- 
tion have made this possible. Mrs. Annie Laurie Kelley of Chicago 
made the presentation of the gift, which was graciously accepted by 
Governor Blaine and C. L. Harrington of the Conservation Commission. 
Mrs. Clancy gave the neighborhood pledge; and the interesting area of 
some fifty-five acres, commanding one of the finest views on the river, 
became a part of the treasures of the state. This account is condensed 
from the description by Curator H. E. Cole in his paper the Baraboo 
Weekly News. 

THE HOARD MEMORIAL 

Several years ago, while Governor Hoard was still among us, a 
group of agricultural leaders planned a memorial to him as the founder 
of modern dairying. The World War delayed the consummation of this 
idea, and meanwhile the Governor himself died, not, however, before he 
had been visited by the sculptor Gutzon Borglum, who was chosen to 
portray the veteran dairyman. 

February 3 of the present year, dedication exercises were held on the 
agricultural campus and the statue accepted for the University and the [ 
state by President Edward A. Birge. Appreciations of the subject were 
given by dairymen from the neighboring states of Michigan and Iowa. 



1 



Museum Notes 



243 



i Because of the rigor of the weather the statue was not set in place until 
somewhat later. It now stands at the head of Agricultural Mall, in a 
setting of much dignity and originality formed of Wisconsin crystalline 
white stone. As one of the first memorials dedicated to an agricultural 
I benefactor, as well as a tribute to one of the outstanding governors of our 
state, this statue is a noteworthy and deserved tribute. 

MUSEUM NOTES 

On the occasion of the reunion of the famous Thirty-second Division 
veterans, held in Madison, August 26-29, the Historical Museum pre- 
pared a very extensive exhibit of World War materials. Twenty- two 
cases of specimens preserved as mementos of this great international 
struggle were shown in addition to the large permanent collection already 
installed. A selected group of the most interesting and attractive of 
the American and foreign war posters and a large collection of the war 
maps of the Allied armies and of the Germans were displayed on screens 
and on the museum walls. Hundreds of veterans and their friends visited 
the museum during the reunion to view these exhibits, all of which were 
greatly appreciated. As a result of this special recognition of the high 
regard in which the veterans are held by the state, many additions to 
the historical collections are being received from the soldiers and their 
friends. 

The annual historical excursion of University summer session 
students was this year conducted by the Historical Museum on July 8, 
about 250 men and women participating. Three large steamers con- 
veyed the party to Bernard's Park on the north shore of Lake Mendota, 
from which point the company hiked to the State Hospital grounds. 
Here the huge Indian bird and quadruped shaped Indian mounds pre- 
served on the lawn were viewed, and a talk on these was given by Mr. 
i Brown. A return was then made to the park, where a picnic luncheon 
was partaken of. From this point the excursionists were conveyed by 
boat to West Point on the northwest shore of the lake. Here, on the 
site of the early Madison paper "City of the Four Lakes," Miss Kellogg 
talked on the early history of the region. Before returning to the city 
another halt was made at Merrill Springs, where the fine Indian mounds 
and other remains on the grounds of the Black Hawk Country Club and 
adjoining properties were viewed. 

On the evening of July 13, 350 students of the University summer 
session and numerous visitors gathered on Lincoln Terrace on the upper 
campus, to participate in a folklore meeting held under the direction of 
the Historical Museum. The speakers on this occasion were Louise P. 
Kellogg, Mrs. Smiley P. Blanton, Professor Louis B. Wolfenson, Rev- 
erend Francis S. Dayton, Mrs. Georginia J. Kepke, Mr. S. E. Latlirop, 
and Charles E. Brown. The examples of the folklore of the AnionVan 
Indian and negro, of the Wisconsin lumberjacks and rivcrnioii, wore 
greatly appreciated by the large audience of school teachers and others. 
These outdoor folklore meetings, the first of which was hold on Muir 



244 



The Society and the State 



Knoll six years ago, have become a distinctive feature of the summer 
session. For two years past folklore literature, for which there has been 
a large demand, has been printed for distribution at these meetings. 

On July 4, the museum conducted a similar historical excursion of 
about fifty clergymen in attendance at the University Rural Ministers' 
Conference course, to see the Indian remains on the State Hospital 
grounds and Farwell Point. 

Plans are under way for marking with descriptive metal tablets 
a number of Indian effigy mounds now preserved in Burrows Park or 
the east shore of Lake Mendota and in the two small but attractive citj 
parks, Hudson and Elmside, on the north shore of Lake Monona. Meta 
tablets will also be placed, by order of the University Board of Regents 
on three additional groups of mounds on the University grounds in th( 
grove, at the rustic bridge, and on Eagle Heights. At Fox Lake tw( 
large linear mounds preserved on Franks' Point are being marked 
Three interesting Indian mounds — an oval, a tapering linear, and { 
bird effigy — are preserved on the grounds of the Bible Institute, on ih 
south shore of Green Lake. These are to be marked with a bronztj 
tablet. At Avoca a linear mound has been preserved in a public park 
At Lake Emily, near Amherst Junction, a fine group of burial mound, 
has been saved from destruction by being included in the new count; 
farm. At Wisconsin Rapids and Nekoosa the preservation of several 
groups of local mounds is receiving the attention of the women's club 
and the D. A. R. Mutilated mounds on the State Hospital grounds ant. 
on the grounds of the new Soldiers' Memorial Hospital, both at Mendots 
are being restored under the supervision of the Historical Museum. 

The Wisconsin Archeological Society has published a "Summary c 
the Archeology of Western Sauk County," by H. E. Cole of Barabo( 
This contains a full description of the Indian camp and village site; 
planting grounds, burial places, mounds, and trails in fourteen towr 
ships, and is illustrated with plates, diagrams, and a map. Altogethe 
135 mounds were located during this survey. Among the most noted c 
those that have been destroyed were the man mounds at La Valle and a 
octagonal enclosure at Dellona. A description of the Indian remains i ; 
eastern Sauk County was published by Dr. A. B. Stout in 1906. 

Between the dates of July 17 and August 4, Charles E. Brown, chit ; 
of the Historical Museum, made an eastern trip, visiting over thirt 
large and small museums in Buffalo, Rochester, Albany, New Yor] 
Philadelphia, Washington, Pittsburg, and other places. These include 
historical, art, natural history, anthropological, and special museum 
At Rochester he also viewed the valuable private collection of Alvin I 
Dewey. While in Philadelphia, with Charles R. Toothaker, curator 
the Commercial Museum, he made a trip to Doylestown to view t] 
historial museum located there, probably unique in its class in t] 
United States. 

Adjutant General Hoi way has placed in the care of the Historic | 
Museum the battle flags of the Thirty-second Division, A. E. F. The 



Our Contributors 



U5 



I lags are eight in number and include those of the 107th Engineers, 120th 
Imd 121st Field Artillery, 119th and 121st Machine Gun Battalions, the 

[27th and 128th Infantry, and the Headquarters flag. They are now 

nstalled in a wall case in the museum corridor. 

The Historical Museum has received during the last quarter many 
yifts of specimens. Coins and paper money have been presented by 
Alary Stephens, Alice Jackson, Lowell J. Ragatz, A. J. Vinje, and 
Vlrs. A. L. Sanborn of Madison; by H. E. Cole, Baraboo, and W. B. E. 
5hufeldt, Oconomowoc. Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand, Madison, has given a 
jeries of old political and other badges; and Mrs. Emma M. LaClear, a 
mnk used in the Civil War by Lieutenant James Mills, of Company E, 
Fifth Wisconsin Infantry. The University of Wisconsin has presented a 
gravestone from the earliest Madison burying ground, once located where 
Bascom Hall now stands on the top of University Hill. This bears the 
nscription "Erected to the Memory of Samuel Warren of Middlesex, 
England, who was killed by lightning, June 13 [or 15], 1838. Aged 
26 years." Warren's was the second death in Madison. The stone was 
recovered this year in improving the roadway in front of Bascom Hall. 

OUR CONTRIBUTORS 

Superintendent Joseph Schafer ("The Yankee and the Teuton in 
Wisconsin") presents a paper read November 13 before the Madison 
Literary Society. 

Dr. Samuel Plantz ("Lawrence College") has been the head of that 
institution since 1894, having had the longest term of office of any of its 
presidents. 

General Charles King ("Memories of a Busy Life") is one of the 
Dldest and most distinguished of Wisconsin's authors and soldier citi- 
zens. General King's devotion to his boyhood home is evidenced in the 
pages of his article. 

Louise Phelps Kellogg ("The Electric Light System at Appleton"), 
senior research associate of the Society, wrote this paper at the request 
of Curator John G. D. Mack, state engineer. She has been aided therein 
by eminent Edisonians in both the East and the West, among whom are 
T. Commerford Martin, Charles E. Neil, William E. Keily, John N. 
Cadby, and A. C. Langstedt. 

Doane Robinson ("Beaver Creek Valley, Monroe County") is a 
native of the Wisconsin locality he describes. Since 1908 he has been 
secretary and superintendent of the South Dakota Department of 
History. 




THE GENIUS OF WISCONSIN 
Bv Helen Farnsworth Mears. In the State Capitol at Madison 



VOL. VI N ^ 



1922-1923 



THE 

WISCONSIN MAGAZINE 
OF HISTORY 




PUBLICATIONS OF THE 
STATE HISTORICAL 
SOCIETY OF WISCON- 
SIN. Edited by JOSEPH 
SCHAFER, Superintendent 



CONTENTS 



Wisconsin William Ellery Leonard 247 

The Yankee and the Teuton in Wisconsin II 

Joseph S chafer 261 

The Grand Army of the Republic and the Wis- 
consin Department Hosea W. Rood 280 

Empire: A Wisconsin Town W. A. Titus 295 

MicAJAH Terrell Williams — A Sketch 

Samuel M. Williams 303 

Kate Dewey Cole — An Appreciation 314 

Documents : 

A Swiss Family in the New World: Letters of 
Jakob and Ulrich Buhler 317 



Diary of a Journey to Wisconsin in 1840 334 

Editorial Comment: ^ 
Why an Affidavit?; 1923; The American Historical 

Association; The Wisconsin Magazine 346 

Communications : 

Early Days of Rhinelander; The Chicago Con- 
vention of 1860 35g 

The Society and the State 35^ 

Book Reviews 367 



The Society as a body is not responsible for statements or opinions advanced 
in the following pages by contributors 

COPYRIGHT, 1922, BY THE STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF WISCONSIN 

Paid for out of the George B. Burrows Fund Income 



WISCONSIN^ 



William Ellery Leonard 

Wisconsin, lopped from Michigan as a territory in 1836 
to become a state twelve years later, shares in the story of 
the discovery and the settlement and in the qualities and 
activities of her population much in common with the 
whole North Middle West. Yet Wisconsin possesses an 
individuality, both historical and social, more organic than 
the little red line of the map. Geography has had pro- 
foundly to do with her becoming; in her, the regional 
characteristics of man find the most indubitable and 
emphatic expression; and, moreover, once organized as a 
state, she began instinctively, like many other state units, to 
create personality, as must any group, however artificial or 
accidental at first, when it makes its laws'together under one 
dome in the spiritual center, and sends its youth to one 
schoolhouse on a neighboring hill. 

But the story of man here, between the majestic castel- 
lated bluffs of the upper Mississippi and the stern iron and 
copper bearing rocks of Superior's wave eaten shores, is 
not one story but three. There have been three human 
occupations of this rolling terrain of sunny swale and drum- 
lins, with its innumerous rivers winding between the wild 
rice marshes, or the now perishing forests, or the shadowy 
scarps and dalles, with its thousand glacial lakes in the 
northern pineries or the midland oak openings, and with 
its wide driftless area, once surrounded but never traversed 
by the ice sheet, where today the unstriated old Cambrian 

^This paper presents a poet's vision of Wisconsin, historical and actual. It differs, 
at least in form of statement, from the historian's vision, and probably no historian would 
agree with the poet's statement in all matters of detail. But whoever is able to thrill at 
sight of an eagle sailing above the mountain crests, will rejoice in this stark now phrasing of 
the story of our state. We appreciate it so highly that, although the paper was not 
originally written for this magazine, we welcome the opportunity of first presenting to our 
readers its unique qualities— Editor. 



248 



William Ellery Leonard 



sandstone stands weathered and carved into mesas and giant 
toadstools. But no man, from first to last, ever settled on 
the mountains of Wisconsin, for the primeval ranges were 
beveled down to that peneplain underlying the Cambrian 
long before the trilobite or protozoan — though sometimes 
in the jagged cloud banks, white on afternoon horizons of 
early autumn, one may fancy he sees their tremendous 
ghosts. 

The three occupations of this ancient land have been 
three independent efforts of man to light his fire and to 
sing his song. And, though only the third, with its hosts 
of inpouring exiles and seekers, constitutes the epic of the 
settlement, of the building of our cities and the state, never- 
theless, the occupation of the red man invited the French- 
man, and the Frenchman pioneered the thoroughfares 
thither for the aftercomers and their household gods. The 
aborigines (Fox, Menominee, Winnebago, and other tribes 
finally huddled between the fierce Dakota on the west and 
the fierce inland ranging Iroquois from the east) have left 
to none of our states more reminders of a vanished folk 
culture: the Indian names of so many rivers, lakes, and 
hills; the trails whose grass-grown depressions may still be 
traced down the groves; the stone celts and spear points 
and the copper knives and needles dug up by fresh-watei 
beaches or along the ploughed fields; the chipping sitej 
under primeval oak trees; the corn hills; and above all, th([ 
hundreds of earthworks, both conical barrows over the 
bones of unknown chiefs, and those totemic animal effigie 
that lie on their gigantic sides asleep on so many low hill 
tops and green declivities, by the waters of ancient villages 
The native tribes — long since, as white men's hunters, for 
pittance of glass beads, iron hatchets, and whisky, dej 
bauched in their handicrafts and agriculture — ^have beej 
exterminated or deported (like some of the Winnebago t| 
Nebraska), or live sordidly on the northern reservation^ 



Wisconsin 



249 



putting on, with the encouragement of white anthropolo- 
gists, now and then the tarnished rehcs of ancestral costumes 
for ritual dance and religious festival, doing odd jobs at lum- 
bering or berry picking, or occasionally, up to fifteen years 
ago at least, coming down in little bands as far as Madison 
to trap the muskrat in their fathers' streams and lakes. 
An alien stock, the Christian Oneida, brought by American 
philanthropic enterprise from New York, are almost the 
only well kempt, prosperous Indian citizens about Wis- 
consin — farmers and business men and good Episcopalians 
in a community of their own. Our people, largely through 
the activities of the Archeological Society and the Historical 
Museum at Madison, in cooperation with the state legisla- 
ture, have begun to develop both a scientific curiosity and a 
memorial piety touching their red predecessors, which 
sometimes unite, by one of those minor ironies of history, 
present-day Germans, Norwegians, Saxons, Celts, and 
Slavs in little excavation parties or local site marking 
ceremonials. 

In the softened grays and purples of the twilight atmos- 
phere, when the distant roads and the barns are blurred 
in the lowlands and the crows are flying to the copses, the 
outlook from many a height over valley and lake and river, 
especially if the moon is bulging up, is peculiarly aboriginal 
in these parts : I have never so had the feeling of the ghosts 
of Indian days in any landscape as in Wisconsin. Nicole t, 
in his Chinese damask robe, with his seven Hurons around 
him, discharging thunder and lightning from pistols in 
both hands, as he stands on Wisconsin's landfall by his 
beached canoe at the foot of the bluffs up in Green Bay, 
before the naked and awestruck autochthons, seems a more 
haunting presence than John Smith, Miles Standish, or Mas- 
sasoit. He came, you remember, up the Ottawa, having 
heard of the "People of the Sea" (so the Hurons caHcd the 
Winnebago), thinking to open trade relations, on behalf of 



250 



William Ellery Leonard 



Champlain and the Hundred Associates, with Orientals 
on the Pacific, and took possession forever in the name of 
the King of France. This was in 1634. 

Freedom to trade, not freedom to worship God or to 
manage one's own poHtics, was the impulse to the first white 
occupation, as freedom to plant one's own corn was, on 
the whole, the impulse to the second. As the years went by 
after Marquette with Jolliet in 1673 paddled down the 
Great Lakes and across the state, and entered the Father 
of Waters — "with a joy I cannot express" — the Fox-Wis- 
consin Portage became the determinant of the human af- 
fairs of a province and of an empire. Here the basin of the 
St. Lawrence, represented by the upper currents of Fox 
River, may glimpse beyond a mile or so of marshy plain, 
alive with blackbirds and meadow larks, the Wisconsin 
powerfully flowing off toward the Mississippi; here the 
Atlantic touches the Gulf of Mexico. Kept open only by 
long wars with the natives, the Fox- Wisconsin waterway 
established and sustained the fur trade, which was the 
economic life of the old regime in Wisconsin, no less thanj 
in Canada. Linking far-away Quebec with far-away Newi 
Orleans, it was the indirect occasion of much of the strategy 
of the conflict with Great Britain — ^fundamentally over the 
control of the fur trade — that cost France her power ir 
North America ; and it continued to affect man's traflSckin^ 
in some measure — Congress appropriated millions of doUarj 
for its improvement — until the age of steel rails. Without 
it, neither France nor Britain might have come to Wisconsii 
any more than to Minnesota. 

The trading posts left their names to modern cities an(( 
towns — Prairie du Chien, La Crosse, Eau Claire, Trem 
pealeau; and the descendants of the habitants — the black 
smiths, carpenters, farmers, and retired traders — who squat 
ted around them, give today a sprinkling of French to th( 
polyglot roll call of legislature and college class room. Bui 



Wisconsin 



251 



the bark chapels and the log crosses of the "Black Gowns" 
soon rotted away or were burnt by hands still heathen, 
leaving only the names of a costal island and a river town 
or so, the silver ostensorium of Perrot still bearing the date 
1686, and the Jesuit Relations — those faithful reports to 
their masters in France of lands and waters seen, aborigines 
baptized, and hungers survived. And La Salle's Griffon, 
the first boat besides dugout or war canoe launched upon 
the Great Lakes, lies sunk, mast and sail, somewhere off 
Door Peninsula, with all its peltries. In pathetic contrast 
to southern Louisiana, the old French world vanished here, 
even more completely than the Roman world vanished 
from Britain; not, however, because it withdrew or was 
exterminated, for Frenchmen were still about, swapping 
produce and yarns with Britisher and Yankee; but because 
it was too tenuous, migratory, and scattered, too lacking in 
urban life, to maintain for long its individuality over against 
the dominantly Germanic invaders. One hears French to- 
day only among the French-Indian half-breeds of the reser- 
vations or in the recent villages of the Walloons. 

The British domination lasted with cheerful impudence, 
in spite of the Treaty of Paris of 1783 and the Jay Treaty of 
1795, till the close of the War of 1812, with entire satisfac- 
tion to the French, who had indeed actively sided with 
England against the hated *'Bostonnais" in the Revolu- 
tion. The fur trade continued to march on, integrated 
now with the huge English enterprise of the Far North; 
but another business, at first only an adjunct of the fur 
trade, was pressing hard upon it, with a sinister and pro- 
phetic face. 

The French, having early discovered the Indians scratch- 
ing for lead in the southwest corner, began to pay a price per 
pound that bullets should be more abundant; and the 
savages scratched more busily. With better guns and 
bigger shovels, as destined lords of all mines — coal, gold, 



252 • William Ellery Leonard 



and diamond — our Anglo-Saxons drove out the aborigines 
and the shallow burrows were deepened. By Uncle 
Sam's garrison days of the thirties, a riffraff of adventurers 
from the border states was rushing in, as it was later to 
rush to the gold of California and the silver of Colorado; 
and the earliest European immigration of what I call the 
settlement was invited by the lead mines, first and last — 
some seven thousand Cornishmen, and these a sturdy 
stock. Great bateaux of twenty-oar power carried the lead 
down the Mississippi to New Orleans, long years before 
the Civil War definitively deflected Wisconsin's southern 
trade connections eastward; or the ox teams would drag 
it overland to the lake ports. By the fifties, for several 
reasons entirely economic, it declined, to be only partially 
revived in recent years. Abandoned diggings are now, 
among the pious ruins of Wisconsin, along with the sleepy 
or abandoned villages that sprung up on the water fronts 
in the reign of King Lumber, the third dynasty of Bigi 
Business hereabouts, with its devastation of the northerr j 
pineries and hardwoods, and for a generation its log raft' 
on eight rivers. 

Meantime the settlement was steadily going on. Th< 
planters of grain and the milkers of cows were coming fron 
all the world, who were to vindicate the barn agains 
trading post, burrow, and lumber shack. Even the mi]j 
for paper and the factory for chairs, window-frames, stear 
cookers, textiles, underwear, farm machinery, leathe 
goods, automobiles, or the brewery for fresh-water po 
were not to prevail against it. Though there is a great play 
ground developing in the wooded and watered norther 
counties, and though there is an increasingly busy manu 
facturing strip along the southern Michigan shore, in th 
cities of Racine, Kenosha, Milwaukee, and Sheboygaij 
Wisconsin is primarily an agricultural state, thanks to h<| 
level and fertile glaciated soil and to the practical hard. 



Wisconsin 



253 



hood of the vast majority of her settlers, who have been 
ambitious only of a homestead and acres. Wheat led 
first; but now, with a start perhaps from the Swiss im- 
migrants and certainly with the scientific cooperation of the 
University, it's butter and cheese: we are the buttery, 
cheesery, creamery of the United States. But the barn 
would vindicate itself only when the land was cleared and 
ploughed, and the cattle pastured; and all this took time 
and many people. 

The story of the settlement begins with the Black 
Hawk War. The newspaper correspondents, lacking much 
martial material about the precipitate retreat of the brave 
but broken Sauk leader, with his murdered tribesmen and 
women and children, sent east such detailed and alluring 
accounts of the country itself that it may not be a fancy 
to credit them with a part in the foundation of the state. 
Whatever the origin of the rumor, pioneering families were 
soon en route: from New York and New England down 
the Great Lakes or the Ohio, and from the southeast by 
the old Wilderness Road of Daniel Boone. It is these who 
began to supply that contribution of native American 
stock and enterprise, politically and economically dominant 
in territorial days, and still a good third in numbers and per- 
haps more than a third in power. The rest is new life out 
of old Europe. The admission of Wisconsin to statehood 
coincides historically and symbolically in date with famines, 
with economic unrest, and with political revolutions on 
the Continent. Here were broad spaces and easy laws of 
citizenship — opportunity for bread and votes, a chance to 
build a house and a commonwealth. The European 
printing presses spread the news, assisted by promoters on 
the ground. The boats filled with folk. The Germans 
came, Carl Schurz among them, with their pastors, Catholic 
and Protestant. The boats filled with folk. The sons 
of the Vikings came, with Christ instead of Thor, migrating 



254 



William Ellery Leonard 



as they had done to Iceland and Greenland in neighbor- 
hood groups of a hundred or so. The boats filled with folk. 
Now it was five hundred from a famished Swiss canton, 
whose government had paid for transportation and for the 
land which is now New Glarus. Letters went back to the 
old home and more boats were filled. The Dutch came too. 
And the Irish. And the Scotch, one family bringing a son 
named John Muir. And the Welsh. And the Belgians. 
And the Bohemians. But read the Books of the Chronicles 
— the Collections of the Wisconsin Historical Society, under 
the editorship of Draper, long dead, and of the late Reuben 
Thwaites; for the state from within a decade of its state- 
hood has been zealously collecting and recording its origins. 
There are villages of Icelandic fishermen on Washington 
Island oflF Door Peninsula; and even in the last twenty 
years colonies of Finns have settled on the Superior shore, 
already influencing the state by their intelligent cooperative 
methods. Though Poles and Italians are to be found 
mainly^ in districts of the factory cities, and though scat- 
tered Greeks sell candy or black boots, and Russian Jews 
collect junk or make pants to help their boys to the Uni- 
versity, and a few Cantonese Chinamen, now shorn of their 
pig-trails, launder collars and cuffs, most of the non-English 
speaking immigrants, especially in the big years of the set- 
tlement, tended to found their own little communities, and 
have conserved to this day something of native speech or 
customs — as sometimes the Angelus or a wayside shrine, 
sometimes wooden shoes, sometimes an outlandish stew or 
pie. But the achieving of a common action on a common 
soil, and the sharing of a common stake in a settled as op- 
posed to a roving life, seem to have united them as good 
Wisconsinians. Often, too, there was intermingling of 
stocks, by marriage — or socially, as when a stray Nor-j 
wegian would be assisted, not only by Norse, but by Irish 

2 There is a settlement of agricultural Poles in Portage County. 



Wisconsin 



255 



and German and Anglo-American neighbors, in building 
his cabin, with its clay or puncheon floor, its one window 
of greased sheepskin, and its broad bowlder-based chimney 
that narrowed against the outer side-wall to a square flue 
of interlaced and mud plastered sticks. If there be any 
"foreigners" still unbaptized in the Jordan of the New Faith, 
their home-born schoolma'ams will catch them, who so 
often go back to their home townspeople after graduating 
from the University or one of the several state (or county) 
normal schools, and tactfully carry the good news of Ameri- 
canism, single negatives, toothbrushes, and operations for 
adenoids. But there has been little effort to uproot the joy 
and the pride in the traditions and customs of the several 
racial strains; and very few feel that the republic is in danger 
because a high-school class song in the vernacular has, say, a 
Scandinavian chorus. To be sure, there is, I believe, a well- 
to-do league in Milwaukee founded since the war to com- 
bat, with pamphlets and bibliographies, the menace of 
socialism, about which most of our citizens are, however, 
quite as innocent of serious knowledge as the league itself; 
but there has been no state legislation in Wisconsin out- 
lawing foreign languages, as in more vigilant Iowa and 
Nebraska. The voluntary participation of such diverse 
races in the creative energies of the commonwealth is 
witnessed by the names in Blue Book, in University cata- 
logue, and in the lists of bar, bench, and legislature. Down 
at the capitol the other day I dropped in on one of the 
numerous commissions — on a Dutchman, an Irishman, a 
Norwegian, and an Englishman, all four engaged upon the 
state taxes. Governor Blaine, old American Scotch-Irish 
on his father's side, is the son of a Norwegian mother who 
came to America only seven years before he was born. 

But the war record of these Germans, Scandinavians, 
and other foreigners .^^ In the Civil War 'a Wisconsin 
regiment was worth a battalion' went the saying in the 



256 



William Ellery Leonard 



tents of the generals; and Old Abe, the trained eagle, who 
perched on the standard-beam going into battle and whirled 
screaming overhead when the cannon began booming or 
the charge was on, was a symbol famous all over the North, 
still recalled at Grand Army encampments, though his 
stuffed body was burned up in the capitol fire years ago. 
In the World War, though the compulsory service here 
as elsewhere renders it impracticable to draw patriotic 
conclusions from the muster, Wisconsin's voluntary coopera- 
tion in the cause at home and abroad was eager and ef- 
ficient; and there was a noticeable state pride in the fact 
that so many of originally so diverse races were united in an 
American enterprise. Wisconsin reacted as all other states 
in those tense and raucous days, though illustrating per- 
haps more strikingly than some states with more homo- 
geneous population, the commonalty to all mankind of the 
more elemental feelings and instincts — the common re- 
sponsiveness to the war cry, the common susceptibility toi 
mobilization of opinion and emotion. Most so-called' 
pro-Germans in the beginning were the broken-hearted, 
torn, abused, and frightened citizens of later emigrations, 
trying often with a higher ethos than the crowd to do theii 
civic duty. Their racial sympathies in 1914-16 had 
sharpened their eyesight to the real policies of the Allies 
albeit they failed often enough to see the real policies of th( 
German government. That minority in Wisconsin that waf ' 
unconvinced grew every day smaller with the educationa 
program of federal government and state university; anc 
the skeptical or intransigent group that remained in th< 
end is to be distinguished less by the kind of racial stocl 
than by the kind of vision. It is, for instance, unnecessary 
to attribute the position of Wisconsin's senior Senator t< 
anything but his own vision of affairs — historical, economic 
diplomatic. 



Wisconsin 



257 



Far more significant for the fusion of races into one 
American commonwealth than the recent war records, is 
Wisconsin's achievement in pubHc welfare: patriotism of 
one sort is largely a mob emotion; true citizenship is a life. 
A new technique of service and control has developed from 
the days when lumber and steel rails corrupted state 
politics, and Governor La FoUette among other vital re- 
forms succeeded in replacing the caucus with the direct 
primary. It is not socialism, but what its protagonists have 
called an adventure in democracy. In working to equalize 
opportunities, to protect the laboring class, to make capital 
realize its social obligations and public utilities serve the 
public, to protect natural resources' — forests, waters, and 
metals — to bring health, books, and schooling to all, to 
develop the broad highways for all — in such matters, Wis- 
consin, in her legislation by her delegated citizenry and its 
execution by her delegated experts — the various state com- 
missions — ^has many aims not unlike the socialist concep- 
tion of a common^vealth. But in economic principle it is 
building merely toward a more just and efficient working 
of the familiar old order — better conditions for a thriving 
state where production is carried on for profit, not for use, 
and where competition rather than cooperation rules 
factories, farms, and markets. Yet cooperative organiza- 
tions, especially agricultural, are scattered through the 
state and protected by legislation; and now and then a 
suspiciously socialistic measure, like compulsory teachers' 
insurance (from which a University faculty, fervently hostile 
to socialism, will profit nicely), gets itself written into the 
statutes. How the University specialists have been called 
in to assist the law makers; how Frank Hutchins and Charles 
McCarthy, both gone from us, developed the Legislative 
Reference Library; how the late President Van Hise gave 
no little reality to his dream of a university that should 



258 



William Ellery Leonard 



serve all the people of the state — a center for the distribu- 
tion, even to farm and factory hand and convict, of the 
long results of the sciences and the arts — all this was in 
the magazines a decade ago. Our progressive legislation 
had survived ten years of relatively mild reaction, when 
the candidate of the Non-Partisan League and the La 
Follette forces was inaugurated as governor in 1921, 
and democracy celebrated its triumph by a ball, without 
white kids, swallow-tails, or decollete, among the balusters, 
pilasters, and piers of Italian, Norwegian, or Greek marble, 
under the dome of the new capitol — the white granite pile 
erected, it would seem for all time, under the Progressive 
regime. 

Various efforts have been made to ''explain Wisconsin." 
It was usually taken for granted before the war that several^ 
of our public welfare devices were the faithful experiments! 
of borrowing for a democracy the efficient technique of 
bureaucratic Germany, under encouragement by the Ger- 
man element in the state. Much, however, is due to ideas 
that popped into the heads of the natives. There is a 
set in Wisconsin toward civic affairs, a concern for the 
state's welfare, that is in a degree traced by some to the 
University training under men like Ely and Commons, and 
especially to John Bascom, president when elder men here 
were boys in college classes. This spirit communicates 
itself to the in-comers; the Irishman McCarthy himself, 2 
chief enthusiast and spokesman for the ''Wisconsin Idea,' ! 
came in from Rhode Island, a graduate from Brown 
These men get their notions, talk them over, work then 
out, and obtain interested sponsors at the capitol or th< 
University. There is little noise, fuss, or exaltation. The^ 
are quiet, simple-mannered citizens, but far-sighted, ener^ 
getic, practical schemers for one or another special civic pro 
gram. Aside from La Follette, Van Hise, McCarthy, an( 
Chief Justice John Winslow, few would probably be calleu 



Wisconsin 



259 



original or powerful personalities; yet it is they, many of 
them almost unknown by name even in the state, who best 
illustrate the kind of leadership that has made the modern 
Wisconsin. And the public servants — inheritors and con- 
servers of a recent tradition — go about their duties, whether 
Progressive or Stalwart or Democrat, as naively honest as 
some state officers and their ilk of a former day were naively 
dishonest. The state capitol was building through four 
administrations, and without, I am told, one penny to 
graft. The judiciary has not thwarted the Progressive 
urge; and citizens will quote you with pride the words of the 
late Chief Justice John Winslow in a supreme court decision: 
"When an eighteenth century constitution forms the charter 
of liberty of a twentieth century government, must its 
general provisions be construed and interpreted by an 
eighteenth century mind surrounded by eighteenth century 
jconditions and ideals .f^" The University, with a faculty 
composed of native born, of Easterners and Westerners, of 
Canadians and a few Europeans, though today apparently 
more conservative than the state administration, has been 
from its beginning in the year the state itself began, true, 
in spite of brief interregnums of reaction and timidity, in the 
main true to the bronze tablet on Bascom Hall, just behind 
the statue of Lincoln on the hill: "Whatever may be the 
limitations which trammel inquiry elsewhere, we believe 
that the great State University of Wisconsin should ever 
encourage that continual and fearless sifting and winnowing 
by which alone the truth can be found." 

But — but it is a commonplace, of course, that the state of 
Wisconsin, like all the Middle West, is in the finer things of 
civilization by and large still crude in sentiment and achieve- 
ment, still imperfectly organized in effort. She has had 
from the beginning of her statehood her men and women of 
broad and cultivated tastes, also concerned for the public 
welfare in things of the spirit; but they have seldom hit on 



260 



William Ellery Leonard 



a technique of leadership. Thus uncouthness, knowing not 
itself but glowing with its adventure in democracy, blunders 
monotonously into a self-expression, which is scarcely the 
expression of what the best of us hereabouts can do. Not 
altogether in jest might one propose a state commission for 
overlooking, say, the English in the guide books to our 
famous places (the Dalles, Devils Lake, Madison herself of 
the Four Lakes) and on the signs before the animal cages of 
our zoological gardens, and for hanging the perpetrators of 
at least one memorial arch and several public buildings. 
And though we have a library among the greatest in the 
land, culture is still subordinate to agriculture, the stoct 
pavilion houses our commencements, and a remodelled 
horse barn our department of art. 

However — Wisconsin spells a swift and solid achievemeni. 
in man's economic and social mastery on one quarter-sectior 
of this earth, which less than a hundred years ago wa: 
largely as primeval as when the south wind and the northini 
beast and bird bore in the seeds of grass and trees an( 
berries after the ice age. That there is much yet to df 
before she ripens a rich and regnant Life is in the nature c [ 
things. And the state motto is "Forward." 



THE YANKEE AND THE TEUTON IN WISCONSIN 



Joseph Schafer 
II DISTINCTIVE TRAITS AS FARMERS 

The agricultural traits and peculiarities of the nineteenth 
century Yankees were the resultant of partly contradictory 
forces, some of them evolutionary, others devolutionary. 
In England the period of the Puritan migration to America 
and the half-century antecedent thereto was a time of 
vigorous agricultural change marked by many improve- 
ments in cultivation and in land management. The agrarian 
revolution introduced by the transfer of church properties to 
laymen was accompanied by enclosures and a widespread 
tendency to shift from an uneconomical crop economy to an 
agriculture governed by business principles. In this new 
system the production of farm animals — especially sheep — 
the fertilization of the soil, rotation of crops, and livestock 
improvement were main factors. Forces and interests were 
set in motion at this time which, a century or so later, made 
farming the concern of many of England's leading minds, 
whose wise and persistent experimentation benefited the 
whole civilized world. 

The few thousand immigrants to the New England colo- 
nies, founders of America's Yankeedom, were not all farmers. 
Some were fishermen, some were small tradesmen, others 
craftsmen; a few were professional men and soldiers. But a 
goodly proportion were land owners and peasants, and all 
had a more or less direct knowledge of the principles and 
processes which governed English agriculture. The in- 
fluence of habit, always a determining factor in the transfer 
of civilization from an old land to a new, caused the oc- 
casional reproduction in New England of some features of 
English farming, especially under village conditions. The 



262 



Joseph Schafer 



common field system in Old Salem reflected a disappearing 
element in English farm life, while the commons of hay, 
commons of pasture, commons of wood, and commons of 
mast, with their administrative '*hay reeve," ''hog reeve,'' 
'*wood reeve," herdsmen, and shepherds, mark a natural 
imitating of the ways of parish life at home. 

But there were differences in the conditions "at home' 
and in America as wide as those symbolized by the term^ 
"insular," and "continental," applied to the geography o: 
the two countries. Chief among these differences were th( 
generally forested character of the new-world land, th( 
necessity of adapting tillage to an unfamiliar climate, ii 
part to new food cereals, especially Indian corn, and thi 
absolute dependence upon markets which could be create(i 
or opened by the colonists themselves. It was in fact th i 
problem of a market which so long subordinated farmiii; 
proper in New England to a species of country living h 
which small patches of arable supplied most of the family' 
food, while forest and stream were the objects of exploits 
tion for marketable furs, for medicinal plants, and for timbe 
products. Yankee ingenuity, which justly became pre 
verbial, had an assignable cause. It was not an inherite 
quality, or one which was imported and conserved; it was 
distinctively American product, explained by the situatio 
of the average New England farmer — who was, by force ( 
circumstances, more of a mechanic and woods worb 
than a cultivator of the soil. His house, especially in winte . 
was a busy workshop where clapboards, staves, hoop 
heading, ax handles, and a variety of other articles < 
utility and salability were always in course of manufactun 
All the farm "tinkering" was additional thereto. 

In his contest with the forest for a livelihood, the Yank< 
farmer was gradually changed from the eastern New En 
land village type to that of the American "pioneer." H 
axmanship was unrivaled, his skill in woodscraft, his r 



Yankee and Teuton 



263 



jourcefulness in the face of untried situations were equal to 
:he best. When the time came for taking agricultural pos- 
session of broad spaces in the northern and western interior, 
:he Yankee was the instrument, shaped by four genera- 
:ions of American history, to achieve that object.^ 

This general "handiness" was gained not without a 
3artial loss of such acquired knowledge and skill in agricul- 
ture proper as the first immigrants brought from England, 
pilose, careful cultivation was impossible among the stumps 
ind girdled trees of new clearings; the amplitude of natural 
neadows and the superabundance of '^browse" relieved 
lettlers from the sharp necessity of providing artificially 
or the winter feeding of cattle; the mast of oak trees and 
he wealth of nuts, supplementing summer "greens," roots, 
^rass, and wild apples, supplied most of the requisites for 
inishing off pork. Under these conditions farming even 
it best was an entirely different thing from what it had 
)een at home. At its worst, it was a crude process, afford- 
ng a vegetative kind of existence, but nothing more. In 
act, farming in the New England states hardly attained the 
Itatus of a business until the nineteenth century, though 
n some portions it gave the farmer and his family a generous 
iving and afforded a few luxuries. It made thousands of 
)ersons independent proprietors who could not have reached 
hat station at home; it gave the farmers as a class a com- 
aanding influence in politics and society; "embattled," it 
nabled them to wrest their country's independence from 
he awkward hands of a bungling monarchy. In short, it 
ontributed incalculably to their importance as men in 
listory. The indications are, however, that as farmers the 

^ Michel Chevalier,' Society, Manners, and Politics in the United States (Boston, 1839), 
hap. X, 112-113, 117, says: "Loading a wagon with a plough, a bed, a barrel of salt meat, 
le indispensable supply of tea and molasses, a Bible and a wife, and with his axo oti his 
loulder, the Yankee sets out for the West, without a servant, without an jissistant, 
ften without a companion, to build himself a log hut, six hundred uiilos from his father's 
)of, and clear away a spot for a farm in the midst of the boundless forest. lie is 

icomparable as a pioneer, unequalled as a settler of the wilderness." 



264 



Joseph Schafer 



fourth generation of Mayflower descendants were decidedly 
inferior to the original Pilgrims and Puritans. 

The third generation were probably less skillful than the 
fourth. For, by the time of the Revolution there were 
farming areas in southern New England that were looking 
up. Timothy Dwight, near the end of the century, founc 
and recorded some of the evidences of a movement to im 
prove cultivation, to fertilize the soil, to better the charactei 
of farm livestock — a movement which had been going for 
ward under impulses communicated from England, wher< 
the eighteenth century was peculiarly fruitful in agricultura 
development. Dwight was enough of an idealist to ap 
preciate the limits of the improvement thus far reached i 
Yet he did insist, with evident justice, that the farming cj 
the Connecticut valley and of eastern Massachusetts was a 
least respectable. Fields were well cleared and carefuU 
cultivated, clover began to be used as a feeding and gree 
manure crop, the beginnings had been made of a system ( 
rotation of crops, livestock was of relatively good quality- 
especially in certain Connecticut towns which were ahead 
noted for the weight of the bullocks they furnished to tl 
commissary department of Washington's army. By th. 
time, also, leading men in New England lent their influen< 
toward the building up of the agricultural interest; agrici 
tural societies were organized and essays on agriculture car 
to have considerable vogue. Some importations of pur 
bred livestock from England took place. The first merii 
sheep were brought in from France, then larger numbe • 
from Spain by Consul William Jarvis. In 1810 Elkan 
Watson established his Berkshire County Agricultui 1 
Society, with the county fair which became the model i r 
subsequent county and state fairs the country over. 

When Tom Paine predicted in 1776 that an independent 
America would prosper "as long as eating continues to |e 



Yankee and Teuton 



265 



:he custom of Europe,"^ he assumed one point about which 
jome doubt might in future arise: Would Europe always 
lave the wherewithal to purchase American foodstuffs at 
prices which would compensate our people for growing 
hem and delivering them to the market? During the 
continuance of the long revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, 
Europe managed to make good Paine' s prophecy, and 
prices at the close of the wars ruled high. There followed 
he great expansion era which spread American farmers 
)ver the New West, both south and north, into which 
Yankees entered to a large extent. 

[ The good prices did not hold. Food could be raised 
cheaply, but markets were costly to reach, even with the 
lew wizardry of the steamboat, and something gigantic 
vas called for in the way of internal improvements. The 
mswer was at first canals, afterwards railroads. At the 
lame time, something had to be done by the farmer himself 
f the entire structure of American agriculture, now be- 
coming conscious of its own embarrassments, was not to go 
lown. The answer to this was better farming. It was in 
1819, the panic year, that John S. Skinner founded at 
Baltimore the American Farmer, first of the distinctively 
arm journals which almost immediately had a small group 
)f successors. Among them were the New England Farmer, 
he Albany Cultivator, the Pennsylvania Farmer, the Rural 
\ew Yorker, the Vermont Farmer, the Ohio Farmer, etc. 

Yankeedom was a good social soil for these journals. 
The all but universal literacy of the people, their curiosity, 
heir love of argument and disputation, their habit of 
'xperimentation, all tended both to give currency to the 
lew ideas presented and to sift the practical and valuable 
rem the merely theoretic and futile. Thus was intro- 
luced, in a period of prevailing *'hard times," a meliorating 
nfluence destined to reach a very large proportion of the 

"See his Common Sense (Philadelphia, 1791). 



I 



266 Joseph Sehafer j 

settlers in those sections, particularly Vermont, westeruj 
New York, northern Pennsylvania and Ohio, from whicH 
the bulk of the Yankee pioneers of Wisconsin were drawn aj 
quarter of a century later. The effect of county and state I, 
fairs was to deepen and fructify the influence of the newi 
agricultural press. 

It will be understood that the actual "shoring up" oi , 
agricultural practice came about with relative slowness. 
Yet, it soon began here and there, and by a kind of mild in-i 
fection spread gradually over wide areas. Only in crisis 
periods, with the introduction of new methods to suit new ' 
market conditions, was progress ever very rapid. To 
illustrate, as early as 1820 Josiah Quincy was advocating 
and practising the summer soiling of cattle, especially 
milch cows, and demonstrating the profitableness of the 
system for the region near Boston. It was a long time 
before soiling became common even in that district, but; 
this experiment engendered better care of livestock. The 
same careful, experimental farmer demonstrated the econo- 
my of using good-sized whole potatoes for seed, as against 
the practice of planting seed ends and small tubers; other 
farmers were slow to adopt the idea, which is not yet uni- 
versally followed, yet some improvement doubtless came 
from the publication of Quincy's findings. 

What, then, were the general farming habits of the' 
Yankees who form the background of Wisconsin's pioneer 
age.f^ First of all, they lived in decent houses which were 
usually of lumber. Dwight contended that not one New 
England village in a hundred was disfigured with the pres- 
ence of even one log house. He also gives the result of a 
count made in 1810 of the log houses along the road from 
New Haven to Windsor in Vermont, thence across thej 
Green Mountains to Middlebury, and back by a direct j 
route to New Haven, a distance of over 460 miles, much of. 
it through new settlements. It showed only fifteen toj 



Yankee and Teuton 



267 



Middlebury and thirty-two on the return route. It seems 
to have been a matter of pride with the Yankee to desert 
his pioneer log house as quickly as possible. His personal 
skill with tools, and abundance of saw timber, made the 
construction of a frame house a family undertaking calling 
for labor indeed, but only a minimum of hired skill; and 
for little material involving the outlay of actual money. So 
the frame houses rose wherever the Yankees settled. Along 
the great road from Albany to Buffalo, in western New 
York, they began to spring up before the settlements were 
ten years old. When, about twenty-five years later, 
travelers passed that way they saw many houses of squared, 
framed timbers, covered over neatly with boards at the 
sides and ends, and roofed with shingles.^ These common 
frame houses were sufiiciently inartistic, no doubt. Per- 
haps, as one traveler remarks, they did look like "huge 
packing boxes." Similar architectural designs can be 
seen scattered over the West — and the East, too — at this 
late date. Still, they were more commodious than the 
log houses, and improved the families' living conditions. 
The next stage was likely to mark a very distinct advance. 
"In the more cleared and longer settled parts of the coun- 
try," says a none too sympathetic English traveler, "we 
saw many detached houses, which might almost be called 
villas, very neatly got up, with rows of wooden columns in 
front, aided by trees and tall shrubs running round and 
across the garden which was prettily fenced iii, and embel- 
lished with a profusion of flowers." Yankees had the 
habit of building by the roadside, whatever the economic 
disadvantages of such a situation, because it enabled them 
to keep in touch with the world — a reason which is by no 
means frivolous, and for them highly characteristic. 

We have no such definite account of the Yankee farmers' 

3 See Captain Basil Hall, Travels in North America in the Years 1827 and 1S28 (Edio- 
jiburgh, 1829), i, 130. 



268 



Joseph Schafer 



barns as of those of Pennsylvania Germans. It is true that 
Dwight, speaking for the older New England, suggests] 
that the barn was apt to be a much better structure than i 
the house. The custom, however, noted by travelers in f 
New York and elsewhere, of letting cattle run at large all ! 
winter without shelter other than trees and brush, and per- 
haps the straw pile or rick of marsh hay, argues that stabling 
was furnished for only a minimum number of work oxen, i 
horses — if such there were — and perhaps in some cases cows \ 
in milk. It undoubtedly was not the practice to house stock 1 
cattle, or even — except in isolated cases — to feed them in I' 
sheds. The advocates of careful sheltering who wrote for 
the agricultural journals recognized that the weight of I 
opinion was against sheltering stock. They compromised 



with that opinion by recommending sheds for yoimg stock j 
and dry cows, and warm barns only for milking cows and 
work animals.^ Yet, some of the leading cattle feeders ; 
of the Genesee valley, as late as the year 1842, were content ' 
to scatter loads of hay over meadows and through brush 
patches for the hundreds of beef cattle they were wintering.^ 
The livestock, except sheep and pigs, was still by 1840 i 
prevailingly of no breed. Nevertheless, Durhams and i 
Devons were coming into use. The Patroon stock of i 
shorthorns, introduced in 1824 from England by Stephen i; 
Van Rensellaer, of Albany, gained its first customers ap- 
parently among the English farmers of western New York, 
but gradually made its way among the Yankees as well. I 
Other importations were soon made, so that by 1840 there 
were several prominent herds of purebreds in that section i 
of the state. In 1842 it was said of the Genesee County Fair 
that "with the exception of some working oxen and one 
cow not a single animal of native cattle was in the yard. ' 
All were either pure or grade Durhams or Devons. • • • 

* American Agriculturist, i (1842), 115 ff. 

^ Captain Robert Barclay, Agricultural Tour in the United States . . . (London, f 
1842). 41. 



i 



Yankee and Teuton 



269 



Bulls were shown by some six or seven competitors. Among 
them were four thoroughbred ones and one of those im- 
ported."^ It is clear that by the time emigration to Wis- 
consin began to take place, actual progress had been made 
and the entire body of Yankee farmers had been indoctri- 
nated with the idea of better livestock. Sheep and pigs 
were already largely improved, the former prevailingly 
through the cross with the merinos, the latter with Berk- 
shires and other English breeds. The Morgan horse, a 
Vermont product, was gaining wide popularity. 

From what has been said of the care of livestock, it 
follows that the possibilities of the farm for the manufacture 
of fertilizer were generally neglected. English travelers 
were apt to insist that this neglect was universal, but there 
were, of course, numerous exceptions. Farming was exten- 
sive, not intensive. Lands were cleared by chopping or 
"slashing" the timber, burning brush and logs, then harrow- 
ing among the stumps to cover the first-sown wheat seed. 
In a few years, with the rotting of the smaller stumps and 
the roots, the plow could be used, though always with em- 
barrassment on account of the large stumps which thickly 
studded the fields. These disappeared gradually, being al- 
lowed to stand till so fully decayed that a few strokes with 
ax or mattock would dislodge them. As late as 1830 many 
fields in western New York were stump infested. 

Wheat was the great, almost the sole, market crop, 
and it was grown year after year till the soil ceased to 
respond. From bumper yields of twenty-five or thirty 
bushels per acre the returns fell off to twenty, fifteen, and 
then twelve, ten, or even eight. The process of decline was 
well under way when the immigration to Wisconsin set in, 
and already the turn had come toward a more definite 
livestock economy, which in large portions of New York 
soon gave rise to a system of factory cheese making. A 

• American Agriculturist, i, 311. 



Yankee and Teuton 



271 



main reason for the removal to the West, on the part of 
farmers whose holdings were too small to make successful 
stock farms, or who refused to abandon wheat raising as a 
business, was that lands in the West could be had already 
cleared by nature. Many half -cleared farms, with custom- 
ary buildings and fences, could in the forties be purchased in 
western New York for from four to eight dollars per acre. 
Instead of buying these farms, the young men preferred 
going to Michigan, Illinois, Iowa, or Wisconsin, those having 
such farms for sale doing likewise after selling out to neigh- 
bors, usually the larger farmers, who elected to remain 
and change their system of farming. In Vermont we have 
a similar story, in Ohio the same. The Yankee farmers who 
came to Wisconsin were generally at home either small 
farmers or the sons of farmers large or small ; while a certain 
proportion of the larger farmers, by reason of debt or desire 
to extend their business, also sold out and came west to buy 
cheap lands on the prairies or in the openings. 

An agriculture which dates from before the time of 
Tacitus, and which acquired permanent characteristics from 
the influence of Roman merchants, monastics, and feuda- 
tories in Roman and medieval times, was bound to differ 
widely and even fundamentally from the agriculture of a far 
flung American frontier. The Germans who met the 
Yankee immigrants in primitive Wisconsin brought an 
inheritance of habit and training analogous to that of the 
English Puritan emigrants to New England, but with the 
difference that the Germans' training had continued two 
hundred years longer, on similar lines. They were old- 
world cultivators, the Yankees new-world cultivators. 

Tacitus says in one place: "The Germans live scattered 
and apart, as a spring, a hill, or a wood entices them."' 

' Germania (translated slightly differently in University of Pennsylvania Translations 
and Reprints), 11. 



Joseph S chafer 



Nineteenth century German economists complained that » 
German farmsteads were seated often most inconveniently 
with reference to the management of the farm lands per- 
taining to them. They had been established, in the days \ 
of long ago, by lakeside, brook, or river under conditions 
in which access to water was the most important single 
consideration. They had nev^r been moved, although 
gradually the arable stretched far back from the dwelling, 
and the pasture perhaps was located in a wholly detached 
area.^ This description applies to portions of northern i 
Germany where farms were large and farming had the status - \ 
of a regular and dignified business. 

Many individuals and families came to Wisconsin from 
districts like Mecklenburg, Prussia, Pomerania, though in ; 
the emigrations of the 1840's and fifties the great majority 
were from southern and central German states. It will be 
one of the interesting inquiries in connection with our study 
of local influences in Wisconsin towns {Domesday Book ; 
Studies), how far the special regional inheritances of foreign ja 
born settlers manifested themselves in Wisconsin com- ? 
munities. The presumption, about the north German, 
would be that his farming operations would tend to be on 
a large scale, under a business system which — in this new 
land — would slough off such anacronisms as the dislocated 
farmstead, and present the features of an ideal establish- 
ment. But it may be that the forest was such a powerful 
leveler as to obliterate most of the regional distinctions 
among immigrants. Our chief concern, at all events, is 
with that great body of German farmers, and intending 
farmers, who came from the southwestern states of the re- 
cent Empire, especially Alsace, Baden, Wurttemberg, 
Rhine Palatinate, Rhenish Prussia, Hesse, Nassau, West- 
phalia — to some extent Bavaria and Saxony. 

8 J. H. von Thiinen, Der Isolierte Staat (Berlin, 1875), 103 ff., "Ueber die Lage der ; 
Hofe in Mecklenburg." 



i 



Yankee and Teuton 



273 



The fundamental facts about the home conditions of these 
people, so far as they were farmers at home, were the small- 
ness of their holdings, their intensive cultivation, and the 
almost universal village type of life. Travelers of about 
1840 describe the typical middle Rhine country as a highly 
cultivated plain without division hedges or fences other 
than the tree-bordered roads, with no separate farm dwell- 
ings and with no livestock in sight. The crops of several 
kinds being arranged in various shaped fields, patches, and 
strips, the plain looked like the proverbial '*crazy-quilt." 
Villages were huddled at the edges of woods, and occasion- 
ally in the midst of the cultivated area. Their houses, 
which were not arranged on a regular plan, were usually 
large stone structures, the farm yard, with tools, imple- 
ments, manure and compost heaps, occupying a kind of 
court at the rear. 

As a rule, all animals were housed winter and summer. 
Here was an important difference to the farming of the 
north, where large herds of cattle could be seen pasturing 
ample meadows, or ruminating in the shade of buildings 
or of woods. The soiling system was universally practiced 
in summer. Grass land being scarce and precious, feed 
for the cows was laboriously gathered along the brookside, in 
the open spaces of the forest, along all the roads, in the 
cemeteries, and the greens before the houses. The weeds 
and thinnings from the growing crops went to the same 
object. Vegetable tops were a great resource in late summer 
and fall, and patches of clover, while insuring green feed, 
furnished hay as well. In places the growing of sugar 
beets for the market was a leading agricultural enterprise, 
and the tops of the beets were carefully cured for winter 
feed. 

The cultivation was intensive both in that it aimed at 
the maximum produce from given areas, and in that the 
crops raised included some which called for very special 



274 



Joseph Schafer 



care. Some sections grew tobacco, in connection with 
which much hand work was indispensable. This crop 
also called for care in seed selection, in germinating, and in 
preparing the ground for the reception of the young plants. 
Beet culture for sugar making involved perhaps not less 
care, and doubtless more hand labor. Of similar but less 
particularity was the growing of root crops for stock feed, 
the orcharding, which was general, and the vine dressing, 
incident to the business of special districts. 

There were, of course, many farmers and farms in the 
region indicated and in other contributory regions, which were 
not so widely different from the average of those in America. 
Yet, on the whole, it can be said that the German husband- 
man, in training and habit, was analogous to our modern 
truck farmer or orchardist, rather than to our general 
farmer. He was a specialist in soils, in fertilizing and pre- 
paring them for different crops, in planting, stirring, weeding, 
irrigating; in defending plants against insect pests, seasonal 
irregularities, and soil peculiarities; he throve by hoeing, 
dragging, trimming, pruning, sprouting; by curing and con- 
serving plants, roots, grasses, grains, and fruits. His live- 
stock economy was incidental, yet very important. It 
supplied the necessary fertilizer to maintain soil pro- 
ductivity; it afforded milk, beef, pork, butter, cheese, wool. 
It gave him his draft animals, often cows instead of oxen, 
and economized every bit of grass and forage which his situa- 
tion produced. 

Improvement of livestock appears to have affected 
southwestern Germany prior to 1850 very little as compared 
with the pastoral countries of England, Holland, Friesland, 
and north Germany. The animals kept by the village 
farmers were therefore not remarkable for quality. But 
they were usually well housed, and the feed and care they 
received made up in considerable measure for the absence of 
superior blood. 



Yankee and Teuton 



275 



1 The various states of Germany, by 1840, were maintain- 
I ing schools of agriculture, a species of experiment stations 
for the dissemination of such scientific agricultural informa- 
tion as was then available. To some extent, therefore, 
farming was beginning to be scientific. But, prevailingly 
it was intensely practical, the appropriate art connected 
with the growing of every distinct crop being handed on 
from father to son, from farmer to laborer. 

One could almost predict how farmers thus trained 
would react to the new environment of the Wisconsin 
wilderness. Taking up a tract of forested land or buying 
a farm with a small clearing upon it, their impulse would be, 
with the least possible delay, to get a few acres thoroughly 
cleared, subdued to the plow, and in a high state of tilth. 
Exceptions there were, to be sure, but on the whole the 
j German pioneers were not content to slash and burn their 
i timber. After the timber was off, the stumps must come 
out, forthwith, to make the tract fit for decent cultivation. 
Was it the Germans who introduced in land clearing the 
custom of ''grubbing" instead of "slashing"? This meant 
felling the tree by undermining it, chopping off roots under- 
ground at a safe depth, taking out grub and all, instead of 
cutting it off above ground. In timber of moderate growth 
this practice proved fairly expeditious and highly success- 
ful, for once a tract was grubbed, the breaking plow en- 
countered no serious obstruction. A good "grubber" 
among later immigrants could always count on getting jobs 
I from established German farmers.^ 

To the American, who was content to plow around his 
stumps every year for a decade, to cultivate around them, 
cradle or reap around them, it seemed that his German 

^ In southwestern Wisconsin, about 1870, a respectable German farmer announced 
to his relatives the marriage of his daughter to a man who had arrived but recently and 
had the status of a mere laborer. To parry all questions about the suitability of the groom, 
who was known to be addicted to liquor and other vices, the farmer added: "I'm very 
willing to give him my daughter, for he is the best 'grubber' I've ever had on my farm." 



276 



Joseph S chafer 



neighbor was using some kind of magic to exorcise his 
stumps. The magic was merely human muscle, motivated 
by a psychology which inhibited rest so long as a single 
stump remained in the field. 

The German not only used the heaps of farm yard 
fertilizer which, on buying out the original entryman, he 
commonly found on the premises, but he conserved all 
that his livestock produced, and frequently, if not too 
distant from town or village, became a purchaser of the 
commodity of which liverymen, stock yard keepers, and 
private owners of cow or horse were anxious to be relieved. 
The manufacture of fertilizer was a prime reason for stabling 
his livestock. The other was his fixed habit of affording 
animals such care. Not all Germans built barns at once, 
but the majority always tried to provide warm sheds, at 
least, whereas Yankee and Southwesterner alike were very 
prone to allow their animals to huddle, humped and shiver- 
ing, all winter oh the leeward side of house or granary, or in 
clumps of sheltering brush or trees.^^ The German was 
willing to occupy his log house longer, if necessary, in order 
to gain the means for constructing adequate barns and 
sheds. 

Germans were not one-crop farmers. The lands they 
occupied, usually forested, could not be cleared fast enough 
at best to enable them to raise wheat on a grand scale, as 
the Yankees did in the open lands of the southeast and 
west. Their arable was extended only a few acres per 
year, and while that was being done the German farmers 
grew a little of everything — wheat, rye, corn, oats, barley, 
potatoes, roots. Clover was to them a favorite forage, hay, 
and green manure crop. In growing it, they used gypsum 
freely. This policy of clover growing, adopted gradually 

" When John Kerler settled near Milwaukee in 1848, he bought a farm on which 
was no provision for sheltering livestock other than work animals. He built a bam at 
once, refusing to permit, for a single winter, the cruel American practice of leaving cattle 
out in the cold. His case is typical. 



Yankee and Teuton 277 

by all farmers, was one of the means finally relied on by 
the wheat farmers to restore the productivity of their 
abused soils. 

In ways such as the above, German farmers helped to 
save Wisconsin agriculture in the period of stress when 
wheat growing failed and before cooperative dairying 
entered. They were not the chief influence in popularizing 
improved hvestock. Credit for that innovation must be 
awarded to the Yankees. They had resumed in the eastern 
states the English tradition of breeding, and brought it into 
Wisconsin where, by means of state and county fairs and an 
active^ agricultural press, it was ultimately borne in upon 
the minds of all farmers, Germans among the rest.^^ 

Neither did the Germans lead in developing the new 
agriculture, of which cooperative dairying was the key- 
stone. Yankee leadership therein, too, was the dominant 
influence. Yet, it was the Germans, Scandinavians, and 
other foreigners — and numerically Germans were in the 
majority — who, by virtue of their agricultural morale, 
their steadiness in carrying out plans, their patience and 
perseverance, have made the dairy business of Wisconsin the 
great industry it has become. 

Above all, the Germans persisted as farmers. They 
prospered not dramatically, like some of the more success- 
ful of the Yankee farmers, but by little and little they saved 
money, bought more land, better stock, and built better 
homes. When Yankee farmers, discouraged or impover- 
ished by the failure of wheat, offered their farms for sale 
preparatory to ''going west," Germans who had managed 
their smaller farms more carefully stood ready to buy; when 
Yankees who were tired of being ''tied to a cow" wanted to 
go to Montana, Oregon, or Wyoming to raise steers by 
wholesale, on the ranching plan, they sold out to Germans 
who made the dairy farms pay larger dividends year by 

" See the author's History of Agriculture in Wisconsin (Madisou, 1922), pa.9sim. 



I 



278 Joseph Schafer I 

year. When Yankee farmers retired to the city, or wenij 
into business, which in recent decades they have done bj 
thousands, Germans were among those who were the keenesli 
bidders for their farm properties. In a word, the German 
has succeeded agriculturally through the more and moreil 
perfect functioning, in this new land, of qualities imparted 
by the training and inheritance which he brought withtj 
him from the old world. On the whole, Germans have kept j 
clear of speculation, preferring to invest their savings inj 
neighboring lands with which they were intimately familiar, 
or to lend to neighboring farmers on farm mortgage security. ; 
In the aggregate, German farmers in Wisconsin have long 
had vast sums at interest. The Institute for Research in; 
Land Economics (University of Wisconsin) has completed 
investigations which show that the nation's area of lowest 
farm mortgage interest rates (5.2 per cent or less) coincides ! 
very closely with the great maple forest of eastern Wiscon- , 
sin, which has been held, from the first, predominantly by \ 
German farmers. 

We have no desire to minimize the factor contributed to 
Wisconsin's agriculture by the Yankees. They were the 
prophets and the organizers of the farmers' movement. 
Their inherent optimism, their speculative bent, their 
genius for organization were indispensable to its success. 
"Anything is possible to the American people," shouted the , 
mid-century American orator from a thousand Fourth of i 
July rostrums, therein merely reflecting what the mass of [ 
his hearers religiously believed. When agriculture had to 1 
be remade in Wisconsin, the Yankee's intelligence told him > 
in what ways it must be improved, and his tact, courage, 
and address enabled him to enlist and organize the means 
for remaking it. When the Yankee was convinced, by his | 
farm paper or by the exhibitions, that a purebred animal \ 
was a good investment, his speculative spirit sent him to his | 
banker to borrow a thousand dollars, and to a distant t 



i 



Yankee and Teuton 



279 



breeder to make what his more timid German neighbor 
would call a "mighty risky investment" — for the animal 
might die! Finally, when local organization was required 
to secure a cheese factory, a creamery, or a dairy board of 
trade, the Yankee by virtue of his community leadership 
was usually able to effect the desired result. 

Wisconsin's almost unique success in agriculture is due to 
no single or even dual factor. But among the human ele- 
ments which have been most potent in producing the result, 
none is of more significance than the fortunate blend in her 
population of the Yankee and the Teuton. 



THE GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC AND 

THE WISCONSIN DEPARTMENT ! 

HosEA W. Rood 

ORIGIN OF THE G. A. R. 

From the third day of February to the fourth of March, 
1864, General Sherman led an army of about twenty-five <i 
thousand men from Vicksburg eastward across the state of 
Mississippi, to Meridian and back, for the purpose of f 
destroying Confederate railroads. There was little fighting, i 
not much to do besides tearing up the roads and burning the 
ties — this work, of course, being done by the men in the v 
ranks. 

Surgeon Benjamin F. Stephenson and Chaplain William 
J. Rutledge belonged to the Fourteenth Illinois Infantry. 
They were tent mates and close companions. Since there t 
was not much for them to do on this rather quiet expedi- 
tion, they rode along side by side and held converse about ? 
the close bond of friendship that was becoming more and i 
more manifest among the comrades they had seen so long 
together. Their regiment had suffered severely in battle, 
and the survivors were being drawn more and more closely 
together. They said to one another that this comradeship 
would not be at all likely to come to an end with the con- 
clusion of the war; that not only would the memory of I 
common hardship and suffering, common dangers, the com- 
mon loss of "bunkies" in battle, the hospital, or the prison 
pen, the recollection of jolly good times together in camp 
and on the march, unite them in the bonds of fraternity, 
but also the fact that they had fought for a common cause — 
the saving of our country and its free institutions from ' 
disunion. These two comrades were men of vision; they 
felt that the sentiment of patriotism should be cultivated 



I 



The Grand Army of the Republic 



281 



among the citizens of our republic, both old and young, in 
order that another war between different sections of our 
country might be made impossible. They agreed that no 
organized effort could better encourage and strengthen 
such patriotic sentiment than an association of those men 
who had proved their patriotism by their self-sacrificing 
service in the War for the Union. They dwelt much upon 
the good they hoped would come through an organization. 
They even went so far as to outline in their thoughts a 
ritual for use in their proposed association of Civil War 
veterans. 

When the war came to an end. Chaplain Rutledge and 
Dr. Stephenson did not forget what they had talked about 
on the Meridian expedition; they soon began a correspond- 
ence concerning their proposed plan. In March, 1866, 
they met in Springfield, Illinois, and there spent some time 
together arranging a form of ceremony for the society they 
i had in mind. Even before this meeting. Dr. Stephenson, 
i after talking the matter over with several army comrades, 
had planned a service and even gone so far as personally to 
pledge some of them for Grand Army work. No records 
were made of these matters at the time, yet different persons 
i have since told what was done then. 

One of Dr. Stephenson's active associates was Captain 
I John S. Phelps, who had served in Company B of the Thirty- 
j second Illinois Infantry. Phelps was a young man, practical 
and energetic. He urged Dr. Stephenson to make a begin- 
ning at once and to muster a Grand Army post in Spring- 
field; yet the organization was then only in its formative 
stage. After considerable correspondence between men 
interested in the matter, and a careful revision of Dr. 
j Stephenson's draft of a ritual, he, calling himself depart- 
[ment commander for Illinois, issued a charter for the organi- 
I nation of a post of the Grand Army of the Republic at 
jOecatur, Illinois; and this post, on the sixth of April, 1866, 



282 



Hosea W. Rood 



was mustered by Dr. Stephenson, assisted by Captainl 
Phelps. Thus was the first Grand Army post organizedi 
at Decatur, lUinois, three days less than a year after thef 
surrender of General Lee at Appomattox. It was known asf 
Post Number One. Not long after. Number Two wasi| 
organized at Springfield. 

The first department convention of the Grand Army inrj, 
Illinois was held in Springfield, July 12, 1866. What was j 
then called a department convention came later to be knowm 
as an encampment, and all department and national meet-r 
ings of the Grand Army are still so called. At this Spring- f 
field encampment General John M. Palmer was chosen | 
department commander. 

ORGANIZATION IN WISCONSIN 

Before the Grand Army was organized in Illinois,' 
various associations of soldiers had been formed under dif- 
ferent names, some of which were manipulated for political I 
purposes. In some of the cities and larger villages in Wis- [ 
consin had been formed soldiers' and sailors' leagues. ' 
These were not acting under a state organization, but were 
independent one of another. They had, however, common 
objects: the relief of indigent veterans; the securing of 
employment for those out of work; and the advancement 
in other ways of the interests of ex-soldiers and ex-sailors, t 
General James K. Proudfit, late colonel of the Twelfth 
Wisconsin Infantry, was president of the league at Madison, 
and George F. Rowell secretary. When Comrade Rowell 
heard of the formation of a Grand Army post at Decatur, 
Illinois, he wrote to Springfield asking for information 
concerning the movement. In response he received copies 
of the constitution, with a request that the Grand Armyi 
be organized in Wisconsin. Copies of this constitution were * 
sent to oflScers of other leagues. Correspondence with 
influential veterans in various parts of the state led General \ 



The Grand Army of the Republic 



283 



Proudfit to issue a call for a convention in Madison, on 
June 7, 1866. On that date a large and harmonious meet- 
ing was held. Major Robert M. Woods came up from 
Illinois to give information and, if required, to aid in the 
organization of the Department of Wisconsin. 

At this meeting resolutions were unanimously adopted to 
accept the plans of organization of the Grand Army of the 
Republic, and to urge all soldiers' and sailors' leagues to 
organize thereunder as posts of the Grand Army. Also 
the following was adopted as prepared by the committee 
on resolutions, chairman General Thomas S. Allen, later 
secretary of state: 

Resolvedy That we tender our grateful acknowledgment for the just 
and kindly spirit manifested by Congress in the passage of resolutions in 
favor of giving the preference in appointment to positions of honor and 
profit within the gift of the National Government, other things being 
equal, to those who faithfully served in the Union army during the war 
of the rebellion, and for the recent circular of the President of the United 
States of the same import, and that the propriety and justice of exer- 
cising such discrimination in case of those who have been disabled while 
in the service of their country are too obvious to be questioned. At the 
same time we disclaim any disposition on the part of the brave and 
patriotic men whom we represent, the volunteer soldiers of Wisconsin, 
to claim office as the reward of their services, or to place themselves in 
the position of clamorous office seekers. They regard, as every true 
American should, the independence of private life and the prizes that 
wait upon individual enterprises in the industrial and business pursuits 
open to all in this free land as offering incentives to a worthy ambition 
preferable to those offered by a greedy scramble for place and the favor 
of politicians; and they receive the fulsome flatteries and unsolicited 
promises of demagogues of whatever party assumes that the soldiers who 
risked their lives in defense of their country are a horde of greedy office 
seekers capable of being lured by promises of official patronage into the 
service of political tricksters, with feelings of profound disgust and 
indignation. 

The officers elected at this first meeting for the Depart- 
ment of Wisconsin were: commander, General James K. 
Proudfit; adjutant general, George F. Rowell; quarter- 
master general, Edward Coleman; surgeon, Dr. L. H. Gary; 
council of administration. General Thomas S. Allen, General 
Jeremiah M. Rusk, Colonel A. J. Bartlett, and Colonel E. A. 



284 



Hosea W. Rood 



Calkins. This was quite an array of generals and colonels. 
Later, the rules and regulations were so changed as to i 
exclude the use of all such titles, and to require the term i 
"comrade" to be applied to every member alike. 

Since the Department of Illinois was not organized until 
July 12, 1866, Wisconsin, organized June 7, was the first 
by thirty-five days. Yet in the parades of the Grand Army i 
at national encampments, Illinois is given the head of the 
procession because the order had its origin there, with the 
first organized post — that at Decatur, April 6, 1866. Wis- 
consin, however, always comes second in the procession. il 

On the ninth of June, two days after the organization I 
of the Department of Wisconsin, the Soldiers' and Sailors' 
League of Madison held its regular session. At that meet- i 
ing this question arose : Shall we reorganize as a post of the 
Grand Army of the Republic? After due discussion a 
motion to do so was carried, though not unanimously. The 
league then adjourned, and those not in favor of such : 
reorganization withdrew, after which the comrades remain- 
ing took the Grand Army obligation, and elected as oflScers: 
Captain J. W. Talford, late of Company G of the Twenty- 
third Wisconsin, commander; Henry Sandford, of Company 
F of the Second Wisconsin Infantry, adjutant. There were 
seventeen charter members. The post was named after 
Cassius Fairchild, late colonel of the Sixteenth Wisconsin. 
The next day, June 10, the post was given the charter 
under which it is now working. It has the oldest charter 
of any existing Grand Army post. There was a time when 
the meetings of this post were suspended, yet the charter 
was kept and it now hangs upon the wall of the post hall at 
118 Monona Avenue. The post at Berlin was chartered 
September 8, 1866. It has kept up an unbroken record, 
and is the oldest post in the order that has done so. Its j 
members claim that it is the oldest Grand Army post in the 
world, yet Madison has the oldest charter. Though it 



The Grand Army of the Republic 285 

slept awhile, it was not dead. Its new roster for January 1, 
1922, contains the names of ninety-eight members in good 
standing. Since 1896 it has borne the name of Lucius Fair- 
child, a charter member who died May 26 of that year. It 
has had in all 707 members. 

CONSTITUTION OF THE GRAND ARMY 

The declaration of principles in the constitution of the 
Grand Army of the Republic, as written by Adjutant 
General Robert M. Woods, contains the following schedule 
of the objects to be accomplished by this organization : 

1. To preserve those kind and fraternal feelings which have bound 
together, with the strong cords of love and affection, the comrades in 
arms of many battles, sieges, and marches. 

2. To make these ties available in works and results of kindness of 
favor and material aid to those in need of assistance. 

3. To make provision, where it is not already done, for the support, 
care, and education of soldiers' orphans, and for the maintenance of the 
widows of deceased soldiers. 

4. To protect and assist disabled soldiers, whether because of 
wounds, sickness, old age, or misfortune. 

5. To establish and defend the late soldiery of the United States 
morally, socially, and politically, with a view of inculcating a proper 
appreciation of their services to the country, and to a recognition of 
such services and claims by the American people. 

To this last section, at the national encampment in 1868, 
these words were added: "But this association does not 
design to make nominations for office or to use its influence 
as a secret organization for political purposes." It may be 
said in this connection that from time to time, in both 
department and national encampments, resolutions have 
been passed against anything of a political nature being 
discussed in post meetings, declaring that the Grand Army 
is not a political organization. Politics and Grand Army 
matters were to be kept separate. In some cases resolu- 
tions were passed requesting members of the order to wear 
neither their uniforms nor their badges at political meetings. 

Here is the sixth principle established by the constitu- 
tion of the Grand Army of the Republic: 



286 



Hosea W. Rood 



6. To maintain true allegiance to the United States of America based ' 
upon paramount respect for, and fidelity to, the national constitution 
and laws, manifested by the discountenance of whatever may tend to 
weaken loyalty, incite to insurrection, treason, or rebellion, or in any J 
manner impairs the efficiency and permanency of our free institutions, 
together with a defense of universal liberty, equal rights, and justice to | 
all men. | 

Fraternity, charity, loyalty — these are the words in which I 
are condensed the expression of the foregoing principles, i 
From its organization they have been the legend of the ♦ 
Grand Army of the Republic. They express the thought i 
of Chaplain Rutledge and Dr. Stephenson as they rode and I 
talked together on the Meridian expedition. From the J' 
time when the Grand Army of the Republic was organized, ii 
these three — fraternity, charity, loyalty, "F, C, and L" — 
have been its cardinal virtues; and they will continue so to 
be until the last Grand Army man has gone into camp. 

RAPID GROWTH AND DECLINE 

The Department of Illinois was organized July 12, 1866, 
and there was so much enthusiasm among the young men in 
those days, that four years later the department commander 
reported to national headquarters the existence of 330 posts; 
yet there soon came to be as rapid a decline in both member- 
ship and the number of posts. Two years later, the ad- 
jutant general of the order visited Illinois to find out for 
himself the condition of affairs. He was told that there 
were then twenty-five posts in working order, when as a 
matter of fact there was only one — that at Rockford, 
which had been chartered October 3, 1866. In 1872 four 
posts were reported in working order in Illinois, and dues 
were paid on 246 members. After that there was again an 
increase in membership. There is no record of any depart- 
ment meeting in Illinois after the organization, July 12, 
1866, until February, 1872, since which time encampments 
have been held every year up to the present. 

It may be said that from about the year 1868 until 1877 



The Grand Army of the Republic 



287 



the membership of the order was very greatly reduced every- 
where. There are no available records of the number be- 
longing to the order during those years, but from 1878 we 
have the recorded membership for every year up to the 
present. In 1878 there were 31,016 members, and the 
number increased year by year, so that ten years later there 
were 372,960. Two years later there were 409,489, when 
the membership went over the top, and began again to de- 
crease. In 1920 it had come down to 103,258, with 4604 
posts in good standing. In the year 1919, 8931 members 
died. The average age of all the comrades at the present 
time is seventy-nine. 

Some causes for the first falling off in membership were 
the following: 

1. Records were carelessly kept, or not kept at all. 
Some department commanders declared that because of this 
lack of records and making of proper reports they could not 
tell how many posts there were in their respective states, 

\ and their membership dues for the support of the national 
organization were not paid. This lack of accurate business 
methods tended toward demoralization — as it does in every 
enterprise. 

2. Very soon after the organization of the Grand Army, 
! three grades of membership were established — recruit, 

soldier, and veteran. As a member passed from the lowest 
grade to a higher, he came into possession of greater privi- 
leges. It was at first thought that this graded system — 
I first, second, and third degrees — would prove attractive, 
and be an inducement to the boys to come into the order, 
and then seek rank distinction. But it worked just the 
other way. The comrades had seen enough of rank in the 
army, and so did not care to perpetuate it as citizens. This 
graded system had much influence in reducing the Grand 
Army membership, and in 1871 it was abolished. 



288 



Hosea W, Rood 



3. Though resolutions had been passed from time to * 
time against bringing pohtics into the Grand Army, some 
members were incHned to attend pohtical meetings, wear- 
ing their badges or uniforms. Those were exciting times i 
pohtically, and occasionally some of the comrades mani- ' 
fested their partisanship as members of the Grand Army. 
In just so far as they did this they created a prejudice 
against the order — all this in direct opposition to its estab- 
lished principles. There were politicians bidding for what i 
was called the "soldier vote," and they did — as they 
always do in such seeking for votes — a great deal of mischief, i 
It took a long time for the Grand Army to rid itself of this 
outside political influence and the prejudice it induced. 
Yet in due time it was successful, and people came to know 
that the Grand Army never was a political organization. 
All along it has held to its fundamental principles of fra- 
ternity, charity, and loyalty. 

4. One more cause for the loss in membership of the 
Grand Army soon after its organization was the fact that 
young men are apt, when a movement is popular, to go 
into it with enthusiasm; and then by-and-by, when it 
loses its novelty, to become indiflferent. Many of the 
soldier boys just home from the war were barely out of their 
teens. As a sort of plaything the Grand Army was at 
first interesting — afterward not so much so. Fifteen years 
later those boys, grown to maturity, came to understand 
how much this organization for fraternity, charity, and 
loyalty was worth, and it began then to have a substantial 
growth. Since then the loss has been through old age, 
feebleness, and death. 

GRAND ARMY ENCAMPMENTS, DEPARTMENT AND NATIONAL 

A department in most cases comprises a state; in three 
or four of them there are two states. There are forty-four 
departments in all. Each of these departments holds an 



The Grand Army of the Republic 



289 



annual encampment for the transaction of business, and a 
fraternal reunion. Every local post sends representatives, 
, the number depending upon its membership. These meet- 
I ings last two or three days. In the same city where the 
encampment is held, and during the same week, our allied 
patriotic societies hold their annual meetings. These 
societies are: the Woman's Relief Corps, auxiliary of the 
Grand Army; the Sons of Veterans, and their auxiliary; 
the Ladies of the Grand Army; and the Daughters of the 
Grand Army. The representatives of all these organiza- 
tions coming thus together make up an attendance of 
several hundred people, all imbued with a common patriotic 
purpose. It is also a fraternal gathering with much of social 
enjoyment. 

There are two especial features in the program of every 
Grand Army encampment — the camp fire and the parade; 
the camp fire in the evening of the first day, and the parade 
in the forenoon of the second day. For the camp fire some 
particularly strong speaker is secured, and there is such 
music as the local committee sees fit to provide. When it is 
practicable to do so, the presence of the commander-in-chief 
of the Grand Army is secured. It is not easy for him to 
visit every one of the forty-four encampments. He attends 
as many of them as he can. The encampment parade 
always draws a big crowd of people from both the city and 
the surrounding country. The boys and girls in particular 
— dismissed from school for the occasion — come with their 
flags and banners to look upon the patriotic pageant. Their 
youthful enthusiasm, as the old comrades march by, adds 
very much to the liveliness of the scene. Sometimes the 
members of the allied patriotic societies join the procession, 
which makes the parade all the more attractive. It has 
for some years been predicted, as the rather feeble remnant 
of the Grand Army has passed in parade, tliat, because the 
men are coming to be so old, they would not march at 



290 



Hosea W, Rood 



another encampment; yet they have kept marching along, 
and will continue to do so as long as they meet in encamp- 
ment. The parade seems to be the most essential feature of 
the occasion. 

The business meetings at the national encampment, (i 
held every year in the early autumn, consist of certain ! 
national oflScers — ^present and past — and one representative \ 
for every two hundred members in good standing, with a 
member at large from every department. This made the 
voting strength at the encampment at Indianapolis in 
September, 1920, 1260, though not nearly so many were 
present. Not all chosen as representatives in any yeiar are j 
able to make the journey. Wisconsin was entitled in the 
encampment for 1922 held at Des Moines, Iowa, September 
24-30, to thirteen representatives. 

The Department of Wisconsin, as was the case in j 
Illinois, increased rapidly in number of posts and member- p 
ship. During the first month of its existence, five more 
posts were organized — Ripon on June thirteenth; Mazo- 
manie on the fourteenth; Fond du Lac on the twentieth; \ 
Greenbush on the twenty-eighth; and Ahnapee on the i 
twenty-ninth. The first annual encampment was con- » 
vened in Madison, June 19, 1867. At that time fifty-one 
posts had been organized, yet only sixteen of them were 
represented at the meeting — by thirty-four delegates, t 
Because so few regular reports were made, it was not pos- 
sible to tell how many members were then in the depart- 
ment. Department Commander Proudfit had this to say 
in his address: 

There is one matter to which I wish to allude that has been a source 
of great regret and some discouragement to me. This is the neglect by 
many of the Posts ... in not reporting to department headquarters. 
... The constitution requires quarterly reports by adjutants. Mani- • 
festly, if a district does not exist, reports should be made direct to 
department headquarters, for in no other manner can the department > 
commander learn the number and conditions of the membership, 
unless he travels from Post to Post for that purpose. 



I 



The Grand Army of the Republic 



291 



This same neglect occurred in the Grand Army in 
lUinois, and it was so in other departments. The causes 
that led to a decreased membership in Illinois, and the 
order as a whole, operated also in Wisconsin — neglect of 
proper reports, grades of membership, politics, and a fail- 
ing enthusiasm, I cannot tell just when the lowest point 
was reached, yet at one time there were only three or four 
active posts in the department. The organization was 
maintained, however, and held regular annual encampments 
until it came safely through that critical period of its 
existence. Also, the oflScers of the department made re- 
ports every year to national headquarters. All honor to 
the loyal comrades who, in spite of discouraging conditions, 
kept things going! 

I have before me in a little pamphlet the proceedings 
of the first department meeting held in Madison, June 19, 
1867; and I have volumes of reports of annual en- 
campments from 1883 down to the present time, but no 
records between the first in 1867 and that of 1883; no one 
knows what became of the missing records. In an effort 
to find out about them I wrote to Comrade GriflBth J. 
Thomas, now of Harvard, Nebraska. He was department 
commander in 1879, '80, and '81, and is one of the few active 
Grand Army men of the earlier days still alive. He replied, 
in part, as follows : 

I am indeed surprised and pained to learn that the records of the 
Department of Wisconsin for its first fifteen years have so totally dis- 
appeared. . . . There was a record book, in which the proceedings of 
the Encampments were duly recorded. There were other books all of 
which were kept up to date, and I know that all these were duly for- 
warded to my successor. Colonel H. M. Enos, at Waukesha, as soon as 
the proceedings of the last Encampment could be recorded. This ship- 
ment included all the books that had been sent to me by my predeces- 
sor, Comrade E. L. Hammond. That year, 1878, was when the order 
j reached its lowest tide in Wisconsin, as shown by my statement above, 
I when I was chosen to lead the boys out of the wilderness. . . . When I 
I was made Commander, January, 1879, there were but three re])orting 
[Posts. Posts that should have reported refused or neglected to do so. 



292 Hosea W. Rood 

Post No. 1, at Madison, is an example. I could get nothing from them, 
not even an answer to my letters. I took the matter up with the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, and he authorized me to annul their charter, which T 
did. The Wolcott Post at Milwaukee was organized, and became No. 1, | 
in place of Fairchild Post at Madison. This awoke the Madison boys to 
the real merits of the situation, and they pleaded with me to undo whati, 
had been done; but it was too late. The best I could do was to give' 
them a new number, 11, and permit them to work under their old 
name. This was done by and with the advice of the Commander-in- 
Chief. ... {, 

The cause of this depression was due mainly to politics, though the | 
change in the ritual — making three ranks of membership, and the legis- I 
lation that accompanied it — was another detriment — too much ritual 
and too much expense — making it a virtual ^dishonorable discharge for 
every comrade who did not by a certain date choose to comply with the 
regulations and become veterans — third degree. ... [ 

The feeling at the Encampment of 1879 was that the Grand Army I 
should be perpetuated; that it should be built up, and that those present 
would do everything in their power to enlarge the membership. I sent 
out printed matter broadcast, and wrote many personal letters to show / 
that the order was not political, and recited the real objects to be 
attained by it. It was a long, hard struggle. The big reunion of all 
Civil War veterans at Milwaukee, in June, 1880, helped wonderfully to 
get things a-moving, and, once started in earnest, there was rapid prog- ' 
ress, as the record of Commander Phil Cheek's administration — my 
successor — will show. 

And now here comes a strange co-incidence, by which I am able to 
give you a newspaper account of the proceedings of the department 
Encampment of January, 1882, held in Milwaukee. I have just found 1 
it among some of my old papers here. It is taken from the Republican 
and News of that city — January 26, 1882. It contains my last address 
as department commander. I have no other records of those years, not 
even an account of the big reunion of 1880, for which the Encampment 
of 1879, at Berlin, was responsible. I would be only too glad if I could ' 
point you to where the department records from 1867 to 1882 could be i 
found. It looks as though the hard work of those three years — 1879, 
'80, '81 — hard work, worry and final triumph, because of the fact that ] 
new interest had been awakened and confidence in the Grand Army , 
restored — is to be forever lost. I know that I wrote many strong letters 
to men that I felt ought to be active in the work. I know that at the 
time of the Encampment of 1882 I arose from a sick bed to attend to it, 
and that I wrote my address for that occasion under the greatest stress 
that I ever before or since have written anything. It is certain that 
complete records were kept during the three years of my administration. 

The address of Comrade Thomas at the close of his three 1 
years of service as department commander was complete 
in detail of the condition of the Grand Army in Wisconsin « 



The Grand Army of the Republic 



293 



at that time. He reports the order as having taken on a 
new lease of life after some years of depression, and he is 
greatly encouraged. He reiterates the objects for which 
the Grand Army was organized. He continues: 

Our objects are spread wide before the world, and challenge the 
admiration and veneration of all. It is in no respect a political organiza- 
tion. In our ranks today are all the illustrious soldiers of the war repre- 
senting every shade of poHtical and religious opinion. In its highest 
civic relation it ennobles to a loftier citizenship, to a warmer patriotism, 
and to a high faith in American institutions. There is nothing in it 
which conflicts with the most exacting personal duty or the strictest 
religion. In one respect only is it a seclusive organization, thus elo- 
quently stated by our commander-in-chief in a recent address: "No 
child can be born into it; no certificate of nationality secures entrance; 
the millions of a Vanderbilt cannot purchase admission; no institution of 
learning can grant a diploma securing recognition. The only patent of 
nobility to which our doors will swing open is the bit of paper — worn and 
tattered it may be — certifying to honorable discharge from the army or 
navy of the United States during the war against rebellion." 

Toward the close of his address Comrade Thomas said : 

We have met with opposition, and to a certain extent we shall still 
meet it; but, Comrades, the edict has gone forth, and the Grand Army of 
the Republic is bound to become a power for good in this beloved state 
of ours. It rests with us to show to those about us that we are actuated 
by a spirit of tme fraternity \ that there is that in our hearts which impels 
us to stand by a comrade though the whole world assail him. It rests 
with us to prove that ours is that charity which never turns its back upon 
a suffering soldier, or the widow or orphan of those who fell in our holy 
cause. It rests with us to show the people of Wisconsin that, having 
proven our loyalty to our country and our flag, we propose to continue 
loyal to every sacred trust committed to our keeping. 

To Comrade Thomas and a few others like him belongs 
the credit of keeping the Grand Army of the Republic alive 
during the years 1870-80. Faithful, loyal, and devoted 
they were, and in due time they saw a wonderful growth 
in the patriotic order for which they had given so much 
time and service. Almost all the present posts in Wisconsin 
were organized between 1880 and 1890, and I presume this 
is the case in all other departments. Only eight posts of 
the 280 recorded in our Wisconsin Grand Army roster were 
organized before 1880, and only thirty-one since 1890. The 



294 



Hosea W. Rood 



Grand Army as a whole reached its highest membership 
in 1890, when it was 409,489, in something more than 6000 
posts. On the thirty-first of December, 1920, there were ] 
4445 posts, with 93,171 members. December 31, 1921,1 
there were in Wisconsin 158 posts, with 2433 members, 
During that year 291 deaths were reported. There were i 
then only three posts which had more than fifty members 
each — Number One, Milwaukee, 146; Number Eleven, 
Madison, 98; Number Nine, Baraboo, 68. Three of the 
posts reported only one member each, and five only two. \ 
Reports were received from every post but one. Wisconsin ! 
reached its highest membership in 1889, when there were 264 I 
posts, with 13,987 members. The state with the highest 
record in 1920 was New York, with 459 posts and 8795 
members. The lowest was Alabama, with three posts 
and fifty members. It goes without saying that there is 
now and must continue to be rapid decrease in membership. 
Since, as previously stated, the average age of the comrades : 
is now seventy-nine years, the Grand Army of the Republic 
will soon exist only in memory. 

(To be concluded) 



i EMPIRE: A WISCONSIN TOWN 

W. A. Titus 

Of all the towns of Fond du Lac County, Empire is the 
most completely rural. It is, and has been since its separate 
organization in 1851, a hundred per cent farming com- 
munity. It has never contained a village nor even a ham- 
let. It follows, therefore, that the men of whom we write 
were products of the pioneer farms of half a century and 
more ago. The families that settled in Empire prior to 
the Civil War were hardy, industrious, and above the 
average in culture and intelligence. This abbreviated 
township (it contains only thirty sections) has claimed as 
resident farmers two of the three territorial governors of 
Wisconsin, one United States senator, four Congressmen, 
three state senators — including the writer — a number of 
members of the Wisconsin assembly, four sheriffs and four 
district attorneys of Fond du Lac County. To this list 
of men who have become more or less conspicuous in the 
political field should be added a number of equally promi- 
nent farmers, lawyers, physicians, and business men. 

The topography of the town was such as gave to men 
and boys a broad vision, an outlook over the extensive 
prairies to the westward that seemed world-wide to the 
restricted view of the early dwellers in the wilderness. 
From the farms upon the bold escarpment commonly known 
as "the ledge," Lake Winnebago and the Fond du Lac 
region lay almost at one's feet, and to the farmer boys the 
county seat, small though it was, seemed the gateway to a 
larger life; the infrequent visits to the city were long remem- 
bered events. With their inheritance of health and ambi- 
tion, it is not remarkable that so many of the early settlers 
achieved a marked success. It is not possible within the 
limits of this sketch to deal with the careers of all, or even 



296 



W. A. Titus 



of a majority of the citizens, past and present, of when 
Empire is justly proud; but special mention is made of th< 
most prominent, or of those best known to the writer. j 

Nathaniel P. Tallmadge was probably the most wideljj 
known in public life of all the Empire farmers. Befor(l 
coming to Wisconsin he had served for fourteen years sal 
United States senator from New York. It is said thali 
when William Henry Harrison was nominated for presi- 
dent, the nomination for vice-president was offered tc 
Senator Tallmadge, then at the height of his political; 
power. He declined the doubtful honor, as so many publicj; 
men have done since, and John Tyler received the nomina- 
tion. By this narrow margin he failed to become one of' 
the presidents of the United States. He became interested ; 
in lands in Wisconsin Territory, resigned from the United 
States Senate, and was appointed by the president terri- 
torial governor. He located in the town of Empire, which 
was his place of residence thereafter. He died in 1864 in ; 
his beautiful farm home "under the ledge," and sleeps on 
the topmost knoll of the original Rienzi Cemetery, which 
he had previously donated from his extensive farm. The 
old Tallmadge farm, now owned and occupied by Fred M. 
Ingalls, is located in section nineteen; it consists of land 
both above and below the ledge. 

James Duane Doty was one of the outstanding figures in 
Wisconsin Territory. As judge, territorial governor, and 
Congressman in Wisconsin, and later governor of Utah 
Territory, he occupied the center of the stage in Wisconsin 
politics for many years. He early noted the desirability 
of Empire lands, and became in the early forties a resident 
of the town. The farm on which he lived is probably the 
most historic in Empire. Since its purchase from the 
government, it has been owned and occupied by Colonel 
Henry Conklin, Governor J. D. Doty, Lyman H. Phillips, 
State Senator Edward Colman, and Congressman Owen A, 



Empire: A Wisconsin Town 



297 



Wells. The sheep industry, in which Empire long led, 
and the dairy industry, which has grown steadily to the 
present time, were both inaugurated on a large scale on this 
farm. The property is now owned by the Sisters of St. 
Agnes, and on it is located the creditable educational in- 
stitution known as St. Mary's Springs Academy. 

John B. Macy, an Empire farmer who became a member 
of Congress, was a native of New York, where he was born 
in 1799. He settled in Empire in 1850, and was in 1852 
elected to Congress. His farm in section thirty was a model 
country estate, on which he lavished money for buildings, 
stone arch bridges, and landscape gardens. It was the 
best equipped farm in the town, and the buildings he erected 
still stand after a lapse of seventy years. The farm later 
became the property of Honorable David Giddings, who 
resided on it for many years. It is now owned and occupied 
by Elwood A. Quick. Mr. Macy was very active in 
interesting New York capital in Wisconsin railroad enter- 
prises; it is said that the present Chicago and Northwestern 
Railway system was begun largely as a result of his efforts. 
He was drowned in 1856, when he jumped from the burn- 
ing steamer Niagara about a mile off Port Washington. 

Owen A. Wells, member of Congress from 1893 to 1895, 
[was born in New York and came to Empire when a child. 
His father, James Wells, was one of the pioneers of Fond du 
Lac County, having settled in 1850 on the farm in section 
thirty -four which is still occupied by a son, Bernard Wells. 
James Wells was a remarkable man, both intellectually 
ind physically. At a time when educational opportunities 
ivere meagre, he personally supervised the education of a 
arge family, nearly all of whom became teachers or entered 
,:he professions. Owen A. Wells, now retired from law 
Dractice, is a highly respected resident of Fond du Lac. 

M. K. Reilly, the fourth resident of Empire to become a 
nember of Congress, is a native of the town where his father 



298 W, A, Titus I 

settled at an early date. Mr. Reilly was graduated fron 
the Oshkosh Normal School in 1889, University of Wiscon 
sin in 1894, and University Law School in 1895. He wat 
district attorney of Fond du Lac County for one term, ana . 
was elected to Congress in 1912 and reelected in 1914. He hi 
now engaged in the practice of law at Fond du Lac. \\ 

Among the members of the Wisconsin assembly whc^ 
were one time residents of Empire may be mentioned { 
Charles Doty, son of Governor Doty, who was elected inj 
1848 and served in the first session of the legislature after 1 
Wisconsin became a state. Isaac S. Tallmadge, a son oli 
Governor Tallmadge, served in the Wisconsin assembly ! 
during 1853-54; he resided at the time on Cold Spring Farm, 
later owned by Frederick Phelps. He was succeeded by 
M. J. Thomas, a son-in-law of John B. Macy, who served 
in the assembly from 1854 to 1857, when he was appointed 
United States marshal. Thomas resided in Empire up to 
the time of his death, which occurred in 1859 in the railroad 
wreck at Johnsons Creek, on the occasion of the formal 
opening of the railroad line between Fond du Lac and 
Janesville. James LaflFerty, a prominent Empire farmer, 
was a member of the assembly in 1874, and John Meikle- 
john in 1882. Empire farmers who have recently been 
sent to the legislature are Herman Schroeder and Math | 
Koenigs, the last named being the present representative 
from the first assembly district of Fond du Lac County. 

Colonel Edward Colman, Neil C. Bell, Peter Brucker, ' 
and C. W. Keys, all Empire farmers, have served the county i 
in the capacity of sherifip. Isaac S. Tallmadge, John Mc- 
Crory, H. E. Swett, and M. K. Reilly, all Empire residents, 
have held the office of district attorney. David Giddings, ; 
who resided in Empire for many years, was for two terms, 
before taking up his residence in the town, a member of the 
territorial legislature, as well as delegate in 1846 to the first 
constitutional convention. 



i 



Empire: A Wisconsin Town 



299 



Colonel Edward Colman, an officer of the Civil War, 
was at one time the owner of the old Governor Doty farm 
in section seven, town of Empire. He was in 1866-67 
superintendent of public property at Madison, was elected 
sheriff of Fond du Lac County in 1878, and state senator in 
1882. 

Colonel E. L. Phillips, a native of New York, in 1852 
settled in section seven in Empire. While yet a resident of 
New York, he was elected sheriff of Onondaga County, 
a member of the New York legislature, and held a commis- 
sion as colonel in the New York militia. He was elected to 
the Wisconsin state senate in 1860; in 1863-64 he was 
provost marshal of the Fond du Lac district. The quaint 
and elaborate farmhouse that he built is still standing. 

Colonel Henry Conklin, also a native of New York, 
came to Empire in 1841 and settled on section seven near the 
"big spring" just under the ledge. Before coming to Wis- 
consin, he had been engaged in the Hudson River shipping 
trade in the same field with Cornelius Vanderbilt, who was 
his contemporary, neighbor, and friend. During this 
period he represented his district in the New York legisla- 
ture for several terms. Financial reverses came to him in 
1839-40, and he lost a considerable part of his ample 
fortune. In 1841 he gathered together the remaining por- 
tion of his property and came to Wisconsin, which was 
thereafter his home. His enterprises here were all on a 
large scale. He developed several water powers and built 
mills in different parts of Empire and other towns of the 
county. The most important of these, now known as 
"Leonard's Mill," is still in operation. It is the only re- 
maining mill dam and pond in the town. Colonel Conklin 
was the first to attempt dairying on a large scale, but the 
lack of transportation and markets prevented a profitable 
return from the industry at that early day. He died in 1 868 
in the city of Fond du Lac, at the age of seventy-four years. 



300 



W. A, Titus 



Gustave de Neveu was born in Savigny, France, in 1811, 
and was educated in the College of Vendome. His father, ] 
Francois Joseph de Neveu, when only nineteen years of 
age, was an ensign in the French fleet under d'Estaing that i 
started from France to aid the Americans in their struggle i 
for independence. The young ensign was wounded in an ( 
encounter with a British fleet, in which the French were j, 
worsted and obliged to return to the port from which they I 
had started. Before his wounds were healed the fleet had <| 
again sailed, leaving him in France. His interest in America I 
did not cease, however, and it was probably because of home I 
influence that Gustave de Neveu, while yet a young man, ij 
resolved to visit America. He spent some time in New | 
York as a teacher of the French language, but the interior | 
lured him and in 1837 he joined an expedition to Green t 
Bay. Thence he adventured as far as the Fond du Lac 
region, where he purchased a large tract of land in section i 
thirty-one, town of Empire, his holdings including the 
beautiful lake that still bears his name. He was the first ' 
settler in Empire and built in 1838 the first house in that 
town. At that time there were only four other houses in all 
Fond du Lac County. 

On the occasion of Mr. de Neveu's first trip from Green 
Bay to Fond du Lac, he traveled with Captain Frederick «, 
Marry att, the well known English novelist, and a warm 
friendship sprang up between them. Mr. de Neveu was 
a young man of education, culture, and refinement, and it is 
easy to understand how a person of his type would appeal to 
Captain Marryatt, especially in a western wilderness where 
dusky savages or white adventurers were the usual com- 
panions. Marryatt urged young de Neveu to accompany 
him on his journey west of the Mississippi River, but the 
latter decided that Empire ended the long trail so far as he j 
was concerned.^ Since 1838, the de Neveu home has been | 

* For Marryatt's account of his meeting with de Neveu, see Wis. Hist. Colls., xiv, 
142. — ^Editor. 



i 



Empire: A Wisconsin Town 



301 



noted for its hospitality and social activities. A daughter, 
Emily de Neveu, still resides on the old farm, which has 
become a popular summer resort. Throughout his Wiscon- 
sin career Gustave de Neveu was a farmer, with occasional 
excursions into the fields of literature and politics. In 1881, 
although then seventy years of age, he planned a long trip 
through the then unsettled regions of the Pacific North- 
west. Death overtook him near the close of the year, and 
his remains lie buried on the banks of the Columbia River 
within the state of Washington.^ 

Other early settlers in Empire were David Lyons, George 
Keys, John Keys, James Wells, M. Reilly, J. McCrory, 
B. F. Swett, T. Brownsell, B. Kaye, John Meiklejohn, 
George Meiklejohn, A. T. Germond, John Berry, J. Immel, 
D. H. Vinton, Hamilton Meekin, John Treleven, J. Isaac, 
L. H. Jennings, B. White, T. J. Burhyte, J. Menne, C. S. 
Pray, George Wright, George Shoemaker, the Freund 
brothers, George Titus, Daniel Graham, and William Ed- 
wards. A number of Scottish families early came to Em- 
pire, among whom may be mentioned Duncan McGregor, 
Alexander McGregor, Peter Ferguson, William Moffatt, 
and J. Campbell. Before the Civil War period, the people 
i of Empire were from **York State," or else from England, 
Ireland, or Scotland. The Germans in most instances 
came in at a later date. One of the early German settlers 
was J. Immel. A son, John W. Immel, resides in Fond du 
Lac; as president of the Immel Construction Company, 
the Vulcan Iron Works, and the Clark Motor Company, he 
is well known throughout Wisconsin. 

Although the population of Empire has never been 
large, it has been a place of sepulture for hosts who have 
crossed the "great divide." No other town in tlie county 
approaches it in the number of interments. Rienzi Ceme- 

^See article by de Neveu in Wis. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, 1910, 153-164, accompanied 
by his portrait. — Editor. 



302 



W. A. Titus 



tery, four miles from Fond du Lac, is unequaled in Fond du 
Lac County for size and beauty; it is located in sections 
eighteen and nineteen. Empire Cemetery, in section 
thirty-three, has long been a burial place for the residents of j 
portions of Empire, Eden, Osceola, and Forest.^ I 

Of social or quasi social events, the most common werc^ 
the farm "bees," country dances, singing schools, and church |, 
donation parties. The "bees" were the culmination of a 1 
sincere desire on the part of the pioneer farmers to help i 
one another, and especially to give assistance to a neighbor I 
who had been ill or otherwise unfortunate. Where no such I 
incentive existed, it was common enough to find a neighbor- I 
hood group alternating the "bees" for the sake of sociability 
or the advantages of joint effort. Ordinarily there was a / 
little liquor provided; it was not used to excess as a rule, 
but the workers were kept in a happy mood. Many of the | 
stone-wall fences that still exist were the result of this com- ; 
munity teamwork. 

The country dances were simple, unconventional, and 
without any set time for closing, except that the young 
people must get home in time to feed the stock in the morn- 
ing, and do the other morning chores. The people came 
from miles around to these dancing parties, using heavy 
draft horses and even oxen as a means of rapid transit. . 

The church donation party, an annual event, was one of f 
the methods employed for maintaining the rural pastor. 
The net result was a miscellaneous collection of food and i 
clothing, desirable or otherwise, some cash, and a jolly eve- 
ning for all, from the grandparents to the children. The 
few roomy homes in the neighborhood were always in de- 
mand for these social affairs. 

The pioneers who carved the fertile farms out of the 
wilderness have passed on, and hardly a thought is given 
to the efforts of these noble men and women who made > 
possible the comforts and the luxuries of today. 

' For a description of Empire Cemetery, see article by the writer, "Two Graves in a [ 
Rural Wisconsin Cemetery," in Wis. Mag. of Hist, iv, 426-430 (June, 1921). < 



I 



MICAJAH TERRELL WILLIAMS— A SKETCH 
Samuel M. Williams 

In the title records of the earHest platted lands in the city of 
Milwaukee on the west side of the river are often found the names 
of Micajah T. Williams and Hannah J. Williams, his wife; as 
they did not live in Milwaukee, the question is often asked by 
those interested in the early history of Milwaukee: Who was 
Micajah T. WiUiamspi 

To best know others, a knowledge of their forebears — some 
account of the past out of which their lives have come — is inter- 
esting, and as necessary as the background of the best pictures. 
A greater part of Mr. Williams' life is identified with Ohio than 
with Wisconsin; nevertheless his share in Wisconsin history is 
not inconsiderable. 

Mr. Williams was bom in Guilford County, North Carolina, 
June 3, 1792, near the place where, on the farm of his grandfather 
Richard Williams, was fought the battle of Guilford Court 
House. He was the eldest son of Jesse Williams and Sarah 
Terrell, and grandson of Micajah Terrell and Sarah Lynch — the 
Lynches having come to Virginia from Gal way, Ireland, and the 
Terrells and Williamses from Wales, during or about the latter 
I part of the seventeenth century. Most of Mr. Williams' ancestors 
were members of the religious Society of Friends or Quakers, and 
• the older generations of them were slaveholders, by inheritance. 
Sarah Lynch Terrell, grandmother of Mr. Williams, was a devout 
woman, an elder in the Society of Friends. Her convictions 
, against the evils of slavery, expressed during her last illness, were 
! read in the Friends meeting in the section where she lived, and 
produced a decided effect. She exacted from her husband a 
promise that he would free their negroes, and she expressed the 
hope that her children would not marry slaveholders. The 
: Quaker discipline at that time prohibited only the buying and 
I selling of slaves. Soon after her death, her husband freed their 

*The Milwaukee Evening Wisconsin, October 15, 1895, gives a short account of 
1 Micajah T. Williams among a group of sketches of the founders of Milwaukee. 



304 



Samuel M, Williams 



negroes and removed with his family from Virginia to Guilford 
County, North Carolina, where their daughter Sarah Terrell I, 
married Jesse, son of Richard Williams, and they became the I 
parents of Micajah T. Williams. l 

General Greene and General Cornwallis both refer to the fact 
that they left their sick and wounded in the care of the Quakers 
of the neighborhood of the battle ground of Guilford Court 
House. Among the officers of General Greene in the battle of 
Guilford Court House was Colonel Charles Lynch, a great-uncle j 
of Mr. Williams, who raised a regiment of riflemen and joined i 
General Greene, rendering yeoman service as a first-class fighting J 
man, having previously, however, lost his standing in the Society 
of Friends by reason of his mihtary connections. In his home ; 
district about Lynchburg, Virginia, during the Revolutionary 
War period, in the absence of the necessary local government. 
Colonel Lynch with several other leading men of the district 
organized a court of criminal jurisdiction, without the consent of 
the voters, for the trial and punishment of Tories, thieves, out- 
laws, and persons communicating with the enemy. The fighting ' 
colonel was made judge of the court. The prisoner was given [ 
a fair trial, and if he could prove his innocence, was released, but 
if found guilty, was punished, though no case exists where the 
punishment was death. Modern "lynch law" does not possess 
the quality of mercy that characterized the judgments of Colonel 
Lynch, yet the modern law has seized upon and bears his name. 

During the Revolution many Tories lived in the Blue Ridge section 
of southwestern Virginia. In 1780 they formed a conspiracy, organized 
companies, and did actually attempt to levy war against the Common- 
wealth; but Col. Wm. Preston, the County Lieutenant of the then 
County of Montgomery, on the west side of the Blue Ridge, and Col. 
James Calloway, the County Lieutenant of the County of Bedford, on 
the east side, aided by Col. Charles Lynch and Capt. Robert Adams, 
Jr., (army officers) and other faithful citizens, did by timely and effectual 
measures suppress said conspiracy. Whenever a conspirator or Tory 
was captured he was tried before a sort of drum head court martial, 
and Col. Lynch, acting as judge, condemned them to receive various 
pimishments, generally so many lashes. After the war many suits were 
instituted by citizens of this region for this infliction (without due proc- 
ess of law) of Lynch's Law, as it was called: and the general assembly of 
the State, in October, 1782, found it necessary to pass an act, that 
relieved them of prosecution on the ground, that "the acts of the Judge 



Micajah Terrell Williams 



305 



Lynch's Court might not be strictly warranted by law, although justified 
by the imminence of the danger.'"'^ 

Mr. Williams received his education in the schools of Lynch- 
burg, Virginia, where with his brothers and sisters he was sent 
from their home in North Carolina. Lynchburg was founded by 
John Lynch, a great-uncle of Mr. Williams and a brother of the 
fighting colonel. 

In 1811 Micajah T. Williams, at the age of nineteen, with a 
view to the selection of a home in what was called the Western 
Country, made a journey on horseback from North Carolina 
through Virginia, Ohio, and the territory of Indiana. The next 
year he went to Cincinnati to reside, and two years later his 
father's family followed, making the journey with a four-horse 
wagon, a two-horse carriage, and a saddle horse for his mother, 
who rode the entire distance. Their route was doubtless along 
the old Wilderness Road through the Cumberland Gap. 

The question may be asked : Was negro slavery an influential 
cause that brought Micajah T. Williams and his father's family 
from North Carolina to Ohio.f^ In all probability it was. One of 
the historians of the southern Quakers writes:^ 

The prophetic voice of their preachers was heard, telling them of the 
judgments of the Almighty that were coming upon the Southland 
because of her bondsmen, and warning them to flee lest they be par- 
takers of the chastisement. One minister in particular visited every 
meeting house in Georgia, South Carolina and lower North Carolina, 
preaching a day of vengeance and warning the Friends to escape. The 
result was that the entire body of Friends in the region, and many from 
the other parts of North Carolina and from Virginia and Maryland, 
emigrated to Ohio, Indiana and other Western States — 

to the land covered by the precious Ordiuance of 1787. 

Mr. Williams began his career at Cincinnati as clerk of the 
board of supervisors. Very soon after, he appears in the editorial 
corps of the Western Spy} At that time the proprietor of the 
newspaper. Captain Joseph Carpenter, was absent in the North- 

2 The Green Bag (Boston), March, 1893, from an article on "Lynch Law," by Alex- 
ander Brown. See also material on Colonel Lynch and the Loyalists of Virginia, in Wu. 
Hist. Colls., xxiv, passim. 

'Fernando G. Cartland, Southern Heroes: or Friends in War Time (Cambridge, 
it Mass., 1895). 

* For the history of this newspaper, see R. G. Thwaites, "Ohio Valley Press," in 
; American Antiquarian Society, Proceedings, xix, 338-339.— Editor. 



306 



Samuel M. Williams 



western Army, in command of his company of infantry under 
General William Henry Harrison. During the winter of 1813, 
Captain Carpenter died on his way home from the army, and was j 
buried in the woods by his servant. Mr. Williams and others \ 
volunteered to go and bring his body to Cincinnati; this they 
accomplished, carrying the remains on a sled hundreds of miles ^ 
through the woods in the month of February. Through his i 
association with the Western Spy, Mr. Williams wielded a power- , 
ful influence for the progress of public improvements in the state 
of Ohio, while the state in its infancy was struggling with the 
great question of transportation. 

On March 2, 1818, at Zanesville, Ohio, according to the jl 
marriage ceremony of the religious Society of Friends, Williams 
was married to Hannah, daughter of Aquilla and Elizabeth Jones, 
of Baltimore, Maryland. She had come from Baltimore on a 
visit to her grandfather, Moses Dillon, making the journey on 
horseback. She was a woman of unusual decision of character, \ 
of dignified, quiet manners, in harmony with her breeding as a s 
Quakeress. Though the marriage is said to have taken place at 
Zanesville, Ohio, the fact is, there was no Friends meeting there, 
so they rode horseback forty miles to Plainfield, where they were 
married.^ 

In 1820 Mr. Williams was elected to the General Assembly 
from Hamilton County, Ohio; he was reelected for the session of 
1822-23, and made speaker of the House for the session of 1824- 
25. It was during these sessions of the legislature that Mr. 
Williams brought to bear his great influence upon the promotion , 
of public improvements in the state, which at that time consisted 
in the building of canals connecting Lake Erie with the Ohio 
River. Honorable Alfred Kelley writes of him: 

His sagacious mind was early impressed with the important fact that 
Ohio needed nothing so much as cheap and expeditious means of con- 
veying to the best market the surplus products of her luxuriant soil. 
. . . Alive to the interests of his adopted State, anxious above all 

^ Their children were: Major Charles H. Williams, Baraboo; Granville S. Williams, 
Cincinnati; Elizabeth W. Perry, Cincinnati; Alfred K. Williams, Washington, Kansas; 
Sarah W. Thomas, Oakland, California; George F. Williams, Milwaukee; and John 
Edward Williams, Madison. AH of them are now deceased, except Mrs. Sarah W. Thomas, 
who in her ninety-fifth year now lives with her daughter, Mrs. Robert Ritchie, in Oakland, i 
California. 



Micajah Terrell Williams 307 

things for her prosperity, he stood ready to lend the whole energy of his 
intellect and the large share of influence he possessed to the accomplish- 
ment of his great task. 

En route to the city of New York in the fall of 1823, Mr. 
Williams made a personal inspection of every part of the line of 
the Erie Canal in that state, which was then nearly completed. 
It has been said that "he walked the entire length of it" — which 
can hardly be taken in a literal sense. He examined the locks, 
aqueducts, bridges, embankments, and informed himself of the 
practical construction and cost of each part. His pocket note- 
book, in which he made entries of his observations at each step 
upon that journey — with diagrams on the mode of carrying the 
canal through swamps, over rivers, around the sides of hills; with 
estimates of the capacity of different kinds of earth and clay for 
holding water, of the requisite quantity of water to be supplied 
by feeders, of the amount of evaporation to be provided for, 
dependent on the season of the year, weather, etc. — is interesting 
evidence of his capacity for the mastery of detail, and of the 
careful preparation he made for the wise and successful fulfill- 
ment of the enterprise of constructing the Ohio canals. 

Mr. Williams and Alfred Kelly were designated acting com- 
missioners in the construction of the canals. Samuel Forrer, 
who was one of two engineers under whom the canal routes were 
located, and who was connected with the work from its beginning 
to its completion, says in a letter on the subject: 

Under the law just passed, the Ohio Canal, connecting Lake Erie 
at Cleveland with the Ohio River at Portsmouth, and the Miami Canal 
extending from Cincinnati to Dayton, were constructed by and entirely 
under the supervision of Mr. Williams and Mr. Kelly. These gentle- 
men disbursed the millions of dollars expended, constructing near four 
hundred miles of canal; and as a closing commentary on the character of 
3ach, it can be said without fear of contradiction that not a dollar was 
iver lost to the State by the act of either, no bond or security was ever 
'cquired of either; and, as the sequel shows, none was ever needed — 
md yet these faithful agents at no time received salaries exceeding one 
:housand dollars a year.^ 

^In the abstract of expenditures made by the canal commissioners for March 1 — 
Vlay 31, 1827, on the Miami and Ohio canals, are the following items: Samuel Forrer, 
esident engineer, three months, $350; Jesse L. Williams, assistant engineer, three n\onths, 
)135; Byron Kilbourn, assistant engineer, three months, $135; C. E. Lynch, Jr., assistant 
ngineer, three months, $90; Garret Vliet, rodman, three months, $30; L. Hayliss, axman, 
hree months, $27. 



308 Samuel M. Williams I 

In 1830 Mr. Williams was nominated by the Democratic 
party of Ohio for the United States Senate. The Whig candi- 
date, Thomas K. Ewing, was elected by one vote. It is relatedi 
that a member of the Ohio legislature, Joseph Ridgway, an old 
personal friend of Mr. Williams, but a Whig, said to him, "Mr.| 
Williams, I should be glad to see you representing the state oi 
Ohio in the United States Senate, but if I vote for you I must 
vote against my party; I leave it to you to say what I shall do." , 

Without hesitation Mr. Williams replied, "It is your duty to 
vote with your party, sir." 

Although Mr. Williams had been a Democrat, yet in 1840,» 
when General Harrison was the Whig candidate for president, 1 
he united with that party, giving as his reason, "that the tariff 
the Democratic party opposed, was a necessity for the people, \ 
that the Democratic party was much more of a Southern than a ; 
national party." At that election he went to the polls with his 
two sons, Charles and Granville, and after they had voted, he 
turned to his friends and neighbors there assembled and said, 
"Gentlemen, this is the proudest day of my life, when with my 
two sons we cast three votes for General Harrison." 

When the United States Bank was crushed out of existence, 
during the administration of President Andrew Jackson, a branch 
of the. bank at Cincinnati closed its doors. Mr. Williams saw 
clearly that another bank must be established to take its place. ^ 
Calling together the prominent men of both parties, he carried 
through the legislature the act of incorporation by which the 
Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company was organized. He , 
then became its president, and retained that office until shortly 
before his death. The affairs of the institution continued in a 
prosperous condition at least ten years after Mr. WiUiams' 
death, and it enjoyed full confidence of the public until the great 
financial panic of 1857. 

Through appointment by President Andrew Jackson, Mr. 
Williams became, April 15, 1831, surveyor general of the North- f 
west Territory, succeeding General Lytic, and held that position 
until March, 1835. Prior to this period Wisconsin was a part of 
the territory of Michigan, and was in possession of the Indians, 
though the advance guard of white settlers had begun pushing in : 



I 



Micajah Terrell Williams 



309 



at the southwest corner of the state, attracted by the lead regions, 
and at Green Bay, attracted by the waterway and fur trade. 
No land in Wisconsin was thrown open for settlement and pur- 
chase from the United States until after the Black Hawk War and 
the subsequent treaties with the Indians. 

Mr. Williams was always interested in the growth and de- 
velopment of the new country. From an early date he had been 
familiar with its promising advantages. His position as surveyor 
general of the Northwest Territory gave him the opportimity to 
help in securing the results of their sacrifices to those who in good 
faith and with great hardship had settled or squatted upon the 
lands of Michigan Territory west of Lake Michigan, before they 
were surveyed and purchasable through the United States land 
office opened at Green Bay. 

Morgan L. Martin, in a letter to James S. Buck, saysf 

I first visited Milwaukee and spent there the 4th of July, 1833. 
There were no claims or improvements of any description, save the 
trading establishment of Solomon Juneau, and a small cabin occupied 
by his brother Peter. The land was still owned by the Government; had 
aot been surveyed, nor was there any law of Congress under which 
claims for pre-emption could be made. ... On the 10th of June, 1834, 
m act [of Congress] was passed extending the pre-emption law of 1830, 
under which a pre-emption was secured to the lands occupied by Solomon 
Juneau. . . . 

Samuel Forrer, in a letter, speaks of Mr. Williams as sur- 
veyor general: 

Mr. Williams was at that time regarded as the most reliable and 
nfluential politician of his party in Ohio; and yet the most ardent 
)olitical opponent could enter his office at all times in the perfect con- 
idence of finding in the chief the courteous, gentlemanly and intelligent 
nan of business. No mere partisan consideration operated upon him in 
he organization or conduct of his business operations. His chief clerk 
.nd a majority of his assistant clerks were opposed to him in politics, 
lis deputies in the field were selected purely because of their fitness for 
he place. 

He was remarkable for the facility with which he made himself 
cquainted with the duties of any trust he assumed, however minute or 
omprehensive. In this new office [surveyor general of the Northwest) 
le necessarily had many intelligent visitors from among the pioneers of 
is district, none of whom ever left his office without obtaining all the 
iformation they sought, if it was possible to obtain it. And certainly 

' James S. Buck, Pioneer History of Milwaukee (Milwaukee, 1890), i, 40-41. 



310 



Samuel M. Williams 



none ever left without contributing to the stock of knowledge of the 
Surveyor General in regard to the climate, soil and every marked char- 
acteristic of the district of country known to the visitor. j 

Mr. Williams had early been deeply impressed with the! 
idea that somewhere along the western shore of Lake Michigan,! 
between Chicago and Green Bay, there would be a great city, j 
He had so favorably known Byron Kilbourn as an engineer of | 
ability, courage, and integrity in the work of constructing the |, 
Ohio and Miami canals, that after Mr. Williams had terminated 
his official term of surveyor general of the Northwest Territory, 
in March, 1835, he bought of Mr. Kilbourn, December 14, 1835, 
a half interest in the lands preempted and patented by Mr. ; 
Kilbourn on the west side of Milwaukee River. He also bought 
other property in the same locality, and was guided by Mr. 
Kilbourn in the subsequent struggles in building up the early 
settlement of "Milwaukee on the west side" of the river, in its 
competition and rivalry with "Milwaukee on the east side" of the I 
river. 

The following letter, dated Milwaukee, February 27, 1837, ; 
from Byron Kilbourn to M. T. Williams, is interesting and ' 
historical: 

Dear Sir 

Mr. Cly bourn was here some 10 or 12 days since and I obtained a 
full settlement with him — having sold out his remaining interest here. 
I was enabled to square off accounts with him, nearly; he still remaining 
in my debt only about $200 — ^ 

I have now made out a statement of receipts and expenditures up 
to Dec 31, 1836, which shows a balance due you of $9,875.70. I have \ 
nearly this sum in hand and propose to use it for the present in payment 
for work now progressing, but to be refunded out of future receipts. 
The business being now in my own hands entirely, I shall be able at any 
time to make out a statement and dividend without delay — and shall 
do so 1st July next, and sooner if desired. My proportion of receipts has 
been entirely consumed and a little more, in building &c. in addition to 
my part of road & street expenditures. My buildings alone have cost 
rising $13,000, having been done under the most disadvantag[eou]s 
circumstances. In Ohio the same work could have been done for less 
than $5,000. But it was important in the highest degree that the pro- 

8 Clybourn Street, Milwaukee, was named for this Archibald Clybourn, early settler 
of Chicago. In 1836 Clybourn was one of the proprietors of Kilbourn's new town, prob- 
ably on the claim of his half-brother James Clark, a half-breed who had had a post at J 
Milwaukee. As this|letter indicates, Kilbourn and Williams early bought him out.— | 
Editor. 



Micajah Terrell Williams 



311 



prietors should do something in the way of improvement and business, 
by way of giving an impulse, and to counterbalance in some degree the 
efforts on the other side made by the proprietors there — Douceman is a 
man of wealth, and has expended as much, or more than Jimeau, having 
built a warehouse, store and one or two dwelling houses. Martin has 
built two verry respectable houses, and several other original owners of 
minor interest have contributed considerably in actual improvements. 
This action on their part, together with a year the start of us,^ has given 
them an apparent advantage thus far, and it is necessary that we should 
take a similar course to turn the tide in our favour. That we can do so is 
obvious, and that the means will be tried, I hope is also certain. The 
effect produced by taking the lead in improvements may be seen by that 
arround my residence — although so far up the river, there is now a verry 
respectable village arround me, a verry small part of which I have good 
reason to believe would not be here, but for the commencement made by 
me. From Block 50^^ to Spring Street [Grand Avenue], it is now pretty 
well improved; but between my house" and B. 50 it is still vacant, and 
requires filling up to give a connected appearance to the town. Your lots 
are situated about the middle of this space, which if improved with 
one or two good buildings, would mend the appearance of the town, give 
tone to improvements in that quarter and enhance the value of other 
surrounding property, more than the cost of the buildings — and the 
buildings would rent for a fair interest. I will therefore ask whether 
you would be willing for me to have a good building erected on the 
corner of B. 47 and a warehouse or storehouse on the corner of B. 49, 
or either — and if so, to send me a description of the size and value of the 
buildings you would choose to erect. 

Times begin to brighten with us, several good sales have been recently 
made at second hand, and building is commencing with a brisk air. As 
soon as navigation opens, and lumber can be received, our mechanics 
will have full employment; and there will be business for as many more 
is soon as we can get them. Some time back L 1 B 72 was sold for 
B5,500— L 1 B 59 $5,000— L 2 B 59 $4,500 and about a week since 
L 3 B 59 at $5,000— $1,000 in hand, the remainder in 6, 12 & 18 mo. 
5hould the times mend a little we may hope for some good operations 
luring the coming season. 

I have been, and am now, labouring with all dilligence in the 
natter of roads to secure their proper locations, and by next Fall, if 
/ou will make us a visit, I feel sanguine in demonstrating to you that the 
)usiness of Milwaukee is to be done on the W. side. My bridge over the 
Menomonee marsh will give Walkers Point a cooler, as all agree who 
ook at its bearing on the business of the place — and as to a bridge over 
he river, I consider it out of the question; but if they should succede 
;ontrary to all expectation, in erecting it, I will take good care that they 
hall have no use of it — for we can construct a couple of small steamboats 

•The rivalry of "Milwaukee east of the river" and "Milwaukee west of the river" 
ad part of its roots in the priority of the former. — Editor. 
^° Where the Second Ward Bank now stands. 

" Kilbourn's residence was then on the corner of Third and Chestnut. — Editor- 

! 



sn 



Samuel M, Williams 



for harbour use, and pass them through the bridge so frequently that i 
can never be closed. It will cost us less to do this, than it will them t 
build the bridge, and the bridge will be of less use to them than a ferry J ' 
It wants a strong pull &c. and the story is told. i| 

I have purchased and paid on joint a/c fr. 5 in Sec 5, T 7 R 22 fol 
$1,000 which makes our mill tract and privilege there complete. I 

I hope you will make some improvements here, as I believe it woulc 
be money well expended, even if no return should ever be had from iJ 
direct. I 

Verry Respectfu'^ 
M. T. Williams Esq Byron KiLBOURf 

I reed a letter a few days since from Messrs Dwelle and Warren giving j 
notice that my plats^ were completed and ready to be sent off by first i 
opportunity if so directed by you or me. If Mr. Vliet is coming oul j; 
soon it would be well to send them by him — but if he is not certain ol , 
starting soon, I will ask of you the favour to write to A. Buttles Esq ol 
Columbus and ascertain whether he will come out early, and if so request; 
him to fetch them. I presume they could be sent to him by the stage oi 
by some passenger. I hope they will arrive [soon] as I am daily in want, 
of them — and have been greatly disappointed [at] not receiving those 
sent by Vliet, which with him performed the [tour] of the N. W. and 
then I suppose returned to Cin*. 

If you see Mr. Vliet just mention to him that claim ju[mping] is; 
the order of the day, and that in all probability before he arrives here ; 
his claims at Minnomonee falls will be occupied [by] families. Several i 
persons have been talking of this, and I think unless he is here early and| 
secures them by occupation, he will loose them. Jack knife and non- 
resident claims are getting much out of fashion. 

B.K. 

In all Mr. Williams' relations with Milwaukee, his only visit 
to the young city was made in 1842, when it had grown to have a 
population of two thousand; and during that period and up to the 
date of his death in 1844, at the age of fifty-two years, all his 
affairs connected with the city he helped to found were in charge 
of Mr. Kilbourn and Increase A. Lapham. Mr. Williams was a 
man of large and commanding figure, friendly and pleasing per- 
sonality, unquestioned integrity, of wide political influence, 
unlimited energy and industry, of whom John Hustis, of Hustis- 
ford, Wisconsin, said: "He was one of the most delightful men I 

These sentences indicate the feeling that led to the "bridge wax" of JMilwaukee. 
On the original manuscript is written by a later hand, possibly Kilbourn's: "The Bridge ; 
spoken of over the Menomonee that was to be a cooler to Walkers Point was not built until « 
1842 when I waded the marsh and took soundings for the road to cross the bridge when \ 
buUt." j 
» "Plats of Milwaukee City West Side no doubt the same of which I sent you one | 
some time since" — ^pencilled note on the original manuscript. 



Micajah Terrell Williams 



313 



ever met — a man of marvelous intellectual resources and com- 
manding force of character — and I passed as much time in his 
society as I could, during the two weeks in 1842, that he spent in 
Milwaukee."!^ 

" In the preparation of this sketch great use has been made of prior productions by 
Williams' daughter, Mrs. Elizabeth T7. Perry; by his nephew, Robert W. Carroll; and by 
John G. Gregory, of Milwaukee, 



KATE DEWEY COLE— AN APPRECIATION 



Kate Dewey was born at Cassville, Grant County, Wisconsin, 
on February 12, 1854, the daughter of Nelson and Catherine 
(Dunn) Dewey. Her father was the first governor of the state, 
1848-52; while her maternal grandfather, Charles Dunn, was the 
chief justice of the supreme court of the territory, 1836-48. 
Judge Dunn's wife was the daughter of Judge Otho Shrader, who 
came to America about 1795 in order to live in a country with a 
democratic form of government — ^giving up, it is said, the "von" 
and the "Sch*' in his name on doing so. He settled in southern 
Pennsylvania, and married there into a family of German (Penn- 
sylvania Dutch) extraction, named Lenhard. In 1805 he was 
appointed by President Jefferson one of the three judges of the 
just formed Louisiana Territory. The settled parts of this 
territory, stretching from the southern line of Arkansas to the 
northern boundary of the United States, and from the Mississippi 
River on the east to the Rocky Mountains on the northwest, 
were then very few, and the three judges held their courts at 
St. Charles, St. Louis, and (Judge Shrader) at Ste. Genevieve, in 
eastern Missouri. The last-named place was just across the 
Mississippi from Kaskaskia, which was from 1809 until 1820 the 
capital of Illinois Territory. 

Judge Shrader died about 1811, and his widow and two 
daughters then found a home at Kaskaskia, and a friend and 
guardian in Nathaniel Pope, United States judge of Illinois. It is 
a tradition in the family that one or both the girls went on 
horseback each fall and spring to and from Lexington, Kentucky, 
where was the nearest good school. Either at Kaskaskia or at 
Vandalia, the second capital of Illinois, one of the Shrader girls 
married Charles Dunn, clerk of the legislature and member of 
the House of Representatives. His family seat was Shepards- 
ville, Kentucky, near Louisville, where, as eldest son, he was heir 
to a large plantation, with a full complement of slaves. But as he 
did not believe in slavery, he gave up his patrimony and moved to 
Illinois, a "free" state. He saw service in the Black Hawk War 



Kate Dewey Cole 



315 



(1832), and upon his appointment (1836) to the territorial court, 
he removed to Wisconsin. 

Kate Dewey's father, Nelson Dewey, was born in Lebanon, 
Connecticut, within only a few miles of her recent summer home. 
He grew to manhood in middle New York State, to which his 
father had migrated, and thence he himself emigrated in 1836 to 
Wisconsin. Thus German, Virginia, and Kentucky ancestors 
united in the person of Catherine Dunn, and the united stream 
found its way to Wisconsin — there to be joined by a New England 
flow, of which was born Kate Dewey. 

She passed her childhood on her father's estate near Cassville, 
and in Lancaster, Grant County, with long and frequent visits 
to her grandfather's home at Old Belmont, Lafayette County, 
the first territorial capital. When she was prepared for college, 
the family removed for a time to Madison, where Kate was 
graduated in the University class of 1875. Two years of European 
travel and study added a mastery of the modern languages to the 
foundation of Greek and Latin laid in the University. After 
several years of teaching, she met Theodore Cole (Wisconsin 
University 1871), and in 1885 became his wife. Thereafter she 
lived at St. Louis and at Washington imtil her death at the latter 
place July 13, 1922. The following appreciation was written 
by her classmate Fannie West Williams '} 

In the death of Kate Dewey Cole, in Washington, D. C, last 
July, the University lost one of the most brilliant minds and 
unusual personalities that ever received and honored its degree. 

Kate Dunn Dewey, B. A. 1875, wife of Theodore Cole, 1871, 
was by inheritance, training, and affection a true daughter of 
Wisconsin, and ever loyal to its University, where she received 
her formal education .... Three years of teaching in a Milwau- 
kee high school, a later year in Germany and France, and some 
years of teaching in a fine girls' school in Washington sharpened 
and broadened her mind, and extended her stimulating influence 
over a wide and varied circle. 

This brilliant intellect and fascinating personality were what 
attracted strangers; but what held her grateful friends were her 

* Wisconsin Alumni Magazine, November, 1922, 22. 



316 



An Appreciation 



implacable honesty and contempt for pretense; her unswerving 
loyalty and deep affection; her unflinching courage and unfailing 
sense of humor — qualities of the heart rather than of the mind. 
Her activities in recent years centered about her home in Washing- 
ton, where she was one of the leading spirits in the Association of| 
Collegiate Alumnae, and an active promoter of the NationalJ 
Club House. 

She is survived by her husband and by one son, Felix, who is 
in the United States consular service at Berlin, Germany. i 

Truly democratic by nature and by intention, every human i 
being, of whatever race, color, or condition, was her potential! 
friend. To many a person, in many a state and country, some-r 
thing vital and precious has gone out of life with the death of j 
Kate Dewey Cole. 



DOCUMENTS 



A SWISS FAMILY IN THE NEW WORLD: LETTERS 
OF JAKOB AND ULRICH BUHLER, 
1847-1877^ 

Translation and Notes by Lowell J. Ragatz 

Jakob Buhler, one of my paternal great-grandfathers, 
was a native of Felsberg, Canton Graubiinden,^ Switzer- 
land. He was by occupation a carpenter, and was a friend 
of my other paternal great-grandfather, Bartholomew 
Ragatz, an architect and magistrate of Tamins of the same 
canton. The latter sent his eldest son Christian to America 
in 1841 to select a suitable home in the new world, and in 
1842 he moved with his wife and nine other children, via 
Galena to the town of Honey Creek, Sauk County, and took 
up a homestead there.^ 

* The sources for the Swiss settlement at New Glarus, Green County, were published 
by our Society in Wis. Hist. CoUs., vii, 411-445; xii, 335-382; xv, 295-337. For the settle- 
ment of Swiss in Sauk County we have heretofore had little material. We are glad to 
present to our readers these letters so recently garnered in the old world by a descendant of 
the Sauk County Swiss. — ^Editor. 

^ The French name for this canton is the Orisons. 

' The old home of the Ragatz family was Milan, Italy. The name was originally 
{ spelled Ragazzi. In the eighteenth century, following a religious-political disturbance, 
) members of the family fled to Switzerland. There the spelling of the name was changed to 
I Ragaz. Bartholomew, the first of the Swiss line of the house to come to America, adopted 
\ the spelling Ragatz. This is now generally followed by members of the family in America, 
while the spelling Ragaz is employed by those in Switzerland, and Ragazzis are still to 
be found in Milan. For the Ragatz family in America, see G. Fritsche, Die Eiangelische 
Gemeindschaft in Wisconsin Wahrend Achtzig Jahren, 18IfO-1920 (Cleveland, O., n.d.), 
' 30-31, 40, 45, 47, 54-56, 59, 74-75, 94, 101-102, and especially 144-145; John S. Roeseler, 
"The Evangelical Association on Lomira Circuit," in Wis. Mag. of Hist, iv, no. 4 (June, 
1921), 398, 413; and Portrait and Biographical Record of Berrien and Cass Counties, Michi- 
gan (Chicago, 1893), 296-297. 

Bartholomew Ragatz was the organizer of the first Evangelical church in Sauk County, 
and long served as a lay preacher. Meetings were held in the Ragatz home from 1844 to 
1851, when a log church and parsonage were erected on land deeded to the Evangelical 
Association by him. A stone church replaced the log one in 1875. This was destroyed by 
H fire in 1904; in the same year the present structm-e was built. The official name of the 
I congregation has always been the Ragatz Evangelical Church. Two of the Ragatz sons, 
!|i Oswald and John Henry, became Association pastors. Ninety-one of the former's parish- 
i ioners were massacred in the Sioux uprising near St. Peters, Minnesota, in the early 
sixties. 

The diary of Reverend Henry Esch confirms some of the above statements. In July, 
1851, Esch opened the Sauk Mission with Bartholomew Ragatz, Agnes Ragatz, Heinrich, 
; George, Bartholomew, Oswald, Thomas, and Julius as members. — Editor. 



318 



Documents 



His reports of the prospects offered by that portion of 
Wisconsin, sent to his old friends, were so favorable that 
in the spring of 1843, forty-one families followed him to 
Sauk County, while still others came at a later date. They 
gave to the community a distinctly Swiss tone, which three- 
quarters of a century has not entirely effaced. 

Among the later comers was Jakob Buhler. He left 
his home in Felsberg with his wife and eight children, 
and came to the town of Honey Creek in 1847. Bartholo- 
mew Ragatz had provisionally selected land for him near 
his own homestead. This selection was approved, and 
the Buhlers spent their last money, fifteen dollars, in the 
purchase of livestock. Several Ragatz-Biihler intermar- 
riages subsequently took place. 

The originals of the following letters are in my posses- 
sion. They were secured from distant relatives in Felsberg 
in the summer of 1922. They had been found among the 
papers of George Buhler, the recipient of all but one of them> 
after his death more than twenty years ago. They are 
written in German. Some purely personal matters have 
been omitted in the translations. 

Jakob Buhler died in 1882, his wife in 1890. Of their 
children, two are still living — my paternal grandmother, 
Katherine Buhler Ragatz, of Madison, and Ulrich Buhler, 
writer of the last two letters, on the old home farm in Honey 
Creek. Numerous grandchildren and great-grandchildren 
are found throughout the state, but the majority of them 
are living in or near Prairie du Sac, Sauk County. The 
name is now generally spelled Buehler. 

Le Havre, 2 Brachmonat [June] 1847 
Dear Brother George: I am writing to tell you of our 
journey. We went from Zurich to Siflen, and from there to Paris, 
by oxcart. Traveling in this fashion is not easy.'* From Paris 

* My grandmother, who was nine years of age when the trip was made, recalls many 
interesting incidents connected with it. A large company of Swiss people made up the 
caravan party. Such groups were led by Frendimen who furnished oxcarts for the hauling 



A Swiss Family in the New World 



319 



. one goes by water.^ At first the boats are drawn by from two to 
four oxen. After one and one-half days ours was attached to a 
tug, and from there on we traveled more rapidly, clear to Le 
Havre. 

In the harbor there, the ship masts are so thick that one is 
reminded of the naked trunks in a burned-over forest. Cotton 
and rice-flour from America were being unloaded. I can't 
describe them exactly, as we couldn't look at them closely. 

As regards the ship we are taking, all is satisfactory. We 
put our trust in God that all will go well. We from Graubunden 
have been apportioned among three ships. Those taking the first 
boat left the rest of us in Siflen, and took the train from Basel. . . . 
We understand that the innkeepers got considerable money out 
of them; we were told that they had been on a spree after getting 
here. We arrived on May 25, four days after they had sailed. 
Tomorrow we will follow them. 

George Biihler's child died in Sendire, about midway between 
here and home, and was buried, so they tell us, in the children's 
j plot, in the center of the cemetery. 

There is something to write about K also. He got drunk 

1 in Sila. The money for his trip and expenses in America was in 
' George Biihler's hands. He started a rumpus about this money, 
and was quieted only when a couple of our party hit him over 
1 the head. Two days later he was all right again and asked for 
< George Biihler. I told him that Biihler had gone by train, and 

1 had the money. Then he stormed! Buhler left K 's money 

with the innkeeper, Ruffli, in Le Havre, for safekeeping when he 

sailed, and Ruffli has the money now but won't give it to K 

until our boat leaves, lest K get drunk again and lose it. 

More about K ■- . He had a fit on the way here. He fell and 

bumped his head so that the next day his right eye was swollen 
shut. He said, "This is the third time." The others in our party 

of baggage, small children, and the sick. Everyone else walked. In this particular 
caravan there were three families from Felsberg, the von Eschens, the Haases, and the 
Biihlers, and a young Mr. Nold, all bound for the town of Honey Creek. A con.stant 
lookout had to be kept against robbers, especially in the mountains. A few cattle were 
driven along to supply fresh meat. Vegetables and other foodstuffs were bought en route, 
each family buying what it could as best it could. Prices ranged rather high. 

^ Much of the freight between Paris and Le Havre and vice versa is still carried on the 
'' Seine barges. 



3£0 



Documents 



thought him drunk. We who know have said nothing, and they 
don't know the real facts. 

You can imagine what it means to travel with a big family. 
One always needs money, money, money. It costs about one 
Swiss batzen^ a day a person, for a family that has brought only 
personal effects, and no provisions along. This is what I must 
write from France; from America I can, perhaps, write something 
more cheering. We are all satisfied with our Le Havre innkeeper, 
Herr Ruffli, and with our guide, Mach. We recommend Herr 
Ruffli to anyone who is headed for America; he is held in high 
esteem along both train and water routes. 

If anyone who is fond of hunting intends to go to America, 
he should leave his gun at home, for in Le Havre, the best kind of 
double-barreled one can be bought for from 25 to 30 gulden,^ and 
it can be tried out before the bargain is closed. Other things are 
all expensive, however. 

Dear brother and sisters, we are well and send greetings to 
all the relatives and friends. I will write to you and others from 
America. I have not yet forgotten Felsberg. 

Jakob Buhler 

P. S. Early one moonlit morning in Alsace, after we had 
gotten out of the mountains, the baby asked, "Father, are we 
going to ride clear to Heaven?" 

Sauk Prairie, 21 Wintermonat [December] 1847 
Dear Brother and Sisters: At last I will write you a 
letter. I am able to tell you, thanks be to God, that we are all 
well, and we hope that you are the same. The reason we didn't 
write before was that while on the way we sent you two letters, 
one from Le Havre and one from Albany.* Now I will give you 
an accoimt of the trip. 

' The French centime-franc standard was adopted as the official coinage system of 
Switzerland in 1850. Before this, there had been no uniformity, the then standards, as 
the gulden, varying in value from canton to canton. The old names have continued in 
colloquial usage, though not always with the original values. The batzen is the equivalent 
of 14 Swiss centimes, i.e., of about three cents in American money. 

' The gulden is an old Swiss standard of value, used only colloquially today. Its value 
varies in the different cantons from 170 to 5830 centimes. The gulden referred to here is 
the gulden of the Grisons, worth 174 centimes, or 35 cents American money. The guns 
were therefore priced at $8.75 to $10.50. 

• The latter was not found. 



A Swiss Family in the New World 



321 



We went by wagon from Zurich to Paris. We saw many 
large and beautiful cities and many wonderful things along the 
way. From Paris to Le Havre we went by water on a tow-boat, 
which was drawn by oxen for a time, after which we were hooked 
onto a tug, and towed in that way to Le Havre. We had to wait 
there for eight days while our ship, the Magnolia, was being un- 
loaded. We sailed on the ninth day. Vomiting began inside of 
a quarter of an hour. This was caused by seasickness, which 
lasted two to three days for most of us, though from eight to 
fourteen for a few. 

The ship went so swiftly that we were out of sight of land with- 
in half a day, whereas land is generally seen from four to five days 
[when the wind is not favourable]. We were in no storm, but 
we had such strong wind several times that the ship made as much 
as ten to twelve miles in an hour. We saw big fish which we 
thought to be some thirty feet long, and some six feet thick. We 
also saw schools of smaller ones. We also saw swallow-like birds 
which kept traveling with the ship. They rested from time to 
time on the water. 

On the thirtieth [of June], we saw the New York lighthouses, 
and on the thirty-first [sic] we entered the harbor. You can well 
imagine what joy there was among us ! It was otherwise when we 
got into the town. We were met by a crowd of swindlers. Each 
one wanted to take us to his inn. One told us, "This innkeeper 
is a rascal"; another, "That fellow is a robber," so that we scarce 
knew with which one we dared to go. At length a man led us to 
a German innkeeper who treated us nicely. His name is Ham- 
bacher Schloss. He showed us a good place to arrange for steam- 
er and railroad accommodations. 

We went by steamer from New York to Albany, and from 
there to Buffalo by tram, all for $6.00, and from there to Milwau- 
kee for $3.00 a person. Most of those who traveled with us had 
to pay $12. One has to be on his guard in arranging for tickets, 
because anyone bringing persons to the oflfice to take passage gets 
a percentage. It is t^est to let the innkeepers arrange this. Since 
they know English, they can tell one what is printed on the 
tickets, for if "baggage free" doesn't appear on them, one is 
cheated. 



322 



Documents 



The lakes from Buffalo to Milwaukee are rather rough, and 
so large that one does not see land. We had a bad steamer. 
One evening an iron shaft one foot thick broke, and we traveled 
the whole night until we came to an island, on the power from one 
water wheel. We had to wait there for three days until another 
steamer came and picked us up.® From then on, everything 
went well imtil we got to Milwaukee. 

There interesting things happened again. It was necessary 
for us to go overland. Transportation people came to us and 
asked, "Do you want to strike a bargain with us?" I asked, 
"How much do you want to go to Sauk Prairie with four chests 
and the family.?" They said from $20 to $23. 

Several among our party bought oxen and wagons, and so 
furnished their own transportation. Three from Sais, one from 
Vabzeinen, Heinrich Kleinens of Praden,^^ and myseK made a 
deal with two of the haulage men with four wagons for $72. 

For three nights we slept in the open, and for two under 
shelter, on the way to Sauk Prairie. The town^^ is still small. 
It stands on the banks of the Wisconsin, which will doubtless 
soon have many ships on it. 

Quite unexpectedly our niece Bessy met us. She welcomed us 
heartily and took good care of us until we had built some shacks 
on our land. The logs for the big house are ready now, and if all 
goes well, I will build it this winter. 

George von Eschen has his house completed already, and 
moved in on the 13th.^^ . . . Franz was held up in building his 
house because of the fever. . . . Now he is well again and will 
live with von Eschen over winter; he has planted a nice piece of 
rye already. 

Von Eschen, Nold, Haase, and myself chose land together, 
our holdings touching at the center. Each of us has eighty acres. 

' My grandmother recalls that while the party was waiting to be rescued, some of the 
enterprising young women secured work washing clothes. One housewife supplied her 
new laundress from the ship with soft soap. The latter mistook it for soup, with some- 
what disastrous results for herself. The Swiss immigrants saw then: first colored person — 
a young negress — at the same place. 

These are hamlets near Felsberg, with populations from 100 to 300 each. 

^ Prairie du Sac. The river was then crossed on a ferry boat a little below the loca- 
tion of the new bridge, recently completed. There was no island in the middle of the river 
there at that time, as there is now. 

^ The von Eschen home contained a stone stove. The Biihler home had only an 
open fireplace. Hence baking was long done at the von Eschens'. 



A Swiss Family in the New World 



323 



There are 1035 klafter^^ in an acre, according to Ragaz. We are 
about a quarter of an hour away from magistrate Ragaz, who had 
his eye on this land for us. Schreiber and Bernhard Btlhler are 
about an hour from us. We are two hours from town. 

The land which we picked out is very level and has little 
underbrush on it, so that we can plow it. Woods and spring 
water are close by. I have plowed four acres already and have 
planted three with rye and one with wheat. In spring I intend to 
plow four to six acres more. A mill is being built about an hour 
away from us.^^ 

In this region there are chiefly folks from Graubiinden, some 
fifty families, I should say.^^ Agricultural products are quite 
expensive compared with other places. A quarter^^ of rye costs 

dollar, wheat somewhat more, a quarter of potatoes cost 12 
hatzen,^'^ and a pound of meat (30 lote),^^ 6 hluzger}^ 

Hans and George and I hired ourselves out for several days 
digging potatoes. The three of us received 10 quarters of pota- 
toes a day and board. 

Tell Christian Straub that he can earn nothing here by his 
trade, for everyone here has iron stoves, with which there are 
enough metal cooking utensils. For folks who want to work, it 
is best here to take up a piece of land and to work on it. . . . 

And now I will close, wishing all of you a happy new year. 
We all send hearty greetings to you, brother, sisters, and brothers- 

" Or 4047 square meters. The klafter is an obsolete unit of surface measurement. 
It equalled 4 square meters. 

" Lodde's Mill, on Honey Creek, still in operation. 

" The most interesting figure from a romantic point of view who was on Sauk Prairie 
about this time was Count Haraszthy of Austria. For a sketch of Count Haraszthy, 
see Wis. Hist. Soc, Proceedings, 1906, 224-245. 

"The Swiss quarter, an old standard of quantity replaced by the litre-hectolitre 
system three-quarters of a century ago, but still in colloquial use today, must not be 
confused with the official English unit of the same name which equals 8 bushels. The for- 
mer has a value of from 15 to 30 litres, according to the canton. The quarter of the 
Grisons, here in question, equals 30 litres or .85 of a bushel. The price of rye was therefore 
69 cents a bushel. 

" One hundred and sixty-eight centimes or about 34 cents American money. See 
note 6. The price per bushel, 40 cents. 

^8 A lot (plural loie) equals half an ounce. The use of this unit of weight has now come 
to be restricted largely to precious metals. 

^® The bluzger is a colloquial standard of value employed only in the Grisons. It 
equals 2.2 centimes. This price of less than 3 cents a pound for meat on Sauk Prairie is 
corroborated by contemporary account books. There was at that time no market for 
cattle raised there other than Milwaukee, which meant long overland driving. Hogs 
could not be driven. Hence little stock was raised beyond that required for personal use 
and local sales. 



324 



Documents 



in-law. Greet all our other relatives and old neighbors for us. 
I will look for an early reply. 

Jakob Buhler 

Sauk Prairie, 19 Wintermonth [December] 1848. 

Dear Brother: We were very glad to get your letter and 
to learn that your wife and child and yourself are all well. We 
are too, thank God. . . . 

Dear brother, you ask about coming to America. If you had 
a large family, I would advise you to do so, for those who have 
large families and grown children can get along nicely because 
food can then be raised with Uttle work. [But you have only 
one child] and the journey is hard. 

This region is rather cold, because there are only low hills 
between which the north wind blows very strongly. But at 
that, not all of the cattle are stabled. As a result, they are a 
sad sight by spring. During the summer time they are as well 
oflF as those in Europe. 

I can't tell you much about the progress we are making. 
I have thirteen acres under plow now. There are 1037 klafter^^ 
to an acre. The wheat and rye which we sowed a year ago were 
failures, because we, newcomers thait we were, plowed too late. 
We hope for better luck this coming year. The ground is already 
covered with snow. 

Here there is very little fall or spring. Early last May I ran 
across some wild-grape vines that scarcely showed signs of life, 
and at the end of the month they were already in bloom, and at 
the end of June there were already wild grapes on them. This 
is how rapidly things grow in summer time! 

There are places on the bluffs where one can scarcely work his 
way through for the number of grapevines. They say that grape 
shoots brought over from Europe won't grow here, that only seeds 
from there will.^^ I was glad to get those which brother-in-law 

20 See note 13. 

2^ A great deal of interest in raising grapes was being shown around Prairie du Sac 
just at this tune. Two years before, in 1846, Jacob Kehl had arrived from Germany, and 
in the beUef that that region would be suitable for wine production, he terraced the hills 
across the river from the town and set out many vines. Large quantities of grapes were 
subsequently grown by him, a wine press was set at work, and considerable wine was pro- 
duced. It was stored in two cellars back of "Round Bluff." The venture proved less 



A Swiss Family in the New World 



325 



Florian brought me. The vine cuttings which I brought along 
with me froze last winter. I want to send you wild-grape seeds. 
The wild grapes have such a strongly colored juice that one can 
write letters with it. 

We in the new world don't need many of the things one has 
in the old. So far there hasn't been much fruit around here, but 
this year many trees were set out, and in a few years there will 
be plenty. There are wild apple trees about. In the older towns 
there is fruit enough. In this part of the country there are plums, 
little cherries, walnuts, hickory nuts, hazelnuts, strawberries, 
raspberries, blackberries, huckleberries, currants, gooseberries, 
etc. ... 

There are four kinds of oaks. The acorns of one of them are 
like hazelnuts. There are cedars on the bluffs, very much like 

those in 's [name illegible] garden. There is a sort of pine, 

almost like the arve.^^ Larch trees^^ grow in wet places, where 
the cattle can't go in the summer time. 

As for animals, there are deer which are gray and white, 
rabbits, badgers, marmots, and raccoon. Sometimes the latter 
are as large as beavers. There are big and small squirrels, as in 
the old world. There are others, and another kind of water 
animal of which only the skin is good.^* 

There are turtles. There are also wolves. One hears now and 
then that they have torn apart a pig. When a number of grown 
pigs are kept together, the wolves don't touch them. There are 
also porcupines. Not far away from here there are bear. 

As for birds, there are eagles, hawks, geese, ducks, woodcocks, 
and prairie chickens. The latter are something like partridges, 
though their flesh does not taste as good. There is a smaller 
kind of fowl, too, which tastes good. These multiply at a great 

remunerative than had been expected, and recourse was had to general farming. Some of 
the terraces and the partially caved-in cellars can still be seen. The farm is now owned by 
John Kehl, a son of the grape grower. Up to within recent years, at least, he still had a 
considerable supply of this old wine in his possession. Mrs. Jacob Kehl is still living, and 

' has her home in Philadelphia. 

^ The arve is a variety of pine peculiar to the Grisons region of the Alps and to Siberia. 
It is rather small, has a very gnarled trunk, and five needles develop from each bud. The 

i French name is pin du Boston, or in patois, Varole. 

i ** Also called tamaracks. 

" The muskrat, in all probability. This animal is still trapped in the Honey Creek 
country. 



326 



Documents 



rate, laying twenty to twenty-four eggs.^^ Many of these are 
shot and netted in the corn fields. 

There are swallows, too, canaries, and blackbirds. . . . i 
Many of these go away in the winter. In spring, there are I 
pigeons which come in regular clouds, so that one feels glad when 
they finally go away again. In the states where they stay, the 
crops are not large. . . . ji 

There are snakes here which can go on the water and on land. 
The rattlesnakes are of different sizes. There are black and 
yellow speckled ones. If one doesn't bother them or step on \ 
them, one need not fear them. They don't come after one. . 
When one gets near to them, one hears their warning rattle. 1' 
They get a rattle in the third year. So one can tell their age. | 
I killed one that had thirteen rattles, and so was fifteen years old. I 
There aren't so many here because it is too cold. Farther south | 
there are more. 

I must close because Biihler^^ is leaving today. I haven't the I 
time to recopy this; there are doubtless mistakes [in spelling] in 
it. Dear brother, let the relatives in Chur share in this letter. | 
I haven't time to write another letter to them, it is not that we 
want to forget them. We all send hearty greetings, especially to 
dear mother in Chur. Greet for us those in Felsberg who ask < 
about us. 

Elsbeth married Litscher of Haldenstein or Chur last summer. 

The wild-grape seeds I am sending are to be planted in the I 
fall. Plant the melon seeds two or three together, in holes from 
three to four feet apart. 

[Jacob Buhler] 

Sauk City, March 9, 1855. 
Dear Brother : I received your letter and learned that you 
are well. You may, God be praised, learn the same of us. 

2BThequaa. 

2' Passenger pigeons. My grandmother recalls how they could be seen flying in long 
lines from Ferry Bluff at one end of Sauk Prairie, to the Baraboo Bluffs at the other end. i 

2' Buhler carried this letter with him. The early Swiss settlers entrusted few things to \ 
the mail. Most letters and parcels were given to returning fellow-countrymen for per- t 
sonal delivery. An aged inhabitant of Tamins recalls how persons arriving from America 
had as many as fifty letters with them, for distribution throughout the village and country- \ 
side. 



A Swiss Family in the New World 



327 



Hans intends to go to another place with his wife and child 
in spring if he can sell his land here. He has eighty acres and a 
house on it. Others are going from here, too. . . . 

Elizabeth and Zedonia are well off with their husbands. 
Each one has a boy and a girl. 

You write that you had sent me song books. A short time 
ago a woman told me that she got a letter from Hans Landi, 
150 miles from Sauk, [in which he said] that there were song books 
for me with him. But I can get them in spiking. 

Leonard Biihler came here unexpectedly in January. He has 
visited all the Felsbergers. He says that now he can believe 
what most of them wrote — when someone [from here] writes 
about the land or cattle he has, you can believe him, because no 
one claims to have more than he [really] has. 

My sister's son from Tusis wrote me a letter too; he has 
doubtless received the answer long since. He should come 
straight along to America. If one is willing to work, he and his 
will soon have an abundance of food and can [even] sell some. 

I would like it if all the Felsbergers were here, without 
exception, for even those who get along well in Felsberg could 
make out better in America. Judging by what Leonard says, 
prospects in the old home town don't look very bright.^^ 

We can't thank God enough that we are in America. We 
have had a good harvest. I wouldn't have written much about it, 
only Leonard asked one and then another, and then he said, 
"I'll write to the old home town about it," and since he is doing 
so, I'll write [about it] too. 

We got 280 quarters of wheat, 236 of oats, 349 of com,^* 
250 of potatoes last summer. The wheat and oats were threshed 
in one and one-half days. The price of the threshed grain here is, 
the wheat, 5 francs a quarter oats 51 hluzgers,^^ corn 62 hluz- 
gers,^^ potatoes also 62 B. the quarter. 

"The period from about 1840 to 1860 was one of great depression in Switzerland. 
This explains in part the great exodus to America during those years. 

2' Corn has the colloquial name tiirken (also spelled dirken) in the Grisons. This word 
was carried to America and is still occasionally met with among the old Swiss settlers in 
Wisconsin. It was once thought that this grain had come from Turkey. 

That is $1.00 per 30 litres, or $1.17 per bushel, using the Grisons standards. See 
note 16. 

" Twenty-two cents per 30 litres, or 26 cents per bushel, with the Grisons standards. 
See notes 16 and 19. 

'2 Twenty-seven cents per 30 litres, or 32 cents per bushel, Grisons standards. Sec 
notes 16 and 19. 



328 



Documents 



The corn is planted for cattle and hogs. We have twenty 
hogs [and] thirteen cows, not counting three calves we expect to 
get. The potatoes are shipped south almost every year because 
they don't have enough good ones there. We have 160 acres 
of land. Thirty-two acres are cultivated and we intend to get 
about ten more into shape this summer. 

You are doubtless wondering how we do our work. We can \ 
do it without hired help. Work here in America is carried on 
differently than [it is] in the old home. With the big scythe one 
[person] cuts two to three acres [a day]. One or two rake, one 
or two bundle, and then they place twelve and twelve sheaves 
together. So, at last, when evening comes, rows [of sheaves] 
stand in the field. 

When they are dry (the little bundles), they are brought 
together, each kind in a separate pile. . . . We had one such 
pile of winter wheat, two of summer [wheat], and one of oats. 

I can also tell you something about deer hunting. Altogether 
I have killed twenty-two and George four. There is hardly time 
enough for this now, there is so much work on the farm. But 
rabbits and prairie chickens are caught and shot much in winter. 
In hunting, Florian is the master. 

Cholera appeared in our region last summer; especially in the 
little town several were taken off by it, though the most of these 
were dissolute livers. In the country, it carried off one woman 
and two children. 

Last summer, in addition to the field work, we raised the house 
and barn and moved them nearer to the road. The road goes 
between our land and Franz Haase's. 

We wonder how the relatives in Chur are; if mamma and the 
others are all well. We are waiting for a letter from them. 

I'll write something about the Diilieser affair too. I examined 
the thing myself, since otherwise I couldn't have arrived at a 
proper conclusion. On some points I didn't exactly agree with 
them, but on the whole, we are of the same opinion. Through 
cleansing and conversion one can reach Heaven. We have been 
going to their church for almost two years. People who are 
inclined towards God lead a different life than do those who are 
not so minded. 



A Swiss Family in the New World 



329 



We would gladly invite you to make us a visit if it weren't so 
far, so that you could see for yourself how things go with us. For 
we really have a nice piece of ground . Towards the north , through 
hay land, comes a nice little brook. In the summer time there 
come many fish which we catch. . . . 

And now I will close. I hope that you will be able to under- 
stand what I have written even if it isn't written according to 
rules, for I don't have much writing to do in America. 

We extend many greetings to you and to the relatives in Chur. 
If they are still living, also greet for me old Aunt Anna Daniiser 
and my godmother Elizabeth von Eschen. 

Jakob BijHLER 

P. S. Let the folks in Chur read this too. 

Sauk City, 2 J[anuary], 1856 

Dear Brother: Since I have an opportunity to write a few 
lines [I will say] that we are, thanks to God, all well and getting 
along nicely, and [that] we hope the same of you. 

Otherwise I don't think of much to write. Jacob 

[name illegible] has doubtless told you how things go with us. 
Otherwise you can find out from our neighbor Moli, who is now 
j on a short visit in Churwalden. 

I am sending you a little summer- wheat seed. You can sow 
it in March. It is very easy to thresh. I have still another kind 
r something like this which is too hard [to thresh]. . . . 

This summer we got 318 bushels of wheat ... of oats 237 
bushels. Next summer we are going to plant 50 bushels more of 
summer wheat. A bushel of wheat is worth a bit over a dollar 
now. 

I will close. We remain faithful [to the memory of other times] 
1 and wish you a good new year. You may greet for us whoever 
asks about us. 

Jakob Buhler 

America, June 19, 1856. 
I Dear Friend and Old Chum [George Daniiserl: I've been 
wanting to write you a letter for a long time, for I thought that 
you would be wondering how we are getting along in America. 



330 



Documents 



Well, in the first place, I'll tell you that I am well and like being 
in America. Still, I'd like to be among you all again. Perhaps 1 
I will be sometime again, too. If it weren't so far, I'd long since 
have come on a visit. j; 

I'd like very much to know how all of you young folks in the I 
old fatherland are. I suppose things have changed a great deal 
since I came to America. From what I hear, you must be having |, 
harder times even than when I was still there. Hard times are i 
unknown here. To be sure, things didn't go so well [for us] during j 
the first two years, but now we are in comfortable circumstances. \ 
There is no lack of things to eat. We have a surplus. |1 

I can tell you exactly how we stand. We have 22 acres of i 
wheat planted, 11 acres of oats, 6 acres of corn, J/^ acre of potatoes, 
and the prospects are fine for a bumper crop. Last year we got I 
318 bushels of wheat, 256 bushels of oats, 250 bushels of corn, 
100 bushels of potatoes. 

You wonder perhaps, how we can work such a large farm. 
Sickles aren't s d here, because things are done in a different ; 
way, by which one man can cut two to three acres [in a day]. 
There is another kind of machine drawn by two teams of horses 
with which 14 to 18 acres of wheat can be cut [in a day]. And 
so it goes with all work here — everything is done faster than in 
the old country. 

I can tell you what we have in the line of livestock. We have 
14 cattle, 2 horses, 5 sheep, 14 hogs, and a great number of 
chickens. Now you know about how we are fixed. 

Anybody who is willing to work can get along in America, 
for pay is much greater here than over there. I did at one time, - 
it is true, work out for 6 months for only 6 dollars a month, but > 
if I want to work out now, I can get 16 to 18 dollars [a month] I 
from a farmer all through the summer. 

I am thinking about going away from here after harvest time 
in order to make some money, to a place where I can earn 18 to 
20 dollars a month — working in the woods, for I am thinking y 
about buying a piece of land in a new region. 



A Swiss Family in the New World 331 

I have also heard that George Daniiser in the lower part of 
town and George Daniiser in the upper part of town^ and Chris- 
tian Daniiser on the little circle^^ would like to come to America. 
You can tell them to come right along, for I know that after 
they'd have been here a short time, they wouldn't want to go 
back, for it would be better for all [the] young folks, for boys and 
girls [in Felsberg], if they were here. 

It would certainly give me great joy if some of my old friends 
were to come at last. I recall many things as well as if they had 
happened just recently. Best of all, I remember how I climbed 
the fruit trees with you. I remember very well how we stole 
Stitzler^s pears. 

Fruit is still not plentiful around here. There is, to be sure, 
some wild fruit, but it isn't as good as that grown in orchards. 
There are many plums almost as good as tame ones. The wild 
apples are sour, and the wild grapes, of which there are very many, 
are also sour. 

My best friend is Jakob Schneller. I wonder if you are still 
all unmarried, those of you of my age. I am.^^ In America 
most of the girls get married at 16 to 18 and the men from 20 to 22. 

And now I must close, but must first say that you mustn't 
be surprised that I can't write better, for you know that I was 
young when I came to America, and I attended no German school. 
I could write better in English, but I thought you wouldn't be 

^ In 1842 an avalanche from Mount Calanda nearly destroyed Felsberg. It came to 
a stop just behind the village proper, but rolling stones did great damage. My grand- 
mother, then four years of age, has a vivid recollection of the event. The terror-stricken 
inhabitants fled, and not daring to return to their homes for weeks, built shelter huts 
farther down the valley. Money was collected throughout Switzerland to aid the sufferers. 
As stones continued to fall, some of those who had had their homes destroyed built new 
ones with their share of the donation money on the site of the shielter camp. This has 
grown to be New Felsberg. Old Felsberg, reoccupied in due course, is divided into an upper 
and a lower part. Others of the sufferers came to Wisconsin. Among these was Jakob 
Biihler, whose home had been partially destroyed. The story of the great landslip has 
been told many a time about the firesides of Sauk County. A woman tending her cow is 
said to have been buried alive. For years, the persons who had returned to Old Felsberg 
slept with their clothes bundled beside them. Small slides still occur, but as they are held 
back by the large one, they have long since ceased to be a matter of concern. 

^ A portion of Old Felsberg. 

^ Ulrich Buhler was married on February 16, 1860, to Emeline Bennett, a native of 
New York and a great-great-granddaughter of Josiah Bartlett, a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence. Their fiftieth wedding anniversary, in 1910, and their sixty-second, in 
1922, were the occasions for large gatherings of relatives and friends at the old Buhlcr 
homestead. 



332 



Documents 



able to read my letter then, and so I had to write it in German. 
. . . You can read this letter [to others] if you wish. 

Give my greetings to all who ask about me; give them to 
Peter Schneller in particular, for me, and to Zidonia Danuser. 
Give my greetings to Margaret Danuser and the whole family. 
Greet all the young ladies for me and tell them that they should 
write. It would please me greatly to hear from them, for I like 
very much to read letters from the old fatherland. I'll be expect- 
ing an answer from you soon. 

Ulrich Buhler 

Sauk City, May 17, 1877. 
Dear Uncle George: We received your good letter of 
April 27 today^^ and see by it that you are still in good health. 
Since father can't write readily any more, he asked me to write for 
him. . . . 

I judge by your letter that old age has not yet begun to tell 
on you. On my part, I can tell you that my parents, considering 
their age, are still well and robust, especially mother, who doesn't 
seem a bit older than sixty, although she is almost eighty, and 
still has the use of all her powers. Father shows his age somewhat 
at times. My parents live with my youngest brother, who was 
married some years ago, and they have no worldly cares. . . . 

Elias von Eschen . . . lives in Sauk City and has a fur- 
niture store. We see each other often. We generally talk about 
hunting then. He told me how he went hunting with you on the 
Ruchgerstabada and Garunis,^^ and that you shot a marten there. 

There is still quite a bit of game here, and one doesn't have to 
have a hunting license. Th^^e is a closed season for big game in 
the summer, but from October to mid- January, anyone who cares 
to can hunt. I killed two deer with the gun which you sent me. 
Brother Christian also shot a big stag two years ago. He was 
pretty thin, but still gave 180 pounds of meat, and big horns. 
Brother George has also shot a number of them, and father most 
of all. 

* Twenty days for a letter to go from eastern Switzerland to south central Wisconsin 
compares very favourably with the service of today, when the time averages twelve days 
for the same trip. 

These are two mountains north of Felsberg. 



A Swiss Family in the New World 



333 



There is much target shooting, generally with turkeys for 
prizes. A year-old turkey weighs from 15 to 18 pounds and is 
set up for a dollar. Ten men then shoot in order, one shot each, at 
numbers on the target. The one who has the highest number 
gets the prize. In this way 15 to 20 such fowl are shot for in a 
day.3« 

There are two tame deer here which were caught and are 
often shot for. The person who wins one lets him be shot for 
again. We shot for them several times, but did not have the 
luck to win one. The distance is generally 250 to 280 paces, and 
our rifle doesn't shoot accurately. If you have a good rifle and 
have no use for it, it would give us great pleasure if you would 
send it to us by Mr. John Prader who will visit you. . . . 

And now I will close, and hope for an early reply. We greet 
you, also Aunt Anna and all the relatives in Felsberg and in Chur. 

Your nephew, 

UlRICH BtJHLER 

Shooting for fowl is still a leading sport among menfolk of Prairie du Sac and Sauk 
City, especially at Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Year time. Geese, ducks, turkeys, 
and chickens are as a rule all included among the prizes. The position of target tender is 
rather lucrative, and small boys vie with one another to secure it. 



334 



Documents 



DIARY OF A JOURNEY TO WISCONSIN IN 1840i 

Monday May 31st 1841 — Our company being ready and all 
things prepared we Left Racine about 3 o'clock PM for Iowa. 
Our company consisted of 4, besides the driver, viz. Moses Vilas 
D. S. [Deputy Surveyor] formerly from [blank in MS.] Co. 
[blank in MS.] Chas. Smith from Orange Co. Vermont Eleazer 
Barnum Coburn, from Orange Co. Vermont, and myself. The 
day was fine and we went by way of Mount Pleasant as far as 
Rochester 24 miles Put up at [Peter] Campbels 

Teusday June 1st 1841 — ^We left Rochester 6 AM. Day clear 
& very warm. Traveled on the U. S. Road to Janes Ville.^ 
Camped a mile beyond the River 45 miles to-day 

Wednesday 2nd Started 6 AM. Passed over an extensive 
high rolling Prairie in a North Easterly direction in order to pass 
round the heads of Bass Creek, thence South westerly thro, 
some fine Bur Oak openings a few miles when we came to Sugar 
river Pra. a beautiful level piece of land separated from the river 
here by a strip of openings very rich soil. Crossed about 2 
miles below Centra Ville & stopped on the west bank for noon. 
The day was clear & very warm and a bathe was quite reviving to 
our faculties, this is 20 miles from Janes Ville Our road was 
south of the bluffs and we came to a Hoosier settlement about 5 
miles from the river. Passed thro. New Mexico on NE. cor. of 
Sect. 3, T. 1, R. 7. The Co. seat of Green Co. has lately been 
removed from this place to Monroe on Sect. 35 in the town north.^ 
This like many other Wis. towns has a house or two a Tavern & 
Store Camped miles beyond at [O.C.] Smith's saw mill on 
a branch [Honey Creek] of the Peekatonokee [Pecatonica]. Here 
we find Maple, Bass, Black walnut &c Burr Oak having dis- 
appeared. 

*The following is the concluding installment of the diary of Frederick J. Starin» 
publication of which was begun in the September, 1922, number of this magazine. 

* In 1838 the territorial legislature petitioned Congress for an appropriation for a 
road from Racine to the Mississippi. Congress responded in 1839 by appropriating $10,000 
for such a road. This appropriation was utilized for the eastern portion of the road, which 
was opened by 1840 as far as Janesville. 

^ New Mexico, which is now included in the city limits of Monroe, was platted in 
1838 by Judge Jacob Andrick, a settler from Indiana. He succeeded in having his town 
named as the county seat by the territorial legislature. Meanwhile, having neglected to 
record the plat, the rival owners of the site of Monroe secured the removal of the county 
seat to their town. 



Diary of a Journey to Wisconsin 335 



Thursday 3rd Started at 6. Crossed Skinners Creek at a 
mill. The Peekatonokee just at the Junction of the two 
branches/ Hunters Ferry, Spafford's Creek near its mouth.^ 
Wolf Creek at the saw & grist mill near its mouth. Bebas store 
&c. Platte Mounds in sight N. W. Passed the first lead diggings 
on the Pra. 3 or 4 miles NE. of Gratiots grove^ on the N. E. side 
of which we camped for the night. Day Clear & very warm. 

Friday 4th Started at 6. Passed thro. Shulsburg a settle- 
ment of miners, pits or shafts have been sunk in this vicinity on 
almost every acre, thence S West to [Dennis] Murphys Mill & 
Furnace on Fevre river Here we saw a few Pine trees on the 
bank Thence S.W. to Sinsinewa Mound the residence of Gen. 
G.[eorge] W.[allace] Jones surveyor Gen of Iowa and Wiskonsan.^ 
The mound is a circular elevation commanding a very extensive 
prospect. The General's house is about half way up facing the 
southeast. 6 miles from here to Dubuque where we arrived 
3 PM. Crossed the River in a horse boat after dismissing the 
team. Distance to the Island one mile, & }/i mile to the opposite 
bank. Islands appear to be confined to the west shore at this 
place 

This town appears at first sight to be settled wholly by 
french yet there are quite a number of Eastern people, especially 
the professional & trading community. The scenery on the 
river is wild and picturesque consisting of high rocky bluffs and 
deep ravines, we pitched our tent on the Catfish creek 2 miles 
southeast of town — at night we had a heavy thunder shower 
accompanied with a hard S.E. blow. The day was warm & 
sultry except a cool shower 2 PM, 

Saturday 5th Very warm and sultry. Coburn & I went to 
town this PM. 

Sunday 6th Very warm & sultry. Attended church at the 
school house a few rods from our camp. 

* Skinner's Creek enters the Peeatonica in section five, town one, range sir east. 
' Named for Omri Spafford, killed in the Black Hawk War. 

• Gratiot's Grove was a fine piece of timber just south of the present Shullshurg. It 
was settled in 1825 by the Gratiot family from St. Louis. See description in Wis. Hist. 
Colls., X, 245-249, 267-269. 

'James D. Doty, who was appointed territorial governor in 1841, insisted on the 
spelling Wiskonsan. 



336 



Documents 



Monday 7th To day we expected to leave but the General 
did not come over and we were detained very warm j 

Teusday 8th The General came over this morning about I 
ten o'clock and after r[e]ceiving our instructions & buying some 1 
provisions we struck our tent about 3 P. M. & decamped. Having I 
employed Mr. Grafford's team & driver to take us to our Ground || 
Camped on Prairie creek this night where we found Mr. Weldon i 
and his company encamped. During our stay at Dubuque the j 
weather was uniformly very hot & sultry and we as uniformly j 
had a heavy shower every afternoon or evening accompanied j 
with a great deal of thunder & lightning & wind. The first night i!> 
our tent came near being blown over (15 miles to day) ' 

Wednesday 9th Passed Muquokity [Maquoketa] falls & 'I 
mill, & Muquokity South Branch camped Ij^ miles from the 
Wapisipinacon 30 miles to day. 

Thursday 10th Passed the river 4 miles to Russels 16 to 
Jenkins the last settler Camped about a mile east of the east 
line & one north of the South line to T 86 N. R 7 W on a small ; 
spring brook (263^ to d[a]y) 

Friday 11th I Rode back with the team to Russels on my 
way to Mr Chaplin's 12 miles S. E. of there, to employ him as 
Cook & packer with horse & wagon arrived there on foot about 
6 PM 

Saturday 12th He not being at home I spent to-day waiting 
for him. 

Sunday 13th He returned about noon and having made the 
necessary arrangments I left about 3 PM. & traveled as far as 
Mr. McKinney's 22 miles where I arrived about 10 o'clock after 
running about the prairie some two hours without any Road & it 
being so dark & cloudy as scarcely to be able to distinguish any 
object 

The first time I ever was benighted on a Prairie 
Monday June 14th 1841 — ^Arrived at our camp about 8 o'clock 
this morning found it deserted and a good dish of beans cooking 
which were not unpalatable. Our men had commenced work on 
friday last 

Teusday June 15th 1841 — On returning from our work this 
evening we found at our camp Mr. Woodbri[d]ge from Marion 



Diary of a Journey to Wisconsin 



337 



with a horse & wagon to take Mr Chaplin's place he having been 
unable to obtain a horse, and Mr Durham from the same place 
seeking employment 

Wednesday 16th Moved our camp to-day to Sect 10 T. 86 N 
R 7 W on the Wapisipin [Wapsipinicon] river 

Thursday 17th Cold & rainy day was completely wet all day 
having to wade the river four times. Mr. Durham assisted us 

Friday 18th Mr Durham left us 

Saturday June 19th Finished E of this town 

Sunday June 20th I rode to Marion to-day with Mr. Wood- 
bridge It is a pleasant place situated on a high roll of prairie 
bordering on the timber of the upper Iowa or Red Cedar river 
which is about 5 miles distant & contains 2 Hotels one store two 
Groceries & a courthouse being the County Seat of Linn Co. 
besides a number of small dwelling houses, has about 90 inhabi- 
tants 7 Doctors 4 or 5 Lawyers one Blacksmith &c Left town 
about 2 o'clock and after having several showers to wet us com- 
pletely we arrived in sight of the river about dark it still con- 
tinued to rain and it was with much difficulty & after putting 
down to the river several times that we found our camp com- 
pletely drenched 

Thursday 24th Moved camp to-day to South part of Sect. 6. 
Near the river a good spring 

Friday 25th Finished Town 86 Range 7 yesterday & com- 
menced on T 86 R 8. to day 

Saturday 26th Mr. Woodbridge and I went to Marion 
to-day for provisions. 

Sunday 27th Left Marion to day 2 PM. arr. at Camp 6 
o'clock. Staid at Phillips 

Thursday 24th Smith taken sick to day PM 

Monday June 28th 1841— Finished first tier. Difficulty with 
Woodbridge 

Teusday 29th. Moved camp this AM to Grove & spring 
on 16. About ten o'clock I was taken with a fit of vomiting as 
I supposed in consequence of drinking too freely at the spring, 
remained at the camp and took a dose of Hygean Pills this PM. 

Wednesday June 30th .... 



338 



Documents 



This morning feeling quite well I went out on the field as 
usual but before running a naile was taken with sickness & vomit- 
ing, and was compeled to return to the camp a distance of 3 milesi 
which under the most excrutiating pain in my back & head and thej 
heat of an oppressive sun I accomplished in as many hours. j, 

Thursday July 1st 1841 — ^Was greeted this morning with a 
visit and cordial shake (not of the hand) from my old friend thei 
ague about 7 o'clock. Mr. Vilas went to the settlement in quest I 
of an assistant Employed Mr. Stivers. Mr. Woodbridge sent I 
him his compliments to day by Mr. Chambers Const, in the 
shape of a summons & attachment with which he was greeted on j 
his return I' 

Friday 2nd Had a shake this morning. 

Mr. Stivers commenced work 

Saturday 3d Shake rather lighter. I 

Sunday July 4th 1841 — light shake this morning From 
the effects of medicine and as I then supposed the ague combined 
I had become so weak as to be unable to walk a few rods — with- , 
out fainting, & therefore concluded I had better seek some more ; 
suitable situation Accordingly Mr Coburn went to the settle- 
ment about 4 miles distant and engaged Mr. Speakes to take me 
to his cabin who came with two yoke of cattle & wagon for that < 
purpose about 3 PM. 

Monday July 5th 1841 — Mr. S. went to Marion 20 miles to 
have Dr. Cummings visit me 

Teusday 6th The Dr. arrived about 9 o'clock AM. Pro- 
nounced my disease a union of the ague & Flux known but httle 
except in the south & western part of the U. S. Not only a 
dangerous but contagious disease. Escaped shaking this morn- 
ing for the first time. Pronounced me in a very bad condition 
having let the disease progress since Thursday last. Mr. S. 
returned about 5 or 6 P M. 

Wednesday 7th Sent Mr. S's boy to Marion for Oil, sugar 
rice &c. Dr. found me better 

Sunday 11th Mr. Vilas was here this PM. Finished Town 
86 Range 8 yesterday. Was gratified to find that I had been 
gradually overcoming my illness day by day untill now I was able 



Diary of a Journey to Wisconsin 



339 



to sit up long enough to wash & change my clothes The Dr. 
stopt visiting me on Friday. Mr. V. was on his way to Marion to 
attend Woodbridge's suit on Teusday 

Wednesday 14th Moved Camp from 16 Grove 

Sunday July 18th 1841 — ^During the past week I have gained 
steadily, so that to-day I made an essay at walking out with 
Mr. & Mrs. S. to Mr. D's field 

Monday 19th Walked to Mr. Lockhart's this AM. and had 
a delicious feast on wild honey & returned to Mr. S s about noon 
& ate a good dinner, about 4PM experienced certain symptoms 
of a return of the ague. Very warm 

Wednesday 21st Had chills & fever about 1 PM. 

Friday 23d Had shake & fever about 11 AM. 

Sunday 25th Had slight shake about 8 AM Mr. Osburn 
from the camp called on me Camp on Sect. 3 T 87 N R 8 W on 
the river 

Dr. Beaumont's experiments on the susceptibility of digestion 
of articles of food results^ Boiled Rice 1 hour, Sago, Tapioca, 
Barley, B'ld milk 2.15 hours. Tripe & pigs feet 1 h. Fowls & 
Beefs Liver 2.30 Hard Eggs 3.30 Soft, do 3, Custard 2.45, 
Trout 1.30 Fresh fish 3, Beef rare roast 3, Dry roasted 3.30 
Salt Beef with mustard 2.30 Pickled Pork 4.30 Raw do, 3. 
Fresh mutton 3.15 Veal 4, Wheat btead fresh 3.30 corn 
bread 3.15 Sponge cake 2.30 Succotash 3.45 Apple dump- 
ling 3. Sour mellow apples 2, sweet mellow do. 1.30. Parsnips 
B'ld 2.30. Potatoes do 3.30 do roasted 2.30 Raw cabbage 
2.30 with vin. 2 Boiled cabbage 4.30 

Sunday August 1st 1841 — Have had a remission of the ague 
since last Sunday and gained gradually during the week. 

Messrs. Cobum & Stivers came in from the camp to day for 
provisions. 

Monday 2nd Election for the town of Washington Linn Co. 
held to-day at Mr. Magonigh 

Teusday 3d Assisted Mr. Speak in securing a bee tree this 
evening. 

Wednesday 4th Mr. S. & I sent to Grove on 16 in quest of 
bees. 

' For Dr. Beaumont and his experiments, see Wis. Mag. of Ili.tt., iv. 463-280. 



340 Documents i 

Thursday 5th Mr. Downes raised house I went to Mr. 
Osborn's this P M. on sect. 9 Town 85 R 8 west. Mr. O. arr. 
home I 

Friday 6th Rode to Mr. S.s 

Saturday 7th Mr. O. & Mr. O. Jr. Left this morning for thell 
camp which we found on Sect 26, T. 88 N. R 8 W. Load of i 
Provisions i 

Sunday Aug. 8th Spent most of the day hunting bees. 
Rained some. Sam. Osbom returned ' 

Wednesday Aug. 11th I went out to-day with the company. 

Thursday Aug. 12th Finished Town 88 N. R 8 W. 

Friday Aug. 13th Cut a bee tree this A. M. PM. moved to ! 
T 87 N R 7 W. i 

Saturday 14th Messrs. Maxwell & Osborn returned home. 

Monday August 16th 1841— Commenced on T. 87 N. R. 7 W. 

Thursday 19th Finished a whole tier to-day. 

Sunday 22nd Maxwell went home for Team 

Monday 23d Finished the job to day — 87 

Teusday 24th Team came out 

Wednesday 25th This morning we left the Wapisipinicon 
river for home. Camped 7 miles above Charles ford on the 
Makoqueta near Mr. Beardsley's. Rainy night. 

Thursday 26th Passed the ford & Cascade & camped on 
White Water creek. 

Friday 27th Rainy day arrived at Du Buque 3PM ' 
Camped on the Catfish 

Saturday August 28th 1841 — ^Ascertained to-day that on 
account of the probable non-confirmation of the appointment of i 
Gen. Wilson by the Senate no money could at present be obtained i 
from the Office 

Sunday 29th Smith, Coburn & I visited the resting place of 
Dubuque's remains to-day, 2 miles south of the town on a high 
bluff on the west bank of the River north of the mouth of the 
Catfish creek His bones lie on the surface & are protected by a 
small stone building at one end of which a cross has been erected I 
by the Catholics bearing the following inscription "Julien [ 



Diary of a Journey to Wisconsin 



341 



Dubuque Mineur de la mines De L'Espagne Mort La 24th 
Marse 1810 Age 45 3^ anne"^ 

Monday SOth Mr. Vilas visited Gen Wilson to-day. 
Teusday 31st Moved camp to an island in the river to-day 
& Mr. Lockhart left for home. 

September 1st 1841 — Left Dubuque to-day about 11 o'clock 
A. M with Mr. Grafford's team passed Sinsinewa Mound 
Camped on Fevre River one mile above Murphy's Mill & Furnace 
Thursday 2nd. Passed through Shulsburg camped 3^ mile 
east of the west branch of the pekatonica at a vacant house on 
S[blank in MS.] T[blank in MS.] R[blank in MS.] 

Friday 3rd Passed thr'o Hamilton's diggings^^ Camped on 
the little Sugar river 

Saturday 4th Passed thro Sugar river diggings Crossed 
Rock River at Humes' Ferry, and camped on Rock Pra. Near 
Mr [Elisha] Newhals. 

Sunday 5th Left the wagon at Johnstown & proceeded on 
foot to White Water where I arrived about 1 o'clock PM. 

Teusday 7th Left White Water with horse & wagon for 
Turtle Pra. arrived at McKonkeys 1 PM Passed thro Delavan 
on my return & stopt at Mr. [Benjamin] More's 

Wednesday 8th Passed thro Johnstown and arrived at 
White Water about noon. Rainy 

Thursday Sept. 9th 1841. Drew a load of lime & siding from 
Slocum's Rain 
ij Saturday 11th Democratic meeting at Freeman Pratt 

Sunday 12th Started for Milwaukkee with team about noon, 
Staid at Mr. Billings'. 

Monday 13th arrived at Milwaukee 4 P. M, 
Teusday 14th Started for Racine On Horseback 
Wednesday 15th Returned from Racine this P. M. 
Thursday 16th Left Milwaukee this morning Staid at 
Mr. [Lyman] Hill's Mukwonago. 

Friday 17th Arrived at White Water 4PM 

• For a sketch of Julien Dubuque, see Wis. Hist. Colls., xix, 820; Annal* of Iowa, 
third series, ii, 329-336. 

William S. Hamilton, son of Alexander, had a smelter and mining outfit at the 
present Wiota. See Wis. Mag. of Hist., iv, 35-38. 



342 



Documents 



Steam Boat Erie lost by fire on Lake Erie the 9th of August! 
and over 200 lives lost. 

Fire and Explosion at Syracuse on the [blank in MS.]th, andi 
over 30 lives lost 

T. R. Le Baron commenced selling goods at White Wateni 
about the 15th of Sept. i 

Sunday Sept. 19th 1841— Mr. Curtiss Called & Mr. & Mrs.i 
F. L. Pratte. 

Friday 24th To-day we experienced a cessation of theli 
Equinoctial storm which commenced on Thursday 16th inst. i 
from which time to this neither moon, sun or star has been 
visible. Being the most cloudy weather ever known in Wiskonsan^' 
by the oldest Settlers. Party at the Hotel this evening i 

Friday Oct. 1st 1841— Traced a line on Sec. 36, for H. I. S. * 
this AM. Run line between 33 & 4. For D.J. Powers — this P.M. 

Saturday 2nd Run the East line of the E 3^ of the N.W. }i 
of sec. 29, T. 4, R. 15. For Racket 

Sunday 3d. Messrs Ps & I visited Mrs Bradley 

Monday Oct. 4th 1841 — Left White Water to-day about ; 
noon rode with Alva Smith to Milwaukee staid at Mr. Hill's. [ 

Teusday 5th Arr. at Milwaukee 5 PM. 

Wednesday 6th Left By S.B. Illinois Capt Blake about 
noon. Wind S.E. Course NE Very heavy sea Rough Cloudy 
night. Nearly all passengers sick. 

Thursday Oct. 7th 1841 — ^Passed the S. B. Missouri at the 
Manitou I's. this morning. Wind N. W. Co. N. N. E. Arr. • 
at Mackinaw 5 P M — were detained in wooding till 9, in evening. 
Garrison here 73 men^i Wind W. Co. E. E. S. E. } 

Oct. 8th Arrived at Presque Isle, 4 a. m. wooded & left ' 
about 8 a. m. Lake smooth at Sun down. 

Oct. 9th Wooded at Newport before day light arr. at 
Detroit 10 a. m. wooded and left at 1 P. M. Wind S. of W. ■ 
Passed North of Cunningham's Island at sunset arr. cleve- • 
land 11 o'clock wooded at Fair Port, 2 a. m. 10th Oct. Left 
Daylight Co. E of N. E. very fine weather — ^Arr. at Buffalo ; 

^In 1841 Fort Mackinac was garrisoned by a part of the Fourth Artillery, Captam | 
Patrick H. Gait in command. \ 



i 



Diary of a Journey to Wisconsin 



343 



5 o'clock P. M. Got on board canal boat Edwin Dean Capt. 
Wm Drum, this evening. Left Buffalo Monday morning Oct. 
11th arr. at Lockport 9 o'clock evening 

Wednesday Oct 13th arr. at Rochester 2 a. m. Two Buildings 
were on fire opposite the Republican office. Left 12 m arr. at 
Fair Port evening 

Thursday Oct. 14th Passed Clyde 5 P. M. 

Friday Oct. 15th arr. at Jordan 8 AM. at Geddisburg 
5 P. M. Were detained in consequence of the opening of a new 
lock at Lodi. 

Saturday Oct. 16th 3 p. m. Took Boat Amherst Capt. C. 
Cook 

Sunday 17th Passed New London 9 a. m. arr. at Utica 9 
o'clock in the evening 

Monday 18th Passed Little falls 7 o'clock a. m. Arr. at 
Fulton Ville 9 o'clock in the evening.^^ 

Tuesday Sept. 7 47. Left home on the Packet Boat Mont- 

zeuma Capt. Arrived at Utica 73^ P. M. Fare $1.25 

Changed to Boat Onondaga Capt. Myers — 

Wednesday Sept. 8-47 — Clear warm Arrived at Syracuse 

at noon. Fare $1.50 Changed to Boat, Capt Pc 

Bromley 

Thursday Sept. 9-47. Rain last night, & part of to-day 
Arrived at Rochester 4 PM. Fare $2.50 Took cars 6, P. M. 

Fare $2.50 Arrived at Buffalo 1 1 P M. Stopped 

at Huffs Hotel. 

Friday Sep 10, 47. clear warm. Found the girls Harriet 
Ann & Jane Eliza, yet on board the Canal Boat, wating for me — 
Took Steam Boat Illinois Capt. Blake left Buffalo, 7 Eve. 
arrived at Cleveland 

Saturday Sept. 11, 47. clear warm — about Noon, started 
out at 3 p. m. 

Sunday Sept. 12, 47. cold 

"Starin spent the time from October 18, 1841, until April 16, 1842, in and nhout 
Fultonville, New York. As the incidents of his diary are not connected with Wisconsin, 
we omit this portion thereof. There is then a gap until September 7, 1847, when the 
diary recommences. 



344 



Documents 



Found ourselves at anchor, near the mouth of Detroit river 
in a fog bank. Arrived at Detroit 9 o'clock, aground on the 
Flatts at Noon. Passed Port Huron & Fort Gratiot eve. run alii 
night and 

Monday 13th Sep 47 — Hard north wind very rough, coldij; 
till noon to day. Were obliged to turn at Saginaw bay, run back | 
10 miles & hove to finally returned to the St Clair river for wood. 1 
Wooded in the eve. below port Sinai — ^Laid over night — 

Tuesday 14th Sep. 1847— Cold N. W. wind— S. B. Canada i 
left Buff. Sat. morn. Passed us below Detroit. S. B. Baltic left ^ 
Buff Thursday Eve, aground on the flatts & Driven back from j 
lake Huron, left her at Port Sinai this morning. SB Madison % 
Passed us in the night. We started at 7 this morning. Passed 
SB Madison 11 oclock at night arrived at Mackinaw 

Wednesday 15 Sep 1847 at 7j^ o'clock morning, at Manitou ; 
Island 5 P. M. 

Thursday 16th at Sheboygan 6 mom, arrived at Millwaukee, j 

12 M. Put up at the City Hotel. 

Friday 17, Sep. 1847. Rainy Started for White Water— \ 

with Mr. Kinne. Staid at East Troy, Thayer 

Saturday 18th I Rode to White Water with Mr Leva Pratt 

by way of Palmyras &c — Called on F. L. & Widow Pratt Eve — 
Sunday 19th Called at P Muzzys & P Pratts. 
Monday 20th Wrote home &c. Plowed PM. 
Tuesday 21st Helped H.[enry] J. S.[tarin] Sow his wheat 
Wednesday 22 I went to Milford with F. L. Pratt & N Pratt 

& wife returned with us. \ 
Thursday 23. Ela & I went to Delavan — 
Friday 24. Returned via Elkhorn &c 
Saturday 25. H & I went to look at my land — &c — 
Sunday 26. Called at Widow Pratts &c 
Monday 27. Rode to Meads &c. Horse back — 
Tuesday 28. H & I rode to Bark River Woods 
Wednesday 29. Leveled Creek & Spring — 4 ft 
Thursday 30. Run line bet. Mrs Tripp & self Aaron | 

Ostrander present — 

Friday Oct 1st I went to Branch Mill &c &c. 
Saturday 2 Helped H. J. S. Build Fence at Ba[blank in MS.] 



Diary of a Journey to Wisconsin 



345 



Sunday 3th Att church Priest Kinne[?], Ela & I, 

Monday 4, Oct. 1847. Went with H J S. for load com & 
prepared to start for Milwaukee — 

Tuesday 5th Started For Millwaukee morning Staid at 
Prairie Ville over night Jones Hotel — Mr. Cook rode with us. 

Wednesday 6th Arrived at Millwaukee noon. Put up at U 
States Hotel — 

Thursday 7th Left Milwaukee o'clock PM on Boat 

Henrik Hudson. 

Friday 8th Arrived at Mackinaw, 9 o'clock Eve. — 

Saturday 9th At Presque Isle 6 oclock AM 

Sunday 10th Aground on St. Clair Flatts From noon tiU 

5 P. M.— At Detroit 9 oclock Eve- 
Monday 11th arrived at Cleveland 6 oclock morn & Laid 

till noon — 

Tuesday 12th arrived at Buff. 6 o'clock Morning, took cars 
to Niagara Falls & Lock port. Took packet evening at L. P. for 
Rochester 

Wednesday 13th arrived at Rochester — by Bt Louisiana 
Capt. Warren. 7 oclock morn — 

Thursday 14th at Syracuse 7 o'c morn Boat S. America 
Capt. Vedder. at Utica 9 eve Capt Grand 

Friday 15th arrived at home at noon by Boat Albany Capt 
Brown — 

[Concluded] 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 



WHY AN AFFIDAVIT? 1 

The Anglo-Saxon legal system, whose traditions Americsc 
inherited, makes much of the sanctity of an oath; and it is^ 
true that in court procedure the sworn statement does ap j 
pear to possess a certain validity above and beyond thei 
mere informal, unattested statement. In historical mat-? 
ters, however, it would seem that the only significance oil; 
the attested statement is in the identification of the au-i| 
thority. For the slightest examination of professed his-! 
torical statements claiming to be attested by notaries will ; 
show that such attestation adds nothing whatever to thei 
credibility of the facts alleged. 

In the preceding number of this magazine I alluded to a 
sheaf of aflSdavits which had been supplied to our Society ; 
in the supposition that they afforded striking and perhaps i 
conclusive evidence on what, to the assembler of them, was f 
an exceedingly important question — the moral right ofj 
the state of Tennessee to a certain body of manuscript] 
documents which, for about eighty years, have been in the 
possession of this Society and of Dr. Draper, who was their 
collector. That these aflSdavits, signed by men and women 
of undoubted sincerity and unquestioned truthfulness,!, 
reveal admirably the weaknesses of a species of evidence 
often relied upon, but always without justification, can 
perhaps be summarized best by giving an example. 

John Doe, great-grandson of General James Robertson,! 

who was the founder of Nashville, Tennessee, grandson of 

Dr. Felix Robertson the son of General James Robertson ^ 

and first child born at Nashville, whose mother was a \ 

daughter of Dr. Felix Robertson, testifies : I 

I have often heard both my grandfather and mother speak of their \ 
interview with Dr. Lyman C. Draper; that they gave him a large amount ( 



Why an Affidavit? 



347 



of information and facts relating to the early days and events of the 
settlement at Nashville, also letters and documents relating to the 
early history of Tennessee; that Dr. Draper promised to present them 
with a copy of his book on Tennessee when completed, and would 
return all papers entrusted to him. My mother made her home with 
me; was highly educated, literary in her tastes, and a fluent and enter- 
taining writer; two years the junior of Dr. Draper, and both died the 
same year. When quite advanced in years she repeatedly said to me that 
Dr. Draper's procrastination was a great disappointment to her; that if 
she possessed the information and papers given Dr. Draper, she would 
write a history of the Nashville settlement and refute the "absurd" 
statement that General Robertson was totally uneducated and was 
taught to read and write by his wife — this from the lips of Mrs. General 
Robertson herself. 

Now what were the facts? At least four years before 

Dr. Draper could possibly have had an opportunity to call 

upon Dr. Felix Robertson, custodian of the Robertson 

family papers, Dr. Robertson had given all of the Robertson 

papers to the Nashville University Library. In the year 

1840 Nathaniel Cross certifies: 

The Correspondence, etc., of Gen. James Robertson, who has been 
styled the "Father of Tennessee," was obtained from his son. Dr. Felix 
Robertson of Nashville, with permission to select from it such papers as 
might be considered worth preserving; inasmuch however as many of 
those, that were of a private nature, contained allusions to political 
occurrences and Indian border troubles of the day, it was deemed best to 
preserve the correspondence entire [Editor's italics]. I accordingly ar- 
ranged them in chronological order and had them bound in these two 
volumes. 

The contents of those two volumes included, according 
to a description given in the American Historical Magazine, 
published at Nashville, "Fragments of the correspondence 
of this remarkable man, consisting of copies of letters writ- 
ten by himself, and preserved among his papers. . . . Most 
of the copies of his own letters and of contemporaneous docu- 
ments are in General Robertson's own handwriting." If, 
therefore, the good lady mentioned by the affiant we have 
quoted was particularly anxious to prove the absurdity of 
the statement that General Robertson was illiterate, her 
opportunity to do so was at hand. Living, as she did, in 
Nashville, it was only necessary for her to take the walk to 



348 



Editorial Comment 



the University of Nashville Library, in order to find the full 
collection of the Robertson papers, many of them in General \ 
Robertson's own hand. Those papers were in Nashville 
in 1844, when Draper visited the library and made copious i 
extracts and summaries of them, filling an entire notebook, I 
They never were lent to Dr. Draper by Dr. Felix Robert- i| 
son, who had parted with their possession; they never were | 
lent to Dr. Draper by the library of the University of I 
Nashville, Draper having taken in the form of notes made j 
by himself at Nashville all the data from those papers which 
he was ever likely to need. The papers remained in Nash- [ 
ville. They were there in 1887, when Theodore Roosevelt, K 
in writing his Winning of the West, sought them out. He 
says in the preface to volume one, "I had some difficulty in 
finding the second volume but finally succeeded." It can 
be asserted without hesitation, that Draper had in his I 
collection not a single General James Robertson paper 
which was derived from Dr. Felix Robertson either directly 
or indirectly. And yet the myth, originating no one knows | 
when or how, that Dr. Felix Robertson had lent to Draper a 
great body of his father's papers is now embodied, at the 
instance of a public official of the state of Tennessee, in 
eight distinct and separate affidavits. 

It is hardly necessary to repeat that the process of 
attesting statements of this sort before a notary adds 
nothing to their historical value. 

1923 

So long as "birthday" parties, greetings, and gifts 
continue to be fashionable, the meaning of anniversaries 
cannot be shrouded or unclear. They are seasons wherein 
men look before and after, taking refreshment, sober [ 
counsel, or warning from the past and applying its lessons t 
to the future. However completely on a given anniversary 



i 



Why an Affidavit? 



349 



the incidents of one's life may be reviewed, if this review 
fails to issue in a "birthday resolution" which afiPects the 
new year, the occasion has been imperfectly utilized. 

Anniversaries of states are analogous to the birthdays 
of individuals, and when the people of a great common- 
wealth are able to unite in thought and sentiment for the 
purpose of celebrating an event common to all, the op- 
portunity for a fruitful effort both to revive the memory 
of the past and to plan the growth of the future has in it 
unique possibilities. 

Turning back in imagination to a time now a quarter of 
a millennium in the past, to the year 1673, we can even then 
discern in the midst of pervading barbarism the promise of 
a civilized life in the region which is now Wisconsin. In 
the glorious month of June, in that year, the native red men 
along the Fox- Wisconsin waterway saw the bark canoes of 
JoUiet and Father Marquette, with their seven white oc- 
cupants, as they glided across our state on their adventurous 
voyage to determine the geographical relations of the 
Father of Waters. 

This event lies at the very foundation of our history as a 
civil community. Another event, similarly significant for 
the political history of Wisconsin, is the admission of our 
state into the union in 1848, just seventy-five years ago. 

What can be done to celebrate these two coincident 
anniversaries? How can they be made of maximum 
significance to our people? Can this Society help the state 
government and the legislature in developing plans? Can 
it aid the Daughters of the American Revolution, the 
Federated Women's Clubs, the Department of Public 
Instruction, and other agencies which naturally are equally 
interested with ourselves in making the most of the unique 
opportunity signalized by the number representing the year 
we are now in — 1923? 



350 



Editorial Comment 



THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

The thirty-seventh annual meeting of the American 
Historical Association was held at New Haven, Con- 1 
necticut, from Wednesday, December 27, to Saturday, | 
December 30, 1922. The program, which was rich and i 
varied, included conferences on American history in general, 1 
on Hispanic-American history, on Mississippi Valley his- 
tory; on the work of historical societies; legal history; agri- 
cultural history; British imperial history; philology; ancient 
history. There were eight stated dinner and luncheon i 
conferences, and three notable evening addresses. 

The first of these addresses, presented on Wednesday 
evening, was that of the president of the Association, who, 
this year, was a former University of Wisconsin professor, 
Charles Homer Haskins, now dean of the Graduate School 
of Harvard University. His subject was: "European His- 
tory and American Scholarship." The address, which 
gives evidence at once of profound scholarship and deep 
insight into America's practical relation to world affairs, 
was printed in the January number of the American His- 
torical Review. On Thursday evening Sir Robert Borden, 
of Canada, spoke to a large audience on "Certain Aspects 
of the Political Relations between English Speaking Peo- 
ples," and on Friday evening Secretary of State Charles 
Evans Hughes delivered his now famous address in which 
the presentation of America's plan for meeting the present 
European crisis submerged the formal lecture. 

One of the most impressive functions connected with the 
convention was an informal dinner-luncheon tendered to 
President Haskins by some of his former students. Of 
these there were two groups: an older group, men who sat 
under Haskins' instruction in the halls of Wisconsin Uni- 
versity during the years 1892 to 1906; and a younger group 
of Harvard men. Dean Guy Stanton Ford, of Minnesota 



The Wisconsin Magazine 



351 



University, one of the Wisconsin group (and as he intimated, 
the most venerable appearing member of that group), acted 
as toastmaster, with the fehcity for which he has become 
widely known. The remarks of Dr. Haskins in reply to the 
encomiimis of a number of his admirers were evidently 
charged with deep emotion. 

THE WISCONSIN MAGAZINE 

The Wisconsin Magazine of History has no desire to 
monopolize the name of our great commonwealth as a title 
feature. Yet we recognize the opportunity for confusion 
which results from the announcement by an organization 
entirely distinct from the State Historical Society, of the 
prospective publication of a monthly periodical called the 
Wisconsin Magazine. A number of letters have come to us 
which are designed for that periodical, even some of our 
own members having made the inference that this Society 
was behind the new venture. 

We regret the fact, not by reason of any doubts as to 
the character of the new monthly which is promised, and 
which has our best wishes, but because mistakes of this 
nature always give rise to embarrassment, and embarrass- 
ment begets disgust, which in this case would react to the 
detriment of both the Historical Society and the promoters 
of the Wisconsin Magazine, Let our readers be perfectly 
clear, therefore, that no connection exists between that 
monthly and our Wisconsin Magazine of History, which 
will continue to be issued quarterly. 

Joseph Schafer 



COMMUNICATIONS 

EARLY DAYS OF RHINELANDER 

I have had it in mind for some time to write in regard to the 
little article that appeared in the Wisconsin Magazine of History^ 
about the early days of Rhinelander. This was in the nature of a 
reply to an inquiry which had come from a woman in Rhine- 
lander. The whole matter was of peculiar iilterest to me because it 
happened that for a brief time during the month of June, 1882, 
after the Milwaukee, Lake Shore, and Western Railroad (now the 
Chicago and Northwestern) had been built as far as Monico 
Junction, and was in process of grading from that point to Wis- 
consin River, I was on the site of the coming city and saw the 
whole region before there had been any attempt made to start a 
town. 

As a college student, I went up with the late B. F. Dorr, an 
experienced "timber cruiser," to look over 840 acres of woodland 
in township 36-9, lying south of Pelican River, most of it within 
two miles of the present city of Rhinelander. This land we had 
entered at the land office of Wausau, paying the government price 
of $1.25 an acre. We had a dog tent, and spent a week on the 
land. We met the railroad surveyors at their camp, which was 
located on about the highest ground within the present city of 
Rhinelander, near the confluence of the Pelican and Wisconsin 
rivers. When we crossed the Pelican, we found on the southerly 
bank the cabin of a French-Canadian "homesteader," who, it 
seemed, had lived there many years. Unfortunately he was not 
at home, and we failed to get from him much information about 
the locality which he could undoubtedly have furnished. His 
cabin was the only permanent structure of any kind that we saw 
in all that region of many square miles. 

On our land we found much good hardwood timber — maple, 
birch, oak, popple, basswood — and a few acres covered with hem- 
lock and Norwegian pine. On one quarter-section there was an 
excellent stand of sugar maple. The trees had been tapped 

1 June, 1922. 



Early Days of Rhinelander 



353 



repeatedly, and the Indians had stacked their birch-bark sap 
buckets at the close of the preceding season. One of the small 
lakes or ponds, so numerous in that part of Wisconsin, bordered 
part of the land. I think it very probable that the site of the 
"homesteader's" cabin, and possibly a portion of our own land, 
which we later sold, is now within the limits of the city, though of 
this I am not certain. 

I believe the article in the magazine made no mention of the 
government dam in Wisconsin River at Pelican Rapids. This 
was a part of the system promoted by Congressman Poimd, with a 
view of holding the waters of tributaries to the Mississippi until 
the dry season, when they could be used to raise the level in the 
lower river. I am not sure just when this dam was constructed, 
but the government engineers must have been at work there for 
some time, and probably records of the work can be found at 
Washington. 

Raftsmen, of course, had known of Pelican Rapids since the 
first logging operations on the upper Wisconsin. I note that the 
magazine article speaks of the name Pelican Station having been 
used to denote the site of the present city of Rhinelander. This 
may have been true for the few months preceding the completion 
of the railroad to that point, but at the time we were there the 
spot was known far and wide as Pelican Rapids (the "rapids'* 
referring to the Wisconsin and not to Pelican River) . 

In locating the boundary lines of our land we followed the 
field notes of the government survey, made twenty years before. 
In most cases we found the section corners and "quarter posts," 
by the aid of blazes on "bearing trees," without great diflSculty. 
"Frank" Dorr, my companion on this trip, deserves to be remem- 
bered in connection with the history of northern Wisconsin. 
He was a practical land surveyor, and there were very few town- 
ships of what was then known as the northern wilderness which he 
had not at one time or another visited. During the seventies and 
eighties he traversed on foot the whole region north from Wolf 
River to the Michigan boundary. More than one thriving town is 
built on the land which he had surveyed when it was in a state of 
nature. 



354 



Communications 



As stated in the magazine article, the Rhinelander family of 
New York was then in control of the railroad property. The chief 
engineer of the railroad at that time was Mr. Rumele of Boston. 
Several of the young men in the engineer's camp that we visited 
were from Boston. It is likely that some of these railroad sur- 
veyors are still living, possibly in the vicinity of Rhinelander. 

I cannot close without a word of appreciation for the little \ 
magazine. I enjoy every number of it, and for me, as an old I 
Wisconsin boy, it is one of the most interesting magazines \ 
printed. 

William B. Shaw, New York City 

THE CHICAGO CONVENTION OF 1860 i 

Carl Schurz, in his Reminiscences, I, 4, says: "Memory not 
seldom plays treacherous pranks with us in making us beUeve 
that we have actually witnessed things which we have only heard 
spoken of, or which have only vividly occupied our imagination." 

I believe that when M. P. Rindlaub communicated his inter- 
esting recollections of the Chicago convention of 1860 {Wisconsin 
Magazine of History, March, 1922) — where he relates how, from 
his "seat in the reporter's gallery," he observed that "shortly 
after the convention was called to order, John Hanks, a cousin of 
Abraham Lincoln, carried two weather-beaten rails, which Lincoln 
had split, onto the platform, where they were received with 
tremendous enthusiasm" — his memory played him one of those 
treacherous pranks which Schurz mentions. The incident of the 
old fence rails occurred not at the national convention which 
opened at Chicago on May 16, 1860, but at the Illinois state 
convention held at Decatur, May 9-10, 1860. See the following 
Lives of Lincoln: Tarbell, I, 339-340; Herndon and Weik, II, 
170; Arnold, 162; William E. Curtis, 27; Charnwood, 165. 

While Mr. Rindlaub unquestionably saw those two fence rails 
in Chicago, it could not have been in the convention hall, for they 
stood in the hotel parlor at the Illinois delegation's headquarters. 
See Nicolay and Hay, II, 283-284; Hazelton, in Phantom Club • 
Papers, third series, 15. 

Robert Wild, Milwaukee 



THE SOCIETY AND THE STATE 



Since the last issue of the magazine, the Society has mailed to its 
members and subscribers two publications — the Proceedings for 1922 and 
the first volume of general studies for the Wisconsin Domesday Book, 
entitled A History of Agriculture in Wisconsin, by Joseph Schafer. The 
Proceedings contains a paper by the Superintendent on "The Draper 
Collection of Manuscripts," which was presented at the annual meeting 
of 1922. It is an answer to the challenge of a sister state concerning the 
Society's rightful title to its famous Draper Collection. It is hoped that 
every member and friend of the Society will read it with thoughtful 
care. The History of Agriculture in Wisconsin, although not aiming at a 
complete history of the subject, has been carefully written from the 
best sources, and constitutes an introduction to the intensive local 
studies which are to follow in the Domesday Book series. The illustra- 
tions have been chosen with great care, and many of them have never 
before been published, while some of the maps have been drawn or 
adapted for the purposes of this volume. As agriculture is still the 
major industry of Wisconsin, it is believed that this volume will meet a 
wide acceptance and a hearty welcome. 

During the three months' period ending January 10, 1923, there 
were forty-two additions to the membership roll of the State Historical 
Society. Ten of these enrolled as life members, as follows : Dr. Wendell 
A. Anderson, La Crosse; Frank T. Beers, Washburn; Rev. Joseph W. 
Berg, Milwaukee; Jesse E. Higbee, La Crosse; Maurice E. McCaffery, 
Madison; Charles McPherson, Grand Rapids, Mich.; Elliott M. Ogden, 
Milwaukee; Dr. Harry A. Sifton, Milwaukee; Richard I. Warner, 
Sheboygan; G. S. Wehrwein, Madison. 

Thirty persons became annual members: George O. Banting, 

* Waukesha; William Bloomer, Waukesha; Herman Bremmer, Muscoda; 
Martha S. Dixon, Milwaukee; John J. Esch, Washington, D. C; 
Rev. Herman L. Fritschel, Milwaukee; Nellie 1. Gill, Waukesha; 
Nathan Glicksman, Milwaukee; John G. Graham, Tomah; Daniel W. 
Greenburg, Portland, Ore.; Alfred L. Hall, Plymouth; Mabel V. Hansen, 

( Hartland; Charles F. Harding, Chicago, 111.; Charles J. Hute, Rochester; 
Charles J. Kasten, Milwaukee; Marie A. Kasten, Madison; Harold M. 
Kuckuck, West Salem; Julius A. Laack, Plymouth; Martin H. Meyer, 
Milwaukee; Rt. Rev. Karl A. Mueller, Watertown; Mrs. J. B. Noble, 
Waukesha; Natalie C. Notz, Milwaukee; Charles Pfeifer, Plymouth; 
William F. Pflueger, Manitowoc; Elsie F. Schmidt, Lake Mills; Adolph 
J. Schmitz, Milwaukee; Charles F. Schuetze, Waukesha; Fred A. 

, Shafer, Boyceville; Benjamin D. Stone, Tripoli: Martin J. Torkclson, 
Madison. 

The high school at Plymouth and St. Clara Academy at Sinsinawa 
have been added to the list of Wisconsin school members. Charles L. 
Hill, Rosendale, changed from annual to life membership. 



356 



The Society and the State 



HENRY COLIN CAMPBELL 

At the annual meeting of our Society in 1904, Henry C. Campbell 
of Milwaukee was elected curator to fill the unexpired term of Honorable 
John Johnston of the same city. Mr. Campbell was reelected in 1906, 
and at every triennium since that time, until his death. His interest 
in our history was not only intense, but he made through the medium 
of the Parkman Club of Milwaukee a contribution of substantial worth. 
We give to our readers the following appreciation of Curator Campbell, 
written by a fellow member of the Parkman Club, Gardner P. Stickney: 

Much has been written and said these recent days about the 
accomplishments of Henry Colin Campbell in his chosen profession and 
in club and civic life. In each of these lines he achieved success, reaching 
in each a rank accorded to but few. 

The outstanding qualities of his character were a courtesy for the 
opinions of others without yielding his own, and a tireless energy in 
gathering and sifting information along any lines of investigation which 
attracted his attention. In none of the interests in his very active 
life were these qualities more clearly manifested, than in his studies of 
various men and episodes in early Wisconsin history. 

Henry Campbell's interest in the history of his native state was 
shown first by his study on Radisson and Groseilliers (Parkman Club 
Publication Number 2, 1896). The merit of this monograph was recog- 
nized by students at once. The modest edition of two hundred copies 
was soon exhausted, and even now, after a lapse of twenty-six years, 
requests are received for occasional copies. The following year his 
"Pere Rene Menard" was presented to the club and printed. This 
paper met with as cordial a reception as its predecessor. These papers 
established Henry Campbell's reputation as an historical student, 
careful as to his facts and logical in his conclusions. For many years 
thereafter he was an occasional and welcomed contributor to the publi- 
cations of the State Historical Society, the American Historical Review, 
and other journals. 

Each member of the Parkman Club was pledged to prepare each 
year one paper embodying careful research in some topic relating to 
the history of the Old Northwest. One month before the presentation 
of the paper, its writer was expected to give the other members a memo- 
randum showing the subject, leading authorities consulted and sources 
examined, and general line of argument. The paper was divided into 
at least two sections, with discussion following each section. These dis- 
cussions were valuable and very interesting. They were led by William 
Ward Wight, later president of the State Historical Society, Henry E. 
Legler, who became librarian of the Chicago Public Library and a leader 
in his profession. Dr. Joseph S. LaBoule, professor of ecclesiastical 
history at St. Francis Seminary, and Henry Campbell. These men if 
present, always participated in the discussion, and they were accustomed 
to prepare themselves by something more than a cursory glance at the 
memorandum. This was particularly true of Henry Campbell. He took 
his membership in the club as an obligation, and it was his pleasure to 



Landmarks 



357 



take part in every meeting. Many a paper in its completed form con- 
tains some revision or addition suggested by him in these discussions. 

Careful in preparation, because it was his habit, tenacious in opinion, 
because he believed only in what was right, kindly and often humorous 
in criticism, he exercised a fine influence on his associates of that time. 
This influence broadened to include many more with the increasing 
responsibilities of his later years. 

LANDMARKS 

A special committee on landmarks was appointed by this Society in 
1919, under the chairmanship of Honorable P. V. Lawson; upon his 
death in December, 1920, Honorable John Hazelwood was appointed 
chairman and held the oflSce until his removal from Madison last year. 
The Society regrets to chronicle the death of Mr. Hazelwood at Milwau- 
kee, January 9, 1923. He was a man deeply imbued with a love for 
Wisconsin, her history, and her beauty. His loss will be keenly felt by 
the Wisconsin Archeological Society, the Friends of Our Native Land- 
scape, as well as by our Society. His efforts were influential in the 
campaign to save Aztalan's ancient remains for the state. 

The Landmarks Committee of our Society, as now constituted, 
comprises Harry E. Cole, Baraboo, chairman; O. D. Brandenburg, 
John G. D. Mack, and Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand, Madison; Senator 
W. A. Titus, Fond du Lac; and Judge A. H. Long, Prairie du Chien. 
The committee is planning for a midwinter meeting at Madison and a 
field meet on Labor Day, for which announcement will be made in the 
next magazine. 

Markers are proposed for the Van Hise rock at Ableman, and for a 
bear effigy mound in Devils Lake State Park. 

The Society is also cooperating with other organizations in land- 
marks activities. The Daughters of the American Revolution for 
Wisconsin are especially interested in this movement. The state chair- 
man, Mrs. W. L. Olds, has addressed every chapter on the subject, and is 
developing enthusiastic cooperation. The recent activity of the D. A. R. 
consists in the purchase by the Prairie du Chien chapter of the ruins of 
Fort Crawford. This is a notable act of state patriotism, for the remains 
of this famous fort where Zachary Taylor once commanded, and Jeffer- 
son Davis wooed his daughter, where Black Hawk was imprisoned, and 
many noted officers have lived, were fast disintegrating. The chapter is 
making plans to preserve these remains from further ruin. 

The members of the Waubun chapter at Portage have purchased a 
small piece of land where three roads meet at the site of Fort Winnebago. 
They propose to unveil a tablet there upon Memorial Day. They are 
also increasing the value of their marker already erected at the portage 
to JoUiet and Marquette, by placing thereon a tablet with facts con- 
cerning the carrying place. 

The Elkhorn chapter has erected a marker at Linn to mark the site 
of an old trail in that vicinity. 



358 



The Society and the State 



A notable achievement of the D. A. R. is the erection by the Rhoda 
Hinsdale chapter of ShuUsburg, of a tablet to mark the site of the battle 
of Pecatonica. See an account of the unveiling ceremonies in the 
Proceedings, 1922. 

Several years ago the Buffalo County natives then resident in St. I 
Paul and Minneapolis organized for a yearly outing, which has been i I 
maintained until the present. September 10, 1922, they dedicated a 
tablet to the pioneers on the courthouse square at Alma. Addresses were • 
made by Mayor John Meile; by O. F. Rabbas, president of the society; 
by S. G. Gilman of Mondovi, Theodore Buehler of Alma, and F. Fugina ' 
of Fountain City. In the space behind the tablet was placed the first 
newspaper of the county, issued in 1856; and the names of all the settlers j 
who arrived before 1857. A copy of these names has been sent to the 
Historical Library. 

Early in May the Sauk Coimty Historical Society will unveil a i' 
tablet to mark the site of the first schoolhouse in the Baraboo valley, in ; 
Baraboo, 1844. Wallace Rowan, W. H. Canfield, and Lewis Bronson 
selected the site for the building, and E. M. Hart was the first teacher. ' 
Several persons who attended school in this building are still living. In ! 
this log structure Reverend Warren Cochran, December 18, 1847, 
organized the first church in the Baraboo valley — the Congregational. 
See account of its anniversary in another column. i 

Another interesting project which is well under way is the plan to 
mark the homestead of General Henry Dodge, the first governor of the : 
territory, not far from Dodgeville. Lina M. Johns, a teacher in the 
high school at that place, prepared for the Dodgeville Chronicle of 
November 23, 1922, an historical sketch narrating the important events 
in our history connected with this now almost deserted spot. The 
Woman's Club of Dodgeville is interested in erecting a marker at this 
historic site. 

THE WATROUS PAPERS 

The late Colonel Jerome A. Watrous passed almost his entire life 
in Wisconsin, and was deeply versed in its history and biography. His , 
well known patriotic zeal made him familiar with every phase of Wis- 
consin's share in the Civil War, with which by means of the Loyal ' 
Legion and the Grand Army of the Republic he kept in constant touch. 
As might have been expected, therefore, the papers from his sanctum, i 
which his widow has given the Society, relate very largely to the four 
years of the War between the States. Sketches of Wisconsin regiments 
in action, anecdotes of Wisconsin soldiers and oflScers, descriptions of 
Wisconsin memorials and celebrations — all from the facile pen of 
Colonel Watrous — comprise a large and valuable portion of this collec- 
tion. For he spoke of what he knew, and of times and events in which he 
had a share. Among the most interesting of his Civil War papers are 
the original manuscripts belonging to Captain Joseph Bailey, who in 
1864 made the Red River dam which enabled Admiral David Porter to 
capture Port Hudson on the Mississippi. Bailey was a Wisconsin i 
lumberman and familiar with methods of raising waters to float craft. 



i 



The Aylward Papers 



359 



In 1910 Colonel Watrous engaged in a controversy over the action 
of Virginia in placing the statue of Robert E. Lee in the rotunda of the 
national capitol. Some of the G. A. R. officials were offended by this. 
Watrous, who was a generous soul and had long had pleasant relations 
with the South, vigorously commended Virginia's action and earned the 
gratitude of the men who had worn the grey. Concerning this chivalrous 
episode there is a large group of letters and papers. 

During his sojourn in the Philippines and also during the World 
War, Colonel Watrous' patriotism took on new phases, both of which 
are well illustrated by his papers. During his journalistic career he had 
occasion to "write up" many separate Wisconsin localities. The original 
manuscripts of these articles are among his papers; they are replete with 
interesting anecdotes and stories concerning many personalities of the 
various sections of the state. 

After his retirement from active service, which occurred scarcely a 
year before his death. Colonel Watrous began an autobiography, which 
from his ability as a writer as well as his deep knowledge of Wisconsin 
promised interesting results. Unfortunately he had covered only the 
period of his boyhood, the document coming to an end in 1858; it 
describes, however, most entertainingly a child's experiences in pioneer 
Wisconsin, and the hardships encountered and endured. We plan to 
present some portions of this manuscript to our readers at no distant 
day. These papers, with a Watrous genealogy and some personalia, 
constitute a gift the Society is glad to possess — the Jerome A. Watrous 
papers. 

THE AYLWARD PAPERS 

The untimely death of Honorable John A. Aylward, in November, 
1916, removed a man of mark and promise from the state. Born in 
1861 at Black Earth, Dane County, Mr. Aylward graduated at the 
State University with the class of 1884, proving even while in college to 
be a formidable debater and a clear-thinking logician. Entering the 
legal profession, he devoted himself not only to his private business, but 
to the welfare of the community. A lifelong Democrat, he was twice 
candidate for governor on the minority ticket, and a hard worker at the 
several campaigns. In 1912, occupying a position of influence with his 
party, he successfully conducted a primary campaign, which placed upon 
the Wisconsin state ballot the name of Woodrow Wilson for president. 
This was the opening gun of the Wilson candidacy, and had much in- 
fluence in securing his nomination at the national convention, to which 
Mr. Aylward was delegate at large. Thereafter he was in the councils 
of the administration, and influential with the leaders of the government 
at Washington. He was appointed district attorney for the federal 
court of the western district of Wisconsin, and held that office until his 
death. He was interested in all the larger movements of his time, and 
rendered notable service during the early years of the World War, 
although not living to see America's participation. 

One member of the last law firm with which he was connected was 
Michael Olbrich, now legal adviser of the state executive. Mr. Olbrich 



360 



The Society and the State 



has secured for the Society the papers of his former partner, John A: 
Aylward, ranging in time from 1901 until 1916, and comprising much 
information concerning the history of the Democratic party and larger 
political movements in the period before the World War. 

HONOR FOR GENERAL BRAGG 

General Edward S. Bragg, loved of Wisconsin people "for the! 
enemies he made," has been awarded a belated recognition by his home J 
town of Fond du Lac. During the general's lifetime a marble bust of | 
him was cut by Robert Powrie, a skillful artist and a personal friend; | 
this sculpture is considered by the Bragg family as the best likeness of t 
of the general. Powrie, however, had refused to part with the marble I 
until last autumn, when he offered it to the county of Fond du Lac, which j 
secured the statue. It is to be placed in the county courthouse as a j 
permanent memorial to the soldier statesman Wisconsin delights to | 
honor. It will also stand as a memorial to the artist, who has since the | 
date of the purchase joined the vast majority of the silent dead. 

LINCOLN AND THE SCOTCH LAD 

We condense from the Milwaukee Journal of June 18 the following ^ 
true story: 

One of the chief features of the state fair at Milwaukee in 1859 was 
a plowing contest and a prize which was awarded to the plowboy who 
turned the straightest furrow. A young Illinois lawyer, who had just i; 
given an address on agriculture before the assembled farmers, took great : 
interest in the plowing contest, which followed his speech. The victor j 
was a Scotch lad who had come to Milwaukee but two years before [ 
from the land of Robert Burns. Jamie Bryden, as he stepped forward \ 
bashfully to receive the prize, felt his hand grasped by the tall speaker, j 
who gazed at him admiringly and asked, "What is your business, young 
man?" "I'm a feed merchant," Jamie replied proud.ly, having a few 
months before established a business of his own. Laying his large kind 
hand on the youth's shoulder, Lincoln slowly shook his head. "You 
never learned to plow that way in a feed store," he said. Bryden 
hastened to explain that he was a Scotch farmer's son, not long from the 
old country, whereupon his interlocutor gave him a pleasant smile, and i 
commented on the value of Scotch methods of farming. 

His life long, Mr. Bryden enjoyed repeating this story of Lincoln. 
His true hero, however, was Robert Burns, and to James Bryden, 
Milwaukee is indebted for the Burns statue unveiled July 4, 1895. 

A memorial to the Lincoln campaign of 1860 has recently been 
presented to the city of Waukesha, and placed in its Cutler Park. This ■> 
is a small brass cannon which was carried in procession during the i 
campaign, and dubbed "The Railsplitter" in compliment to the can- 
didate. 

THE STOCKBRIDGE CENTENNIAL [ 

In four years more the state will begin centennial observations of 
the first settlements on its southwestern border. Meanwhile, in Octo- ' 
ber, 1922, at Gresham, in Shawano County, was celebrated the centen- ; 



Church Anniversaries 



361 



nial of the first band of Stockbridge Indians to settle in Wisconsin. 
This tribe has followed the famous advice of Horace Greeley, migrating 
successively from Massachusetts to western New York, thence to the 
Fox River valley in Wisconsin, where their first home and mission was 
at South Kaukauna. In Wisconsin Historical CollectionSy xv, 39-204, 
may be read the interesting diary and reports of one of their early mis- 
sionaries. Reverend Cutting Marsh. Their home was at first called 
Statesburgh; some years afterwards the tribe removed to Calumet 
County and founded Stockbridge, east of Lake Winnebago. At this 
period there was much restlessness, and many of the Indians wished 
to remove entirely from Wisconsin. No such exodus, however, took 
place; but in the fifties of last century, the Stockbridges retroceded to 
the government their reservation in Calumet County, and removed with 
their friends the Menominee to Shawano County, where their reserva- 
tions adjoin. John W. Quinney was the principal chief of the tribe 
when they came to Wisconsin; his activities are recorded and his charac- 
ter eulogized in Wisconsin Historical Collections, iv, 303-333, under the 
title of the "Last of the Mohicans." He was, however, by no means 
the last, since his grandson, Jameson M. Quinney, still officiates as the 
oldest of the elders of the Stockbridge church at Gresham, and is 
custodian of the Bible presented to his tribe before the American Revolu- 
tion by the reigning king, George III. Among the famous missionaries 
of this Indian group have been Reverend Jonathan Edwards, Reverend 
John Sergeant, and Reverend David B. Brainard. Their first Wiscon- 
sin missionary was Reverend Jesse Miner, who succumbed to the hard- 
ships of Wisconsin's winter climate, and died at Statesburgh, March 22, 
1827. 

CHURCH ANNIVERSARIES 

Some of the oldest churches in the state celebrated their founding 
in October last. The Congregational church at Hartland kept its 
eightieth birthday with appropriate song and sermon. In Racine, 
St. Luke's Episcopal Church held a four days' festival and issued a 
booklet in commemoration of its advent in 1842. The Whitewater 
church of the same name and the same denomination has held continu- 
ous services for eighty years, since the time this young settlement was 
first organized in a log schoolhouse by the Reverend Richard T. Cadle, 
first Episcopal missionary to Wisconsin. 

Three-quarters of a century of the First Baptist Church of Madison 
was celebrated during the last winter. The Congregational church 
of Hartford attained the same age in last October. During all the 
autumn the Archbishopric of Milwaukee has been holding conimemora- 
tory services of the founding of its Cathedral of St. John in 1847. In 
the same city Trinity Evangelical Church, corner of Ninth and Prairie, 
celebrated its diamond jubilee October 15 to 22. The Sentinel published 
pictures of the first and present-day buildings used by this congregation. 

In 1847 a colony of Hollanders organized the First Reformed (^hurch 
of Milwaukee, which now worships at Tenth and Harmon streets in that 
city. Only two of the charter members of this church still survive. 



362 



The Society and the State 



The First Congregational Church of Baraboo held in January an 
eight-day celebration of its seventy-fifth birthday. The program 
honored the memory of twenty-one former pastors, and of its eight 
pioneer founders. 

In fiftieth anniversaries Bay View, at the southern end of Mil- 
waukee, specialized last autumn — St. Luke's Evangelical Lutheran, 
Grace Presbyterian, and Bethany churches of that neighborhood all 
holding celebrations. St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran of Stevens 
Point and Our Saviour's Norwegian Lutheran Church of Marinette * 
both held golden jubilees in 1922. Fifty years ago last summer a Sun- 
day-school was organized in the western part of Oshkosh, which by 
December grew into the Algoma Methodist Episcopal Church. This 
event was celebrated with three days' services last December. 

After chronicling the happy celebrations of many flourishing f, 
churches, it is sad to report the abandonment of a rural church, whose k 
building, first erected in 1849, was wrecked last autumn. This was the i 
Episcopal Church of the Holy Communion, erected on Bloom Prairie, | 
near Bloomfield, Waukesha County, by the Reverend William H. 
Whiting, under the Episcopal supervision of Bishop Kemper. It i 
contained the first pipe-organ installed in Wisconsin, and was a fine 
hewn oak structure with a tower. The descendants of its pioneer 
parishioners have nearly all removed from the neighborhood. Last 
spring the tower blew down in a storm; thereafter the church authori- , 
ties decided it was best to wreck the old building rather than to leave it 
to ruin and disintegration. So the Holy Communion Church of Bloom 
Prairie is no more. 

A CIVIL WAR NURSE 

I 

Mrs. Susannah Van Valkenburg, now living in Oshkosh, is one of 
the few Civil War nurses who yet remain with us. She was with her 
husband in 1863 at Alexandria, Virginia, where she made a twelve-foot 
board room in the soldiers' camp into a home where the "boys" delighted 
to come and be mothered. She solicited money from the soldiers in 
their winter quarters, and bought dainties for the sick boys in the | 
hospitals — jellies that made their eyes sparkle; warm, nourishing soup j 
which helped in their restoration. It is said that she even cured a dying 
lad, by making for him "biscuits like my mother used to make." In 
1864 she received a regular appointment from the Christian Commis- 
sion, and regularly visited the hospitals of Alexandria. 

Now, sixty years afterwards, Mrs. Van Valkenburg devotes her 
leisure time to making beautiful laces, which she gives to many promi- 
nent persons whom she admires. Queen Elizabeth of Belgium gra- 
ciously accepted a collar from this American woman; and during Mrs. 
Harding's recent illness Mrs. Van Valkenburg sent a tribute of flowers 
worked out in lace. For this gift she received a letter from the White 
House, which she cherishes as her greatest treasure. 

Sixty years as guardians of the health and welfare of Racine citizens 
have stood three physicians, father, son, and grandson, all bearing the 
same name — ^John Goldesbrough Meachem. The eldest Meachem 



Museum Notes 



363 



came to the city just as the Civil War was causing Camp Utley to be 
built within Racine's borders. For two years he had charge of the 
camp's regimental hospital; three times he served his adopted city as 
mayor, and was trustee of Racine College from 1874 until his death 1896. 
His son was but six years old when brought from New York State to 
Racine. He followed in his father's footsteps as a physician, after 
education at Rush Medical College, Chicago. In 1872 father and son 
cooperated in establishing St. Luke's Hospital; the son is on the faculty 
of the Chicago College of Physicians and Surgeons, and at present is 
vice president of the Wisconsin Hospital Association. John G. Mea- 
chem III is also a graduate of Rush Medical College, has studied in 
London and Paris, and has been for several years the efficient partner 
of his father in active practice. In all, this family has contributed an 
aggregate of one hundred and eleven years' service to the citizens of 
Racine. 

Sailing vessels have almost disappeared from the Great Lakes, 
except where used as pleasure craft; therefore Milwaukeeans who 
watch the port arrivals were interested to see a schooner enter the harbor 
at a recent date. This schooner was the J. H. Stevens, built in 1866; 
reduced from her proud position of full schooner rig, she carries now but 
fore- and mainsail, and ignominiously depends upon a gasoline engine 
for motive power. How are the mightly fallen! The Stevens motored 
over from a Michigan port to Milwaukee with a load of potatoes. 

The December, 1922, issue of our magazine chronicled the advent 
of the first electric lighting plant in the West at Appleton in September, 
1882. Janesville proved a close second, for its first lights appeared 
December 7, of the same year. The dynamo was connected with the 
Janesville Machine Company Works, and there were ten patrons in 
the business section of the city. This plant was not an Edison type, 
but one of the electric arc lights under the Weston patent. 

We have mentioned in another column a history of the pioneer 
lawyers of Manitowoc. That city was the home of a delightful celebra- 
tion when the bench and bar united to honor the fiftieth anniversary 
of the admission to its ranks of Honorable Lyman J. Nash, late revisor 
of statutes for the state. Mr. Nash is still in active practice, and is 
identified with the higher life of his community in many substantial ways^ 

MUSEUM NOTES 

Mr. Brown, chief of the Historical Museum, spoke before the 
Lion's Club at the Park Hotel, Madison, December 8, 1922, on "The 
Mission of the Museum"; before a chapter of the same organization 
at Sheboygan, December 19, on "The Preservation of Sheboygan 
County Indian Memorials"; and before the Century Club at Madison, 
January 7, 1923, on "Madison's First Settlers." 

The Historical Museum has prepared for use of teachers of art in 
the high schools of the state an "Indian Decorative Arts" loan collection. 
This consists at the present time of about thirty 10 x 18 caniboard 



364 



The Society and the State 



sheets upon which are mounted colored drawings of American Indian 

art motives reproduced from designs on aboriginal articles of dress, i 

earthenware, implements, and other materials in the Museum and in | 

the leading museums of the eastern states. The art of many tribes 1 

is thus represented. Each sheet contains from four to six designs. 1 

Wherever possible, the Indian significance of these is given. It is the | 

intention of the Museum further to extend this collection as the need i 

for it arises. A loan of it may be obtained by schools, upon applica- i 
tion to the Museum. 

A notable Christmas gift received by the Museum is the council 1| 
pipe of the former noted Wisconsin Winnebago chief Yellow Thunder I 
(Wau-kaun-cha-ze-kah). It is presented by W. J. Langdon of Sumner, j 
Washington, members of whose family have had it for years. The • 
flat wooden stem of this great pipe is thirty-two and one-half inches in ! 
length, and its heavy mottled red bowl is six and one-half inches long. 
The latter is a particularly fine example of Indian stone carving, and is " 
inlaid at both the bowl and the stem with several encircling lead rings. ' 
It is highly polished. It makes a valuable addition to the collection 
of pipes of notable Wisconsin chiefs which the Museum owns. One 
of the earliest of these dates back to 1820. 

Yellow Thunder, the war chief, was born about 1774 and died in 
1874. He figured prominently in the early history of southern Wiscon- 
sin. In 1828, he and his squaw, "The Washington Woman," were 
members of a party of Winnebago who went to Washington to inter- 
view the President. He was buried on a small piece of land which he 
owned in Delton Township, Sauk County. The Sauk County His- 
torical Society has erected a monument over his remains. An oil 
painting of him hangs in the Indian history room of the Museum. 

Recent gifts to the State Historical Museum include two Chippewa 
Indian yarn bags, presented by Mrs. W. S. Marshall, Madison; an old 
mariner's compass given by Mrs. J. A. Cadman, Stevens Point; old 
children's scrap books, by Alice Jackson, Madison; an Austrian pewter 
medal given to wounded World War soldiers, 1918, by Senator W. A. 
Titus, Fond du Lac; Geneva hand fluter (1866), tin spice boxes (1872), 
and tea strainer (1880), by Mrs. L. E. Stevens, Madison; tin diploma 
used by the State Board of Pharmacy for thirty years, H. J. Ruenzel, 
Milwaukee; thirty samples and patterns of wool embroidery (1870- 
1880), dance and reception programs (1869-73), by Mary E. Hazeltine, 
Madison; horse-collar machine, Frederick Bodenstein, Madison; Con- 
federate shell, C. M. Larson, Madison; World War soldiers' aluminum 
identification tags, by F. C. Thiessen, Madison. The late John A. 
Hazelwood of Milwaukee presented a small collection of Indian stone 
implements made by him years ago in Jefferson County. The College 
of Agriculture of the University of Wisconsin has presented a butter 
bowl, butter ladle, milk pan, tin skimmers, butter printer, churn, and 
cheese press — a complete exhibit illustrating early home butter and 
cheese making in Wisconsin. 



Our Contributors 



365 



On the evening of November 6, 1922, an exhibit of homecoming 
posters and statuettes prepared by students of the applied arts depart- 
ment of the University of Wisconsin, and students of the art courses 
of the Madison high school and University high school, was shown 
in the north hall of the Museum. This exhibit was of a competitive 
character, the prizes for the best poster and the best statuette being 
two silver cups of unusual design. There were about fifty entries in 
the poster contest, many of them being of notable excellence. Seven 
clay statuettes were entered. The judges of the exhibit were Professor 
W. H. Varnum, A. N. Colt, Frank Riley, and Arthur F. Worth. A 
number of students and others came to view the exhibit, which re- 
mained in place for parts of two days. 

The Wisconsin Archeological Society issued in February a new 
publication entitled Monona, in which the Indian history, and the 
native sites and earthworks on the shores of this beautiful Madison 
lake, are fully described. Charles E. Brown is the author of this pub- 
lication, which contains information based on investigations conducted 
between the years 1908 and 1922. The total number of aboriginal 
earthworks formerly existing on and near the shores of Lake Monona is 
shown to have been 170. There were fourteen distinct groups of these, 
the largest and most important of which were located in East Madison, 
at Fairhaven Point and Fairhaven, in the Frost Woods, at the outlet 
of the lake, in South Madison, on the dividing ridge, and on Oregon 
Street. The principal Indian village sites were on both sides of the out- 
let, in East Madison and in the region between Ethelwyn Park and 
Hoboken. This publication is the fourth of a series of pamphlets 
describing the Indian history and remains of the five Madison lakes, 
those previously issued covering Lakes Mendota, Wingra, and Waubesa, 

The July to November, 1922, issue of the Wisconsin Conservationist, 
which has just made its appearance, contains among others, short articles, 
on "Groups of Indian Mounds," "Indian Names of the Madison Lakes," 
"Lakes and Streams of Wisconsin," "The Earthmaker," and "Winne- 
bago Legends." 

OUR CONTRIBUTORS 

Dr. William EUery Leonard ("Wisconsin") is associate professor of 
English in the University of Wisconsin. He has published several 
volumes of poems, as well as two plays. Glory of the Morning and Red 
Bird, based on events in Wisconsin history. 

Superintendent Joseph Schafer ("The Yankee and the Teuton in 
Wisconsin") is preparing a series of articles under this title for the maga- 
zine, of which this is the second. 

Hosea Whitford Rood ("The Grand Army of the Republic and tlie 
Wisconsin Department") is custodian of the G. A. R. headquarters at 
the state capitol. When a boy of sixteen he enlisted in Coinpany E, 
Twelfth Wisconsin Infantry, and served throughout the Civil War, 
being mustered out July 16, 1865. 



366 



The Society and the State 



Honorable W. A. Titus ("Empire: A Wisconsin Town*') is state i 
senator from Fond du Lac. He has been a frequent contributor to i 
our magazine; this article, concerning his native town, was contributed 
by request of the editor. 

Samuel M. Williams ("Micajah T. Williams") prepared this sketch 1 
of his grandfather's life at the request of the editor. Mr. Williams, a ] 
son of Major Charles H. Williams, of Baraboo, is a lawyer at Mil- ^ 
waukee. 

Lowell J. Ragatz, B.A. University of Wisconsin, 1920, took honors 
on his thesis, and has had two years of graduate work at Wisconsin i 
and University of Pennsylvania. He sends us these interesting docu- 
ments ("A Swiss Family in the New World: Letters of Jakob and I 
Ulrich Buhler") from Paris, where he is continuing his studies. | 



BOOK REVIEWS 



The Swedish Year Booh. (St. Paul, 1922) 

The historical societies maintained by our hyphenated Americans 
are all doing excellent work for the future of historical studies of Ameri- 
can origins. The Swedish Historical Society of America, formerly 
centering in Chicago, has now removed its headquarters to Minneapolis. 
The library of this society has been incorporated with that of the Min- 
nesota Historical Society on terms advantageous for both societies. 
After an hiatus of five years, the Swedish Society has once more issued a 
Year Book, for 1921-22. This contains several excellent articles on 
Swedish- Americans of note, and a number of typical letters from Ameri- 
can immigrants written to friends and relatives in Sweden. These are 
printed both in Swedish and in an English translation, and form useful 
sources for the history of the Northwest. 

Pioneer Courts and Lawyers of Manitowoc County y Wisconsin: Collec- 
tions and Recollections. By James Sibree Anderson. (Manitowoc, 
1922) 

It is fortunate for the history of the state, when one of its in- 
fluential and active pioneers undertakes the history of his own profession, 
and as thoroughly sets forth both the personalities and the institutions 
as Judge Anderson has done in this small book. The sketches, originally 
appearing in the Manitowoc Pilot in 1920-21, are well worthy of the 
larger circulation they will have when gathered into this volume. The 
bar and bench of Manitowoc has been and is still a notable one. Its 
presiding judges have been among the leading legal forces of our state; 
it has furnished judges to the supreme and other state courts; while one 
of its living members was appointed the first permanent incumbent 
of the office of state revisor of statutes. The Society is grateful to 
Judge Anderson for his Collections and Recollections, and hopes his 
example may prove an incentive to others to follow in his footsteps. 

James W. Bashford. By George R. Grose. (New York: Methodist 
Book Concern, 1922) 

Bishop Bashford is one of the exceptional men that Wisconsin has 
sent into the broader field. His biography by the president of DePauw 
University devotes the first two chapters to the Wisconsin portion of 
his life, being concerned with his "Early Years'* and his days as "A 
College Student." James W. Bashford was born in Lafayette County, 
whither his father had migrated from New Jersey; while from his 
mother he inherited a Scotch-Irish strain from Virginia, Kentucky, 
and Illinois. 

While a small boy he saw his cousin, John B. Parkinson, leave for 
the gold mines of California; and it was the same cousin who tauglit the 
school where young Bashford was prepared for the University. It was 



368 



Book Reviews 



the University of pioneer days which he entered in 1867; nevertheless 
there were professors there of the highest rank, and before his graduation 
Bashford came under the powerful influence of President John Bascom. 
It seems diflBcult to connect such men as Bishop Bashford, President 
W. E. Huntington, and Reverend I. S. Leavitt with college pranks; 
but his biographer assures us that Bashford was a "real boy," by relating 
some of his mischievous escapades. He was also concerned in "student 
activities,'* and with the late George W. Raymer of the Democrat 
founded the University Press, the predecessor of the Daily Cardinal. 
Bashford's senior oration was on "James Gates Percival," which made 
so profound an impression that plans were immediately laid for the 
erection of a monument to that neglected genius. It was while Bash- 
ford was still in college that he determined his life work, a choice which 
led him to the theological school at Boston, to the presidency of Ohio 
Wesleyan, and ultimately to the bishopric, the highest office in his 
church. When elected bishop in 1904, he at once chose for his field 
the mission in China, saying that from boyhood he had longed for the 
opportunity of working there. Of his great work for China, his re- 
sistance to the Japanese demands of 1915, his aid to the Chinese republic, 
this is not the place to speak. His death in 1919 removed from this 
world an eminent and noble son of Wisconsin. 

Life Under Two Flags. By James Demarest Eaton. (New York, 1922) 
This book is an autobiographical sketch of a missionary son of 
Wisconsin, who was graduated at Beloit in 1869. Samuel W. Eaton 
was a pioneer Congregational minister in Wisconsin, who in territorial 
days came by stagecoach to take charge of a log schoolhouse church at 
Lancaster. There his son James was born in the year Wisconsin was 
admitted to the union. "These," he writes, "were the days when prairie 
schooners were a common sight . . . when the Virginia rail fence 
was ordinarily used to make an enclosure; ... when at times the 
heavens were almost darkened with enormous flocks of migrating 
pigeons; . . . when venison and bear meat could be had for our 
table; when in the winter our father would get a hind quarter of beef, 
. . . pack it in snow to be dug out at intervals for feeding his four 
hungry boys." Of these boys, two became physicians, one, president 
of Beloit College for over a quarter of a century, and the fourth, our 
author, home missionary to Oregon and foreign missionary to Mexico, 
for a lifetime of service. Now in well merited leisure in California he 
has written a brief sketch of the varied experiences of his life. The 
early and the college days are of especial interest to Wisconsin readers. 

History of Langlade County. Compiled by Robert M. Dessereau. 
(Antigo, 1922) 

A feature of this volume which distinguishes it from many other 
county histories is the unusual wealth of detailed records and statistical 
matter it contains. The list of settlers in 1880, the military records of 
the county, the records of the towns, their officers, and the records of 
schools, churches, even cheese factories within the towns; the apparently 



Book Reviews 



369 



complete reports on industrial, agricultural, commercial, and fraternal 
institutions, impart to the book something of the character of a com- 
pendious gazetteer. If this detracts somewhat from its claims as a 
literary venture, it enhances its value as a work of general reference. 

We have had no opportunity to test the accuracy with which 
these records have been gathered and transcribed, but we welcome 
the book as a new and apparently very useful contribution to the local 
history of northern Wisconsin. 

Printed as it is on good, clear paper, from apparently new type, 
profusely illustrated and handsomely bound, it makes a pleasing im- 
pression. It contains 352 double-column pages. 

SOME WISCONSIN PUBLIC DOCUMENTS 

The College of Agriculture has issued an historical pamphlet 
entitled Fifty Years of Dairy Progress and Plans for Fifty More. His- 
tory is presented graphically in this small brochure, conditions of 
progress being illustrated in page after page of poster-like sketches. One 
of the earliest declares that "Fifty years ago in the days of the brindle 
cow, the dash churn, the butter bowl and the grocery store market, 
commercial dairying in Wisconsin was of little importance. The entire 
dairy output was worth less than a million annually." By competent 
leadership, science, and invention, this form of agriculture has been 
developed until now the yearly output is ten billion pounds of milk, 
which furnishes a quarter of Wisconsin's total income. Nor are our 
dairymen satisfied with the results attained. Plans are already making 
for increased production, marketing improvements, and continued 
growth. 

The State Parks of Wisconsin is the title of a pamphlet issued last 
year by the Conservation Commission, full of interesting information 
on the location, natural features, and historical importance of this 
kind of public property. There are now nine parks, as follows: Devils 
Lake, Door County Peninsula, St. Croix Interstate, Nelson Dewey, 
Pattison, Perrot, Cushing Memorial, Brule, and Jenkin Lloyd Jones at 
Tower Hill. The state has also a small reserve at Old Belmont, the 
first capital. Among the parks with historic associations is the Nelson 
Dewey, at the mouth of Wisconsin River, with its outlook over the 
place where two and a half centuries ago the Mississippi River was 
first seen. Ascending that stream to Perrot Park one encounters 
famous Mount Trempealeau, discovered in 1680, at the base of which 
lies the site of one of the earliest French posts in Wisconsin. The 
associations connected with Tower Hill are mentioned in the preceding 
issue of this magazine. Cushing Park is a memorial of Civil War days. 
The commission announces its purpose to preserve the most historical 
and most unique sites in our entire beautiful state. 

The twentieth volume of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, 
Arts, and Letters Transactions contains an appreciation of the Swedish 



I 



370 Book Reviews 

naturalist Thure Kumlien, resident in Wisconsin 1843 to 1888, by the! 
late Publius V. Lawson. Kumlien was one of Wisconsin's most emi-i 
nent scientists, who for over forty years after his immigration to Jef-i 
ferson County conducted a large correspondence with European savants 
and prepared specimens for the museums of both Europe and America. 
In 1881 Kumlien's abilities were recognized by his appointment to theij 
curatorship of the Milwaukee Museum of Natural History, where he i 
labored earnestly until his death in 1888. His descendants live near his «| 
early Wisconsin home. An article from the pen of his granddaughter! 
appeared in the September, 1922, issue of this magazine. 

The Platteville Normal School has issued a special bulletin in j 
memory of Professor Duncan McGregor, so long connected with that ] 
institution, who died May 30, 1921. Dr. McGregor was a man with |, 
whom the old world enriched the new. He was born in 1836 in Scot- f 
land, educated at the University of Aberdeen, and immigrated in 1857 [ 
with his father's family to Waupaca County. Enthusiastically ac- i 
cepting his new citizenship, he enlisted in the Civil War and emerged a ' 
captain. Thereafter his entire life was devoted to his chosen profession j 
of teaching. He was a member of the Platteville faculty from 1867 to I 
his demise, for two terms — 1879-94, 1897-1904 — serving as its presi- 
dent. For many years he was on the Board of Normal School Regents, 
and from 1911 to 1915 acted as private secretary to Governor Francis 
McGovern. His career was an honor to his adopted state. 

The University of Wisconsin has issued within the last year three 
Studies of imusual value to historical students. That by Michael 
Rostovtzeff, professor of ancient history, is entitled A Large Estate in 
Egypt in the Third Century B. C. It shows that ancient history is not 
an ancient subject, since it is based on papyri discovered as recently as 
1915. Essentially an economic study, it relates to the period of the early 
Ptolemies, concerning whose administration little has hitherto been 
known. The Greek usurpers of the Egyptian throne were faced with 
the necessity of restoring and consolidating the economic life of their 
recent conquest. The correspondence of the manager of an estate 
near Philadelphia (now Gerza in the Fayum) affords Professor Rostovt- 
zeff the opportunity of setting forth the systematized irrigation, the 
leasing system, the methods of the distribution of seeds, the raising 
and harvesting of grains and oil plants, the grazing of herds, and the 
relations of peasants and owners in this distant land and epoch. Even 
in that time strikes were a menace, and friction engendered between 
the Greek conquerers and their subordinates made labor troubles on 
this large estate. 

Professor Wayland J. Chase, associate professor of history and 
education, has translated and annotated a Latin textbook of the medi- 
eval schools, known as The Distichs of Cato. The vogue of this series 
of moral maxims was so great that it was used even as late as the 
eighteenth century. It was a Latin Poor Richard's Almanac y some of 



Book Reviews 



371 



its maxims being "Love thy wife''; "Keep thy word"; "Be moderate 
with wine"; "Fight for thy country"; "Be not easily unposed upon." 

British Criticisms of American Writings 1815 to 1833 is William 
B. Cairns' recent contribution to American literary history. Answering 
Sidney Smith's sneering challenge, "Who reads an American Book?" 
Professor Cairns has authoritatively proved that the prejudices en- 
gendered by the War of 1812 quickly passed, and that Washington 
Irving, James Fennimore Cooper, William CuUen Bryant, and others 
commanded from the British attention not unmixed with respect. 



VOL. VI 



1922 1923 



THE 

WISCONSIN MAGAZINE 
OF HISTORY 




PUBLICATIONS OF THE 
STATE HISTORICAL 
SOCIETY OF W^ISCON- 

SIN. Edited by JOSEPH 
SCHAFER, Superintendent 



CONTENTS 



A Polish Pioneer's Story .... Mrs, William F. Allen 373 

The Yankee and the Teuton in Wisconsin 

Joseph Schafer 386 

The Grand Army of the Republic . . Rosea W. Rood 403 

An Historic Collection of War Portraits 

Louise Phelps Kellogg 414 

A Footnote to the Story of a Great Court 

Lucien S, Hanks 419 

Charles Henry Williams — A Sketch 

Samuel M. Williams 424 

John Coumbe, the First White Settler in Rich- 
land County Camille Coumbe 435 

Documents : 

The Speech of Honorable John E. Cashman, 
Senator from the First District, on Bill No. 108, S. 444 

Editorial Comment: 

Popular Censorship of History Texts 450 

Communications : 

A Correction 462 

The Society and the State 463 

Book Reviews 470 



The Society as a body is not responsible for statements or opinions advanced 
in the following pages by contributors 

COPYRIGHT^ 1922, BY THE STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF WISCONSIN 

Paid for out of the George B. Burrows Fund Income 




VINCENT DZIEWANOWSKI 
After a photograph lent by Mrs. F. E. Walbridge 



A POLISH PIONEER'S STORY 
Mrs. William F. Allen 

It was my good fortune in the later sixties to spend a 
few days in a Wisconsin log house among the hills a few 
miles from the village of Avoca. The house was in so 
lonely a spot that a yellow wolf had come within shooting 
distance of the door the night before we arrived. The 
country was both wild and beautiful. A clear stream ran 
through the valley, so cold that it served as an ice chest, 
and all the cream and milk was kept in the * 'spring house." 
But though the surroundings were charming and the 
primitive manner of life most interesting to one who had 
lately come from conservative New England, the family 
was even more so. And it was by the light of the blazing 
logs on their hearth in those evenings, that the farmer, 
Dziewanowski (usually pronounced Dev-a-nos'-ki) , gave 
me this account of his early life in Poland, and of the 
wanderings that had brought him to Wisconsin in pioneer 
days. I wish he might have lived to rejoice in the present 
wonderful rise of Poland since the World War, and in its 
hope for the future, aided by its many friends — notably 
the American and English Quakers. 

Poland lies like a great prairie, unprotected, save for a 
short distance on the south by the low range of the Car- 
pathian Mountains. Thus it seemed an easy prize to 
Austria, Prussia, and Russia, the strong countries that 
surrounded it. They looked with longing eyes on its 
fertile grain fields, its rich mines, and its fine harbor of 
Danzig. They saw in the brave Polish youth good material 
for their armies. So they divided it among themselves, 
stole its wealth, took away its freedom, and even tried 
to prevent the people from speaking their own language. 
Of course the Poles resisted these robbers, long and des- 



374 



Mrs, William F. Allen 



perately, but the robbers were too strong for them. Though 
the Poles won many battles, fighting with scythes and 1 
whatever rude weapons they could find, they at last were 
subdued. Their brave leaders were killed, or exiled from \ 
their native land, while the common soldiers were forced f 
to serve in the armies of their conquerors. 

Of Kosciusko, who came to this country and fought so 
valiantly in the Revolution, we have all read, as we have 
read of his later bloody defeat while fighting for the libera- 
tion of his own country. That incident seemed to end all 
hope of successful resistance. But, although thereafter 
Poland actually lay helpless in the power of her conquerors, 
patriots occasionally raised the standard of revolt, and in 
1830 a great nationalist insurrection against Russia took 
place, which lasted more than a year and was put down 
with terrible cruelty. It is said that five thousand Polish 
families were exiled to Siberia as a punishment for partici- 
pation in the uprising. It is the story of one of these 
Polish revolutionists that I will tell here, as he told it to me 
sitting by the fireside in his home among the Wisconsin 
hills. 

The Polish troops had fought bravely, though their 
force was small, and hoped soon to meet reinforcements, 
when in a long march through the woods the foremost 
detachment suddenly found itself within the Russian 
lines. Then the men knew too late that their oflScers were 
traitors and had plotted to give them up to the enemy. 
It was impossible to march back, for their retreat was cut 
off by the Russian troops, but it was not too late for revenge. 
The oflicers were shot dead by the excited soldiers. Now 
the only hope for the men was to scatter in the woods, 
each one seeking for himself his place of rendezvous outside 
the Russian lines. Here a fresh diflSculty occurred. Sending 
out spies to discover the position of the enemy, they found 
themselves nearly surrounded by a strong Russian guard. 



A Polish Pioneer's Story 



375 



And worse still, this guard must have owed its position to 
the information given to its commander by the traitor, 
the Polish general, concerning the exact movements and 
plans of the Polish troops. Yet night was approaching, 
and they still had some chance of safety. So they parted 
in the woods, hoping but hardly daring to believe that 
they should meet again. 

The Pole whose story I tell reached the place of rendez- > 
vous and found but twenty-four of the twenty-five who were 
to unite there. They waited long and anxiously, listening 
for each footfall, and hearing only, as the wind brought 
it, the measured tramp of the guard in the Russian camp, 
which was just beyond the low hills that surrounded them. 
They had waited till past midnight, and all chance of their 
companion's coming seemed gone, when Dziewanowski 
begged his comrades to wait but one hour more while he 
went back through the wood, between the Russian guards, 
to search for his friend. It was a dangerous undertaking, 
for the slightest noise would arouse the sentries, and this 
would mean certain death. But love for his friend con- 
quered all fear. He crept through the low bushes, and 
watched the guards approach and pass each other, leaving 
an open space between them from which each was turned 
away. Then seizing this moment, he crept in the shadow 
through the unguarded space and gained the wood. There 
he searched long and painfully, crawling on hands and 
knees under the low bushes to feel for his friend, for he 
dared not call. At last his fidelity was rewarded. He 
found him quite worn out with fatigue and just ready to 
give up all hope. Now help had come and all was changed. 
Together they safely repassed the sentries and reached 
their comrades among the hills. 

Here they held a council, and decided that their best 
course was to separate, each seeking his own safely, and 
then to wait for brighter days when there should bo some 



376 



Mrs. William F. Allen 



chance of winning back their country's freedom. So, just || 
as the morning Hght was coming over the hills, they wan- 1 
dered away by different roads — some to be taken prisoner I 
within a few hours and to be executed before another sun 
should rise ; some to lurk for weeks and months in the woods, 
nearly starving and yet not daring to come out for food; 
others, more fortunate, to reach friends who helped them 
to escape into foreign lands; and still others to fall into the 
enemy's hands after long months of concealment, betrayed 
by seeming friends, and led away to languish for weeks and 
months in Russian dungeons, till their fate should be 
decided. 

But none of these fates was that of Dziewanowski. 
Traveling by night and hiding by day, he reached the 
house of a Polish count, a friend of his, who, though a 
secret helper of the revolt, had never joined it and was 
unsuspected by the government. The count disguised 
him as far as was possible, and to render the deceit more 
perfect, made him his agent and let him attend to the 
selling of the cattle from his estate. Thus he lived for many 
weeks. He would go to the city whither the drover took 
the cattle, sell them, and return with the money to his 
friend the count. 

But one luckless day, while walking in the streets of 
Warsaw, he met a priest, who was also a government spy 
and who had come from his native town. Dziewanowski 
hastily pulled up the long fur collar of his Polish cloak, 
and drew his hat down over his eyes. But it was too late; 
the priest had recognized him and followed him from 
street to street. At length, after many rapid turns through 
lanes and alleys, he thought he had escaped. So he hurried 
to the house where he was to spend the night, since he 
had to wait till the next morning to get the pay for the 
cattle. But he was mistaken. In the middle of the night 
he was roused by the oflBicers at his door. He grasped his 



A Polish Pioneer's Story 



377 



pistol, but it was useless to fire, they were too strong for 
him. He was seized, placed under guard, and hurried out 
of the city before daylight. On and on he was taken, 
from station to station, sometimes treated with kindness, 
then with great cruelty, as suited the whims of his guards. 
In the course of these journeys he was brought to the 
house of his friend the count, whom the Russians still 
supposed faithful to them. But now instead of the pleasant 
room where he had passed so many hours during the time 
of his disguise, he was lodged in a dark stone cell beneath 
the castle, that in old times had been used as a prison, but 
now for many years had been almost forgotten. Here 
coarse food was brought him, and here he sat for long 
hours, his only light and air coming through the grated 
window above his head. 

Through all this time — and they were here for several 
days — he did not for a moment doubt that the count and 
the countess were his friends still, and would most gladly 
help him if they could. He soon had proof of this. On 
the third night, for several hours he heard no guard in the 
passage by his door, but he did hear a great carousal in 
the kitchen over his head, and then all was still. It was 
soon explained. His cell door was opened in the middle of 
the night by his friend the count. A swift horse was ready 
for him in the courtyard. His guards were sleeping in the 
kitchen above and would not recover for many hours from 
the effect of the drugged wine which the countess had 
given them. He was urged to fly. He was told of other 
true men in the country with whom he could find a refuge 
before morning. But he refused steadily, because his 
flight would bring almost certain ruin on his friends. They 
would without doubt be suspected of aiding him, and the 
punishments for giving such aid were very cruel in those 
days. Dziewanowski preferred his allotted fate, hard as 
it might be, to bringing his friends into trouble. So after 



378 



Mrs, William F. Allen 



pleading with him long but vainly, his friend parted from 
him in that dark, lonely cell, never to meet him again, 
and the next day Dziewanowski was led away beyond the 
Polish frontier, receiving from his captors harsher treat- 
ment than ever. 

At length, from his guards' talk, he learned that the 
Austrian Emperor was near. In his days of prosperity, 
before the revolt, Dziewanowski had known the Emperor 
and had been at his court, for he belonged to one of the 
noble families of Poland and had formerly possessed great 
wealth. Being sure that the Emperor at least would know 
him, which his guards did not — since he had given them only 
his assumed name — he demanded to be taken before him. 
This was done.^ He was received with great kindness, but 
was told he would have to choose between two courses: he 
must either go to America or he should be sent to Siberia, 
there to labor in the mines with other Polish exiles. In 
America there was hope for him, in Siberia there could be 
none; and I need not tell you which course he took. 

After a long and stormy voyage Dziewanowski landed 
in New York, with just fifty dollars in his pocket— not a 
friend in the country, and no means of earning his living. 
He could not even speak our language. He wandered up 
and down the streets, in and out the lanes and alleys, 
seeking work. At length a French family took him to 
board, since he could speak French and so make his wants 
known to them. Then in another street he found a job 
of wood chopping. He never had chopped wood, and 
did not know how. His serfs had done such work for him 
when he was rich in his own country. His hands were so 
soft that any work raised great blisters on them. But he 
must live, and live by whatever work he could find, since 
he would never beg. So he bought an ax and began his 

^This may refer to Prince Ferdinand, who was to be crowned emperor in 1835. 
Dziewanowski's children understand that Ferdinand interceded with the Russian emperor 
in their father's case. — ^Editor. 



A Polish Pioneer's Story 



379 



job, knowing where there is a will, there is a way. The 
way here was full of trouble, as he soon found. For after 
the first few strokes, when he had begun to swing his ax 
more freely, he missed his aim, and instead of the stick of 
wood, cut his own foot half through. Here was an end of 
work, and for many weeks he lay still in the house, while 
a poor old black woman who lived next door, and who 
pitied him, came in each day to dress his wounded foot. ^ 
Long before it was well his money was all gone, and sad 
but not discouraged he started out again to seek his fortune. 
Hearing so many people talk of the "Great West" (for by 
this time he had begun to understand our language), he 
thought it just the place for him — a place where a man 
could start with almost nothing, and by hard work build 
up a fortune. How to get there without money or friends 
was the question. At any rate he could start. To what 
fortune it would lead he did not know. 

So he went out from the great city of New York, to 
walk to the "Great West." It was a serious undertaking, 
but there was nothing else to be done. On he trudged hour 
after hour; just at evening he came in sight of a hay field 
where the men were on the point of leaving their work. 
Was there a chance for him to get work here? He asked, 
and they readily took him, for they were short of men. 
That night he slept in the barn with the haymakers, and 
worked with them till all the hay was in. Then taking 
to the road again, he went on toward the West, here and 
there getting a job which helped him to a night's lodging or 
a little money, till he came to a small town in western 
Pennsylvania, where he took his first decided step toward 
success. 

He there met a peddler, who took a fancy to him and 
engaged him as assistant. For weeks and weeks he went 
the peddler's rounds, selling pins and needles and t<ape, 
dishes and plates and forks, at the farm homes, every wliore 



380 



Mrs, William F. Allen 



meeting with kindness. He spent little, and the money in 
his pocket steadily increased. But he was not content; he 
had not reached the "Great West." He told this to his 
kind friend Mr. Hobbins, the peddler. "Ah!" said he, 
"there's nothing easier than that. I know a man who will 
sell you a Canada pony very cheap, and with a little wagon 
and some small stock like mine, you're all right. You can 
pay your way and save some besides." 

Such a chance was not to be neglected, and soon we 
see him on the road, cheerily urging on his little pony, and 
full of hope for the future. In those times there were but 
scattered farmhouses where villages and towns now stand, 
and wild prairies where we now see miles and miles of 
grain fields. There were few stores, in most of that country 
none, so the peddler readily found a market for his wares 
with every farmer's wife — and more than that, a hospitable 
welcome. The farmer also, when he came home from his 
work, was glad enough to learn from him how Jones's 
crops were getting on, how Smith's cattle had sold, or 
how much harm had been done by the fire they had seen 
reddening the sky to the eastward some nights before. 
Many were the little bundles and baskets that he carried 
to a mother or daughter in the next clearing, and many 
were the acts of kindness the women did him in return. 

At length, as winter was approaching, he reached the 
town of Galena, near the Mississippi. Here were the great 
lead mines, and the work of this region was mining and 
smelting lead ore. Dziewanowski knew how hard a ped- 
dler's business is in the winter. So, selling his pony and 
wagon, and the part of his stock which still remained, he 
engaged as smelter at one of the furnaces. He worked 
there all winter, trying his best to become expert at his 
trade, and succeeding so well that soon his services were 
in demand through all the surrounding country, and he 
could get as much work as he wanted. 



A Polish Pioneer's Story 



381 



But this was not the Hfe he had meant to lead; he wished 
to be his own master, to own land and have a home. And 
as the spring came on, he left Galena and found work in 
the southern part of Wisconsin, still at smelting lead, 
but nearer, as he thought, to the home which he sought. 
He had heard much, through the winter, of the pleasant 
valleys and hills of Wisconsin; and often at night, after 
his work was done, he sat dreaming, while awake, of a ^ 
cozy little home among those hills. Before May was half 
through, he was on his way to seek that home. For many 
miles he followed the course of Wisconsin River, thinking 
from day to day that he had found it in some pleasant 
valley or among some fair meadow lands. But day by 
day he was disappointed — the land he wanted had been 
taken by others, or there was no spring. Fields that looked 
so fair at a distance proved to be deceitful marshes. 

One day, in following the course of a clear, winding 
brook, he came to a lovely valley. Here the great hills 
shut off the bleak north wind, the wild strawberry blossoms 
were white among the grass, and a clear, cold spring bubbled 
up from a rocky basin shaded by great oak trees. He had 
found his home. Here he built his log cabin, here he raised 
his first crops, here he brought his first cows and horses, 
bought of his nearest neighbor, five miles away, and here 
he felt that he had at last begun his home. The next year 
he returned to the place where he had before worked, and 
brought back with him his fresh young wife, riding behind 
him on his horse through the narrow forest paths, or among 
the waving prairie grass. 

Everything prospered with them. They were both 
strong and willing to work, and soon more and more land 
was added to their farm, and their dairy was noted in all 
the country round. As years go on, we can imagine their 
little children feeding the chickens or driving the cows, or 
in the winter evenings climbing into their father's lap to 



382 



Mrs. William F. Allen 



hear the wonderful stories of his boyhood in Poland. And 
as he went on to tell of the great Polish battles for freedom, 
and of the brave men who fought them, his boys' hearts 
were all on fire to lead lives like theirs. They little thought 
that their chance would come. But it did. His brave 
boy Micolay answered the call for volunteers in our war of 
freedom against slavery, and the winters from 1861 to 1865 
found him by distant camp fires, ready to prove by his 
own bravery that he had some of that old free Polish blood 
in his veins. His boy's letters brought back to the 
aging Wisconsin farmer the days of his youth, and he 
longed to be with his son, fighting for freedom again. 
But his strength was not what it had been in the old days, 
and he had to be content to give a son to the cause. 

Later they were all together again in their home among 
the hills, and the stories of two wars for freedom were told 
around their winter fires. 

The above charming and dramatic narrative is not a memoir 
but a contemporaneous report of Mrs. Allen's conversation with 
Dziewanowski. She wrote the paper promptly after her return 
to Madison from the visit described, and fifty-five years later, 
at the editor's request, she sought for and found the yellowing 
manuscript among quantities of old records preserved in her 
home. The article, therefore, in its historical character, has the 
validity of an interview carefully written out by an intelligent 
and interested auditor while the memory of what had been said 
was still fresh. 

By good fortune we are able to supplement the story with 
other data which were furnished by Mary Esther Dziewanowski, 
daughter of the Polish refugee, who is the wife of Dr. F. E. 
Walbridge and lives at River Pines, Stevens Point, Wisconsin. 
Mrs. Walbridge very kindly supplied material copied and sum- 
marized from a diary kept in Polish script by her father, together 
with other information which he and Mrs. Dziewanowski at 
various times communicated to their children. From these 



A Polish Pioneer's Story 



383 



sources the following brief digest of facts supplemental to Mrs. 
Allen's narrative has been compiled: 

Vincent Dziewanowski, who was bom in Podolia, Russian 
Poland, April 5, 1804, was the youngest son of that distinguished 
and wealthy Dziewanowski family with whom as a lad Chopin 
spent his vacations.^ His father. Count Dziewanowski, died 
when Vincent was but two years of age. Thereafter the Countess 
Salomea, his mother, managed the estate, which had upon it 
five hundred serfs, and superintended the education of the 
children. As a student in the university, Vincent was required 
to perform military service and he was a member of the very 
guard before which his two brothers-in-law, Polish noblemen 
who had participated in the Polish revolt begun in 1830, were 
tried by court martial and exiled to Siberia. That experience 
induced him to desert and join the Polish revolutionists, with 
the result so graphically described by Mrs. Allen. In the Polish 
army he rose to the rank of major, the title by which he was 
commonly known in pioneer Wisconsin. 

A tradition in the Dziewanowski family confirms Mrs. 
Allen's statement that the major was granted an interview with 
the emperor of Austria, or more probably Prince Ferdinand, who 
interceded with Czar Nicholas in behalf of the Polish revolution- 
ists. He induced the Czar to permit four hundred of them to 
be exiled to America instead of to Siberia. Austria, also, it is 
said, supplied a fund of $20,000, which was placed in Dziewanow- 
ski's charge and which he distributed equally among these men 
on their arrival at New York, retaining his own share, $50. 
This shipload of exiles sailed from Trieste, November, 1833, and 
arrived in New York, March, 1834. 

Dziewanowski's diary, parts of which are yet preserved, 
shows that he remained in New York and in Newark (New Jersey) 
until May 21, 1835, and that he arrived at Galena, Illinois, 
November 17, 1835. The diary is explicit with respect to his 
itinerary, which lay through New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
and Indiana. Illinois was to him the "land of promise,*' the 
government having set aside in that state a body of land for 

2 Frederick Niecks, Life of Chopin (London, 1890), i. 47. 



384 



Mrs. William F. Allen 



the benefit of these Polish refugees, and his hope was to obtain 
his allotment. But finding an American in possession, being 
averse to lawsuits, and at best a stranger to the country, he 
abandoned the quest and went to Galena, where William S. 
Hamilton gave him work as a lead smelter. 

In November, 1836, he was sent by Hamilton to do the 
smelting in a new establishment which he erected on the Wiscon- 
sin River at the present Muscoda (then sometimes called Savan- 
nah or English Prairie), which place and its neighborhood became 
Dziewanowski's permanent home. He appears to have worked 
for Hamilton until at least 1839, meantime (September 4, 1838) 
taking up the first of a number of tracts of land which he acquired 
from the government in township 8, range 1 east, Iowa County. 
This town, when organized in 1849, was named Pulaski, either 
at his suggestion or in his honor, for he became a prominent 
citizen of both town and county. Dziewanowski lived on that 
farm in that town the balance of his days. He died February 
22, 1883. 

Dziewanowski was married, February 7, 1843, at Walnut 
Grove, the home of General Charles Bracken near Mineral 
Point, to Mary Jane McKown, of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. 
Miss McKown, born on a plantation near Martinsburg, Virginia, 
was a niece of General Charles Bracken, of whose family she 
was a member at the time of her marriage. Mrs. Dziewanowski 
died at Milwaukee, May 15, 1890. 

Mrs. Allen, in conversation, told the editor about the distinc- 
tion of Major Dziewanowski's bearing, his courtly manners, 
and charming courtesy. His daughter, in the notes before me, 
speaks of his early religious training in the Greek church as 
influencing his entire life. He and his wife became leaders of 
Methodism in their neighborhood. He was a lover of music, 
a good singer, and knew several languages. "He never took a 
foreign newspaper, but read exclusively in English. He read 
the English Bible through five times and reached Second Kiflgs 
in the sixth reading." He beeame an American in spirit as well 
as by adoption, and despite his aristocratic upbringing, was an 
uncompromising partisan of the democratic rule of life. 



A Polish Pioneer's Story 



385 



Dziewanowski received but a single letter from home after 
his exile. That one was written by the friendly count mentioned 
in Mrs. Allen's article, and was dated August 1, 1833. It is 
before me as I write. All his life was overshadowed by the 
doubt as to the fate of his mother and other members of the 
family, none of whom could safely communicate with him, a 
convicted revolutionist. The count's letter was mailed from 
Br linn, Austria. 

In the story of Dziewanowski we have something more than 
merely a dramatic narrative. It illustrates the richness of the 
historical and literary treasure which lies just beneath the 
surface of the pioneer history of our state. — Editor. 



THE YANKEE AND THE TEUTON IN 
WISCONSIN 



Joseph Schafer 
m SOME SOCIAL TRAITS OF YANKEES 

Harriet Martineau, the English traveler who in 1837 
published a book entitled Society in America, was deeply 
impressed with New England's concern for education. 
"All young people in these villages," she says, "are more 1 
or less instructed. Schooling is considered a necessary of 
life} I happened to be looking over an old almanac one 
day, when I found, among the directions relating to the ! 
preparations for winter on a farm, the following: 'Secure 
your cellars from frost. Fasten loose clapboards and 
shingles. Secure a good schoolmaster.' " 

We do not know what almanac Miss Martineau con- ; 
suited. But a glance at a file of the Farmer's Almanack, 
begun in 1793 by Robert B. Thomas and circulated by | 
him for more than half a century all over New England, j 
shows her quotation to be fully justified in spirit if not in 
letter. As early at least as the year 1804, Mr. Thomas 
included in his directions for the month of November, the 
indispensable item of education in connection with other 
activities: "Now let the noise of your flail awake your 
drowsy neighbors. Bank up your cellars. Now hire a good 
schoolmaster and send your children to school as much as 
possible." 

The nation was young in 1804. Parts of it were new and 
for that reason had made but meager educational progress; 
other parts were backward for different reasons. But in 
the older states of New England popular education had 
flourished for one hundred and fifty years. This point, 

* Editor's italics. 



Yankee and Teuton 



387 



stressed by a score of writers, illustrated by legal enactments, 
court decrees, town records, and anniversary sermons, 
cannot be over-emphasized in a summary of the social 
contributions which the Yankees made to the new western 
societies they helped to build. Notwithstanding all that 
has been written to prove the priority, in this or that 
feature of American educational progress, of other social 
strains or geographical areas, history may confidently 
assign to the Yankee priority in the attainment of universal 
literacy on an extensive scale. 

Once the Puritan had convinced himself that the 
temptation to ignorance came from ''y^ old deluder Satan," 
whose fell purpose was to keep men from a knowledge of the 
Scriptures and thus the more readily win them for his own, 
he hesitated not to require the maintenance of schools in 
all towns and neighborhoods under his jurisdiction. He 
was also concerned to recruit an "able and orthodox minis- 
try" to take the places of the aging pastors who had 
come from England and to supply the needs of new settle- 
ments. Harvard College could turn out the ministers, if 
it had properly prepared young men to work upon. So 
the larger towns were required to maintain grammar 
schools in addition to the common schools. Thus we have, 
as early as 1647, provision for schooling from the lowest 
rudiments up through the college course. 

The original religious motive for maintaining these 
schools persisted. But other motives were added as the 
Puritans perceived how notably secular interests, as well 
as religious, were served by schooling. For one thing, young 
persons who could read, write, and cipher had a distinct 
advantage in worldly matters over those who could not. 
Cheats and "humbugs," of whom every community had 
its share, made victims of the ignorant, while they fled from 
the instructed even as their master, Satan, was supposed 
to flee from them. Many New England stories were 



388 



Joseph Schafer 



designed to carry the lesson, especially to parents, that 
the best legacy children could receive was good schooling, 
without which wealth and property would quickly melt 
away.^ 

Apart, also, from such negative worldly advantages as 
we have named, one who had enjoyed good schooling might 
thereby hope to share in many special social privileges 
from which the unlettered were debarred. New England 
life on the religious side centered in the church, on the 
civic side in the town. Each of the two institutions re- 
quired a full set of elective officers^ ranked according to 
the importance of the offices filled, and all of these were 
chosen from the instructed portion of the community. To 
be a deacon in the church or a selectman on the town 
board might not be financially remunerative, but it imparted 
a dignity to the individual and a social status to the family 
which caused these offices to be highly prized. The older 
theory was that only good churchmen could fill either 
type of office. Gradually, the town offices, which paid 
something in cash and yielded considerable political power, 
came to be sought with increasing frequency by men who 
might have no interest in the church. "Jethro Bass" 
was typical, not unique, in his scheming to be chosen 
selectman, and the training offered by the district school 
was looked upon as a minimum basis for such preferment. 
Said the Farmer's Almanack for November, 1810: "Send 
your children to school. Every boy should have a chance 
to prepare himself to do common town business." 

The great majority were satisfied with the elementary 
training afforded by the district schools, kept for a few 
months in winter. But the presence of learned men in 
every community and the existence of secondary schools 
and colleges tolled a good many on the way to advanced 
instruction who had no plans for professional careers. From 

^ An example is in Abram E. Brown, Legends of Old Bedford (Boston, 1892). 



Yankee and Teuton 



389 



farm, factory, and counting-room, even from among those 
before the mast, went boys to academy and college, while 
female seminaries springing up here and there took care of 
the educational interests of selected groups of girls. Such 
schools were not free, but their benefits were easy to attain, 
the principal requisite being pluck and a willingness to 
work both at earning money and at the studies. Girls 
and boys alike could usually earn their way by teaching 
in the common schools. Thus the educational system 
propagated itself, with the result that men and women of 
intelligence, culture, and refinement became widely dis- 
persed through Yankeedom, and learning was recognized 
as an aid to the good life as well as a guarantee of the successful 
life. This was a fundamental condition of that literary 
flowering which marked the middle decades of the nine- 
teenth century. It insured the poets, historians, orators, 
and novelists an audience which waxed ever larger as 
province after province in the West was added to New 
England's spiritual empire. 

Let us not, however, picture to ourselves a Yankee 
society wholly suflFused with intellectual and spiritual light. 
The Yankees had no such illusions about themselves. 
Listen to Timothy Dwight's description of a class of New 
Englanders who could not live *'in regular society. They 
are too idle, too talkative, too passionate, too prodigal, 
and too shiftless to acquire either property or character. 
They are impatient of the restraints of law, religion and 
morality, grumble about the taxes by which rulers, minis- 
ters and schoolmasters are supported — at the same time 
they are usually possessed, in their own view, of uncommon 
wisdom; understand medical science, politics, and religion 
better than those who have studied them through life . . 
He represents the type as the pioneering or forester class, 
who had "already straggled onward from New England" 
to far distant settlements, and whose going he was not 



390 



Joseph Schafer 



disposed to lament. "In mercy," he says, "to the sober, 
industrious, and well disposed inhabitants, Providence 
has opened in the vast western wilderness a retreat suffi- 
ciently alluring to draw them from the land of their nativity. 
We have many troubles even now, but we should have 
many more if this body of foresters had remained at home."^ 
The above citation doubtless contains an element of 
exaggeration, due to Dwight's ingrained conservatism. 
He was outraged by the radical views no less than by the 
erratic and ignorant harangues he heard "by many a kitchen 
fire, in every blacksmith's shop, and in every corner of 
the streets . . Yet we must not lose sight of the fact 
that he here sketches for us some Yankee social traits 
of rather extended application which were important in 
the building of the West. These people belonged to the 
outstandingly non-conformist type. They were suffi- 
ciently independent — contemptuous, one might say — of 
established customs and institutions to be willing, with 
what ignorance or awkwardness soever, to bring about 
changes, some of which were sadly needed. Religiously 
they were apt to be come-outers. It was largely among 
this class that were recruited the Millerites, Millennialists, 
and original Latter Day Saints, together with many other 
minor sects and factions. In politics, when all orthodox 
New England was Whig, they were mainly Democratic; 
many, however, backed the program of Nativism; in the 
person of John Brown they exemplified the principle of 
direct action as applied to slavery. The social innovator, 
the medical quack, and the political demagogue found 
among them welcome and encouragement, sometimes 
to the temporary distress of society, often to its ultimate 
benefit. Not unlike the original Puritans who represented 
"the dissidence of dissent and the protestantism of the 
protestant religion,"* they constituted a dynamic social 

''Timothy Dwight, Travels in New England and New York (New Haven, Conn., 
1821), ii, 459. 462. 

^ Edmund Bm*ke, On Conciliation. 



Yankee and Teuton 



391 



element although wanting in the intellectual and religious 
training, the political morale, and perhaps the heroism 
which distinguished the original planters of Massachusetts 
Bay. They had the spirit of the revolutionary New England- 
ers, who were described, not inaptly, as ''hard, stubborn, 
and indomitably intractable." They were the backbone 
of Shays's rebellion. In many ways they illustrate the 
qualities which, at various times in our later history, have . 
served as the fulcrum of revolutionary change. 

Dwight's foresters were merely the extreme manifesta- 
tion, the caricature, of a much larger class of heady, self 
sufficient, opinionated, and troublesome persons who equally 
with the sober, church going, instructed, conformist type 
were the product of New England conditions. The cords 
of restraint were drawn so taut in the parishes and towns, 
that the person who was determinedly "different" was 
compelled to break them and become a kind of social 
pariah in order to gain the freedom his soul craved. It 
was not an accident that so large a proportion of that class 
went to the frontier. They found there a less rigorous 
church discipline, freedom from taxes for the support of the 
established church, and a more flexible state of society in 
the midst of which they might hope to function. In western 
Massachusetts and Connecticut, in Vermont, New Hamp- 
shire, and Maine, they were numerous at the opening of 
the National period. Soon large numbers emigrated to 
western New York, to northern Pennsylvania, to Ohio, 
thence throughout the West. They made up an appreciable 
part of the thronging Yankee immigration which seized 
upon Wisconsin's prairies and oak openings between 1835 
and 1850, and their presence has left its impress upon our 
social history. Still the experiences of older frontiers, such 
as western New York, had already modified the type. 

When all necessary deductions have been made, how- 
ever, the church remained equally with the school a domin- 



392 



Joseph Schafer 



ant note in the Yankee's social landscape. His "meeting 
house," not infrequently in New England a gem of eccle- 
siastical architecture, fuli&lled his artistic ideal; the congre- 
gation was the "household of faith" which claimed his 
undeviating loyalty; the pastor was "guest and philosopher" 
in his home whenever he chose to honor it with his presence. 
To men and women alike, attendance upon the church 
services was the principal Sabbath day duty and the 
chief physical and mental diversion of the whole week. 
It was an old custom to linger after the morning sermon 
for a social chat either in the church yard, when the weather 
permitted, or else at a near-by tavern; and while the talk 
was ostensibly about the sermon, gossip, bits of practical 
information, and even a shy kind of love making were often 
interwoven, tending to make this a genuine community 
social hour. 

The tradition that the minister must be a man of 
learning was of incalculable social importance. His advice 
was called for under every conceivable circumstance of 
individual and community need. He assisted about the 
employment of schoolmasters and was the unofficial 
supervisor of the school. He enjoined upon negligent 
parents the duty of sending their children, and he had 
an eye for the promising boys — lads o'pairts, as the Scotch 
say — whom he encouraged to prepare for professional life. 
He fitted boys to enter the academy and sometimes tutored 
college students. In the rural parish the minister occupied 
the church glebe, which made him a farmer with the rest. 
He was apt to read more widely and closely in the agricul- 
tural press, or in books on husbandry, than his neighbors, 
thereby gaining the right to offer practical suggestions 
about many everyday matters. Some ministers were 
writers for agricultural journals. Many contributed to 
local newspapers items of news or discussions of public 
questions in which their parishioners were interested with 
themselves. 



Yankee and Teuton 



393 



The home missionary idea was inherent in the New 
England system both as respects rehgion and education. 
Older, better established communities always felt some 
responsibility for the newer. Since settlement proceeded 
largely by the method of planting new townships of which 
the raw land was purchased by companies from the colonial 
and state governments, it was possible for the larger com- 
munity to give an impetus to religion and education under 
the terms of township grants. This was accomplished 
by reserving in each grant three shares of the land — "one 
for the first settled minister, one for the ministry forever, 
and one for the school." Other grants of raw land were 
made for the support of academies. Here we have the 
origin of the system of land grants in aid both of the common 
schools and of state universities, in the western states. 
The grants for religion necessarily were discontinued after 
the adoption of the national constitution.^ 

The religious unity established by the Puritans, and 
maintained for a time by the simple method of rigorously 
excluding those holding peculiar doctrines, gave way to 
considerable diversity in the late eighteenth and early 
nineteenth centuries. Episcopalianism made some progress 
in the older settlements, and Unitarianism created a great 
upheaval, while toward the frontiers the Methodists and 
Baptists flourished more and more. These several elements, 
by 1820, were powerful enough politically to secure the 
abolition of the ancient tax for the support of the established 
(Congregational or Presbyterian) church — a tax which had 
long caused ill feeling between West and East, and no 
doubt had contributed to the growth of dissenting churches. 
These frontier churches had the characteristics of the 
frontier populations. ^Their ministers were less ^learned, 
their morale less exacting, their religion less formal and 

^ The Ohio Company's grant, 1787, contained a reservation for religion as well as 
grants for education. Joseph Schafer, Origin of the System of Land Grants in A id of A-^f ueo- 
tion, Wisconsin University Bulletin, History Series, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Madison, 190i). 



394 



Joseph Schafer 



ritualistic, their ordinances less regularly and habitually 
enforced. But there was an emotionalism which in a 
measure compensated for defects of training, for looseness I 
of habit and negligence in the practice of religion. In a 
word, the camp meeting type of Christianity prevailed 
widely along the frontier, and that type entered Wisconsin 
Territory with the numerous Methodist and Baptist settlers 
from New York and New England. As early as August, 1 
1838, such a camp meeting was held under Methodist j 
leadership in the woods near Racine; it was attended by 
hundreds of pioneer families drawn from the sparsely 
settled neighborhoods for many miles around. Its appoint- 
ments were of the typical frontier kind, though one would 
expect less boisterousness in the manifestations of emotion 
among those people than seems to have accompanied 
similar gatherings in the Southwest.^ 

The stated religious services in early Wisconsin, as in 
every frontier region, were apt to be less frequent than in 
older communities. Ministers were too few in number and 
neighborhoods too impecunious to justify each locality in 
supporting a minister. The circuit riding custom prevailed 
generally among all denominations. One preacher traveled, 
on foot, six hundred miles, making the round in six weeks. 
Each group of churches also had its conferences, which 
were occasions for planning missionary effort, for unitedly 
attacking special religious or social abuses, and for pro- 
moting constructive community effort. The ablest speakers 
addressed such gatherings; the membership of the churches 
concerned and others attended, in addition to the delegates; 
and important religious, social, or moral results sometimes 
flowed from them. 

Another peculiar Yankee institution allied at once to 
the school and the church, was the lyceum or local co- 
operative organization for bringing lecturers to the com- 

• See Edward Egglesion, The Circuit Rider and The G ray sons. 



Yankee and Teuton 



395 



munity. The settlements in southeastern Wisconsin had 
their lyceums at an early date, and many distinguished 
public men from the East had occasion to visit this new 
Yankeeland in the capacity of lecturer. Among them were 
Horace Greeley, Bayard Taylor, and James Russell Lowell. 

Reform movements, however, though usually receiving 
valuable aid from churches, lyceums, mechanics' institutes, 
and other permanent organizations of men for public 
discussion, had a way of creating special organizations to 
propagate themselves. That was true of the temperance 
movement, which by the time of the Yankee immigration 
into Wisconsin was under vigorous headway. Beginning, 
in serious form, about 1820, the intervening years witnessed 
the creation of hundreds of local temperance societies in 
New England and New York, and the federation of these 
societies into state societies. These central organizations 
stimulated the movement by sending out lecturers, con- 
ducting a newspaper propaganda, and issuing special 
publications. Some of their tracts are said to have been 
scattered "like the leaves of autumn," all over New England 
and New York. 

One of these tracts affected the social history of Wiscon- 
sin very directly. It is known, traditionally, as **The Ox 
Discourse," because it was based on Exodus 21:28-29: 
"If an ox gore a man or woman, that they die: then the 
ox shall be surely stoned, and his flesh shall not be eaten; 
but the owner of the ox shall be quit. But if the ox were 
wont to push with his horn in time past, and it hath been 
testified to his owner, and be hath not kept him in, but 
that he hath killed a man or a woman; the ox shall be 
stoned, and his owner also shall be put to death." The 
sermon on this text produced a great sensation and gained 
many new adherents to the temperance cause. Among 
these were two brothers, Samuel F. and Henry Phoenix, 
who were storekeepers in a New York village and sold 



396 



Joseph Schafer 



much whisky. They publicly destroyed all the liquor 
they had on hand and became crusaders in the temperance 
cause. In the spring of 1836 Colonel Samuel F. Phoenix 
selected in Wisconsin a "Temperance Colony claim," on 
which he settled that summer. Then he rode to Belmont 
and induced the first territorial legislature to set off from 
Milwaukee County a county to be known as Walworth, 
in honor of the chancellor of the state of New York, who 
was a noted temperance leader. He named the village 
begun by him Delavan, in honor of E. C. Delavan, pioneer 
temperance editor and at that time chairman of the execu- 
tive committee of the New York State Temperance Society. 
Colonel Phoenix lectured on temperance, helped to organize 
early temperance societies, rebuked his neighbors — es- 
pecially the New Yorkers — for employing whisky at raisings, 
and, before his death in 1840, had succeeded in giving 
a powerful impulse to the movement in southeastern 
Wisconsin. 

Another dramatic figure in early temperance annals 
was Charles M. Goodsell, who in 1838 settled at Lak e 
Geneva and built the first mill operated in Walworth 
County. He was of Connecticut birth, and his father 
owned and managed, among other properties, a whisky 
distillery. Goodsell, however, when he came west from 
New York State, was a most determined opponent of the 
traffic in intoxicants. Soon after opening his mill a local 
company erected in Lake Geneva a distillery for making 
corn whisky. Goodsell warned them, he says, not to 
expect him to grind their grain and they installed a grinding 
apparatus of their own. But, their machinery proving 
inadequate, they finally sent a grist of corn to Goodsell's 
mill, demanding, as under the law they had a right tojlo, 
that it be "ground in turn." Goodsell refused, thereby 
producing a tense situation, for the pioneer farmers looked 
to the distillery as a cash market for their grain. Finally, 



Yankee and Teuton 



397 



the distillers brought suit, won a verdict, and Goodsell 
appealed. But meantime, he rode to Madison, where the 
legislature was sitting, and procured the adoption of an 
amendment to the law regulating milling, to the effect: 
"Nothing in this section contained shall be construed to 
compel the owners or occupiers of mills to grind for distilling, 
or for sale or merchant work." This proviso, adopted in 
1841, remained a feature of the statute for many years. > 

It must not be supposed that pioneer Yankee society, 
even in Walworth County, was prevailingly of the temper- 
ance variety. All testimony, both of the reformers and of 
others, tends to show that a large majority was at first in 
the opposition. Frontier history would indicate that 
excessive indulgence in whisky was apt to be more common 
during the primitive phase of settlement than later, due 
perhaps to the looser social and religious organization. 

Wisconsin may be said to have been born to the tem- 
perance agitation which, in a few years' time, produced 
societies pledged to total abstinence all over the southeastern 
part of the state and in many other localities. In March, 
1843, a legislative temperance society was organized with a 
list of twenty-four signers. The house of representatives 
at the time had twenty-six members, the council thirteen, 
or a total of thirty -nine. So a decided majority was aligned 
with the movement. Moses M. Strong was chosen presi- 
dent, which was considered a triumph for the cause, and 
much interest was aroused by the adherence of William S. 
Hamilton, who is reported to have addressed one of the 
society's meetings.^ 

The temperance agitation everywhere received a notable 
impetus from the adoption in 1851 of the prohibition law 

^Goodsell, who was one of the founders of Beloit College, removed later to North- 
field, Minnesota, and became one of the founders of Carlton College. S. A. Dwinncll, 
Reedsburg (Wis.) Free Press, December 24, 1874. 

8 Madison City Express, March 14, March 23, and April 27, 184.i. Strong and Ilarail- 
ton are not reputed to have been total abstainers. 



398 



Joseph Schafer 



by the state of Maine. Immediately other states moved 
for the same objective, and in Wisconsin a referendum vote 
was taken in 1853 which resulted favorably to prohibition, 
though no enactment followed.^ In that election the 
southeastern counties were overwhelmingly for the Maine 
law. Walworth gave 1906 votes for it and 733 against, 
Rock 2494-432, Racine 1456-927. Milwaukee at the same 
time voted against prohibition by 4381 to 1243. This 
shows where was to be found the powerful opposition to 
legislation of this nature, which was destined to increase 
rather than diminish with the strengthening of the German 
element already very numerous. 

From the time of the Maine law agitation the com- 
munities dominated by Yankees were generally found 
arrayed in favor of any proposal for limiting or suppressing 
the liquor traffic, although, as we shall see in later articles, 
no large proportion of their voters ever joined the Prohibi- 
tion party. They did not succeed in abolishing drunkenness, 
though it became very unfashionable to indulge heavily 
in spirituous liquors and the proportion of total abstainers 
among the younger generation steadily increased. Yankees 
furnished a very small per cent of those who gained their 
livelihood through occupations connected directly with 
intoxicating liquors, except as such traffic was carried on 
incidentally as a feature of the drug business. The disfavor 
with which saloon keeping, brewing, and distilling have 
long been regarded among that class of the population is 
explained by the fervor and thoroughness of the early 
temperance campaigns. 

Because of their attitude on the liquor question, on 
Sunday laws, and other matters pertaining to the regulation 
of conduct, the Yankees have always been looked upon 
by other social strains as straight-laced and gloomy. In 
this judgment men have been influenced more than they 

* The vote stood, for prohibition, 27,519; against, 24,109. 



Yankee and Teuton 



399 



are aware by the traditions of Puritanism which it was 
supposed the Yankees inherited. They recalled the story 
of how Bradford stopped Christmas revelers and sent them 
to work; they pictured Puritan children as forbidden to 
laugh and talk on the Sabbath day; and some may have 
heard the story of how Washington, while president, was 
once stopped by a Connecticut tithing man who must be 
informed why His Excellency fared forth on the Lord's 
Day instead of resting at his inn or attending public wor- 
ship.^o 

Two remarks may be made on this point. First, while 
Puritanism unquestionably had a somber discipline, there 
was not lacking even among Puritans the play instinct 
which persisted in cropping out despite all efforts of the 
authorities at repression. Second, the nineteenth century 
Yankees register a wide departure from early Puritanism 
in their social proclivities, and the difference was particu- 
larly marked in the West. Even church services were 
modified to fit the needs of the less resolute souls. Music 
became an important feature and it was adapted more or 
less to special occasions." Sunday Blue Laws were gradually 
relaxed, though never abandoned in principle. Well-to-do 
city people allowed themselves vacation trips, visits to water- 
ing places, and to scenic wonders like Niagara Falls.^^ In town 
and country alike dancing became an amusement of almost 
universal vogue, though protested by some religionists, 
and rural neighborhoods found bowling such a fascinating 
game for men and boys that the almanac maker thought 
well to caution his readers against over-indulgence therein.^' 
Ball playing, picnicing, sleighing, coasting, skating were 

The story was printed in the Columbian Centinel, Boston, December, 1789. 

" See Diary of Sarah Connell Ayer (Portland, Me., 1910), 227. 

12 See Almon Danforth Hodges and His Neighbors (Boston, 1909). 217-218. 

1' "At sun two hours high," says the Farmer's Almanack, 1815, "the day is finishe*! and 
away goes men and boys to the bowling alley. Haying, hoeing, plowing, sowing all nm.st 
give way to sport and toddy. Now this is no way for a farmer. It will do for thr city lads 
to sport and relax in this way, and so there are proper times and scason.n for farmor.H l«i 
take pleasure of this sort, for I agree that all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy." 



400 



Joseph Schafer 



among the outdoor sports much indulged in by Yankees, 
while family and neighborhood visiting, the quilting bee, 
donation parties, church socials, and the like furnished 
indoor recreation. The circus and the "cattle show" were 
events in the western Yankeeland equal in social significance 
to Artillery Day in Boston. 

Thus, while it is true that Yankees were a sober people, 
of prevailingly serious mien and purpose, they were not 
averse to the relaxations of play and recreation. The 
question whether or not the Yankees were fun loving 
cannot be answered by yes or no. If we mean by fun the 
rollicking joviality characteristic of irresponsible, carefree 
folk, the answer is no. Many Yankees found their best 
fun in work or business. To the David Harum type, which 
was fairly numerous, a horse trade was more fun than a 
picnic. Some Boston merchants were so immersed in their 
business that, though very pious, they nevertheless spent 
Sunday afternoon going over their books and writing 
business letters.^^ Being serious minded, they tended to 
make their chief concern an obsession, and could hardly 
be happy away from it. But the majority were quite as 
ready to amuse themselves out of working hours, as are 
the Italians or other social stocks that have a reputation 
for fun and frolic. 

The Yankees also found intellectual enjoyment in culti- 
vating quickness of retort, in giving utterance to clever 
if homely aphorisms, and in a kind of whimsical humor. 
These traits emerge in their vernacular literature like 
"Major Jack Downing's" Thirty Years out of the Senate, 
and especially Lowell's Biglow Papers. "The squire'U have 
a parson in his barn a preachin' to his cattle one o' these 
days, see if he don't," said one of "Tim Bunker's" shiftless 
neighbors by way of summarizing the squire's over-niceness 
in caring for his Jersey cows. "Ez big ez wat hogs dream 

" See Hodges and His Neighbors, 94. 



Yankee and Teuton 



401 



on when they're most too fat to snore"; "that man is mean 
enough to steal acorns from a blind hog"; "the coppers 
ain't all tails"; "pop'lar as a hen with one chicken"; "quick- 
er 'n greased lightnin' "; "a hen's time ain't much"; "handy 
as a pocket in a shirt"; "he's a whole team and the dog 
under the wagon"; "so thievish they had to take in their 
stone walls at night"; "so black that charcoal made a 
chalk mark on him"; "painted so like marble that it sank 
in water" — the above are all Yankeeisms of approved 
lineage and illustrate a characteristic type of Yankee humor. 
The example below is of a rarer sort. "Pretty heavy thunder 
you have here," said the English Captain Basil Hall to a 
lounger in front of a Massachusetts tavern. "Waal, we do," 
came the drawling reply, "considerin' the number of the 
inhabitants." 

About the time that Yankees began to emigrate to 
Wisconsin a talented French writer, Michel Chevalier, gave 
the world a brilliant and on the whole favorable characteri- 
zation of them. "The Yankee," he says, "is reserved, 
cautious, distrustful; he is thoughtful and pensive, but 
equable; his manners are without grace, modest but digni- 
fied, cold, and often unprepossessing; he is narrow in his 
ideas, but practical, and possessing the idea of the proper, 
he never rises to the grand. He has nothing chivalric 
about him and yet he is adventurous, and he loves a roving 
life. His imagination is active and original, producing, 
however, not poetry but drollery. The Yankee is the 
laborious ant; he is industrious and sober and, on the 
sterile soil of New England, niggardly; transplanted to 
the promised land in the west he continues moderate in 
his habits, but less inclined to count the cents. In New 
England he has a large share of prudence, but once thrown 
into the midst of the treasures of the west he becomes a 
speculator, a gambler even, although he has a great horror 
of cards, dice, and all games of chance and even of skill 



402 Joseph Schafer 

except the innocent game of bowls." Chevalier also says: 

**The fusion of the European with the Yankee takes place 

but slowly, even on the new soil of the west; for the Yankee 

is not a man of promiscuous society; he believes that 

Adam's oldest son was a Yankee." 

The Yankee was not more boastful than other types of I 

Americans, though his talent for exaggerative description 

was marked. Yet he had a pronounced national obsession 

and was uncompromising in his patriotism: "This land 

o'ourn, I tell ye's got to be a better country than man ever 

see," was put into a Yankee's mouth by one of their own 

spokesmen and represents the Yankee type of mild jingoism. 

It is full cousin to that other sentiment which also this writer 

assigns to him : 

Resolved, that other nations all, if set longside of us. 
For vartoo, larnin, chiverlry, aint noways wuth a cuss.^* 

These are but cruder expressions of ideas dating from the 
Revolutionary War, and of which Timothy Dwight, who 
was not a poet by predestination, gave us in verse a noble 
example : 

Columbia, Columbia, to glory arise. 

The queen of the world, and child of the skies ! 

Thy genius commands thee; with rapture behold. 

While ages on ages thy splendors unfold. 

Thy reign is the last, and the noblest of time. 

Most fruitful thy soil, most inviting thy clime; 

Let the crimes of the east ne'er encrimson thy name. 

Be freedom, and science, and virtue, thy fame. 

It need not be supposed that all Yankees who came to 
Wisconsin or other western states were familiar with these 
glowing lines. But it is almost certain that, in the common 
schools of Yankeedom, most of them had thrilled to the 
matchless cadences of Webster's reply to Hayne. What 
more was needed, by way of literary support, to a pride 
of country which, if a trifle ungenerous to others, was based 
on facts all had experienced. 

" J. R. Lowell, Biglow Papers. 



THE GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC^ 
HosEA W. Rood 

A UNIQUE ORGANIZATION 

The Grand Army of the RepubUc is entirely unlike 
any society that ever existed before it. Nothing of the 
kind could come from any but a volunteer army of citizen 
soldiers — ^men who fought for principles dear to them. 
There is no other nation-wide organization of old men. 
It is now sixty-one years since the beginning of the War 
for the Union, fifty-seven since our army was disbanded; 
and a hundred thousand of its members are still compactly 
bound together, their objects being to perpetuate the 
spirit of patriotism, to preserve the fraternal relations of 
those days when as boys and young men they served and 
suffered together in what was to them a holy cause, to give 
aid to those who are so unfortunate as to need help, and to 
honor the memory of their heroic dead. Truly it is a unique 
organization. And it is as systematically organized today 
as was the army in which its members served more than 
half a century ago. To be sure, most of the posts are 
dwindling away — one by one going out of existence. So it 
was with our companies and regiments in war times. But 
while they could be recruited, we cannot. We are not far 
away from the inevitable. Yet we do not mourn because of 
it. When an aged good man dies we do not mourn his loss. 
We attend his funeral and say it was beautiful — beautiful 
in the memory of what he had been, the good he had done. 
So may it be with the passing of the Grand Army of the 
Republic. 

OUR ALLIED SOCIETIES 

The allied societies of the Grand Army of the Republic 
are the Woman's Relief Corps, the Ladies of the Grand 

1 For the preceding installment on this subject, see ante, 280-294 (March. IQiW). 



404 



Hosea W, Rood 



Army, Daughters of the Grand Army, Sons of Veterans 
and their Auxiliary. At the National Encampment in 
Denver in 1883, the Woman's Relief Corps was made the 
auxiliary to the Grand Army, and its members are zealous 
co-workers in all that interests the Grand Army. The 
organization is open to all patriotic women. The Ladies 
of the Grand Army is made up of women who are directly 
related to Civil War veterans. They, too, are earnest, 
patriotic workers with the old comrades. The Daughters 
of the Grand Army are what their name implies. They 
have a particularly beautiful service for taking in new 
members. They are zealous in teaching patriotism. The 
Sons of Veterans are organized to honor in every way 
their fathers and grandfathers of the Civil War, and their 
Auxiliary members are their co-workers. In general, 
these six allied patriotic societies work in harmony, vieing 
with one another in manifestation of honor and respect 
and helpfulness for the Grand Army comrades who are 
slowly marching down the sunset slope and disappearing 
one by one in the gathering twilight. These patriotic 
societies have exercised an influence for good not only upon 
the Grand Army of the Republic, but upon the state and 
the nation as a whole. Their good deeds have been wide- 
spread. We hope they will continue their work after the 
Grand Army has been mustered out. 

MEMORIAL DAY 

In the spring of 1868, when General John A. Logan was 
commander-in-chief of the Grand Army, a letter was re- 
ceived by his adjutant general, N. P. Chipman, from a 
comrade who had served as a private soldier in the Union 
Army, in which he said that in his native country, Germany, 
"it was the custom of the people to assemble in the spring- 
time and scatter flowers upon the graves of the dead." 
Comrade Chipman was pleased with the suggestion of 



The Grand Army of the Republic 



405 



this German soldier that "the Grand Army of the Repubhc 
inaugurate such an observance in memory of the Union 
dead." Accordingly, he made a rough draft of a general 
order upon the subject, and laid it, with the soldier's letter, 
before General Logan. The commander approved the 
order and, after he had added something to it himself, it 
was published, as follows, and sent to every Grand Army 
post in every state : 

Headquarters Grand Army of the Republic, 
Washington, D. C, May 5, 1868. 

General Orders, No. 11. 

I. The 30th day of May, 1868, is designated for the purpose of 
strewing with flowers, or otherwise decorating, the graves of Comrades 
who died in defense of their country during the late rebelHon, and those 
whose bodies now He in almost every city, village and hamlet church- 
yard in the land. In this observance, no form of ceremony is prescribed, 
but Posts and Comrades will in their own way arrange such fitting 
services and testimonials of respect as circumstances may permit. 

We are organized. Comrades, as our Regulations tell us, for the 
purpose, among other things, "of preserving and strengthening those 
kind and fraternal feelings which have bound together the soldiers, 
sailors and marines who united to suppress the late rebellion." What 
can aid more to assure this result than by cherishing tenderly the 
memory of our heroic dead, who made their breasts a barricade between 
our country and its foes.? Their soldier lives were the reveille of freedom 
to a race in chains, and their deaths a tattoo of rebellious tyranny in 
arms. We should guard their graves with sacred vigilance. All that 
the consecrated wealth and taste of the nation can add to their adorn- 
ment and security is but a fitting tribute to the memory of her slain 
defenders. Let no wanton foot tread rudely on such hallowed grounds. 
Let pleasant paths invite the coming and going of reverent visitors and 
fond mourners. Let no vandalism of avarice or neglect, no ravages of 
time, testify to the present or to the coming generations that we have 
forgotten as a people the cost of a free and undivided republic. 

If other eyes grow dull and other hands slack, and other hearts 
cold in the solemn trust, ours shall keep it well as long as the light and 
warmth of life remain to us. 

Let us, then, at the time appointed, gather around their sacred 
remains and garland the passionless mounds above them with the 
choicest flowers of springtime; let us raise above them the dear old 
flag they saved from dishonor; let us in this solemn presence renew our 
pledges to aid and assist those whom they have left among us, a sacred 
charge upon the nation's gratitude — the soldier's and the sailor's widow 
and orphan. 



406 



Hosea W. Rood 



II. It is the purpose of the Commander-in-Chief to inaugurate 
this observance with the hope that it will be kept up from year to year, 
while a survivor of the war remains to honor the memory of his departed 
Comrades. He earnestly desires the public press to call attention to 
this order, and lend its friendly aid in bringing it to the notice of Com- 
rades in all parts of the country in time for simultaneous compliance 
therewith. 

III. Department Commanders will use every eiffort to make this 
Order effective. 

By Command of — 

John A. Logan, Commander-in-Chief. 
N. P. Chipman, Adjutant General. 

At first some people doubted the wisdom of establishing 
such an observance. They feared it would tend to keep 
alive memories of the war, and foster animosities that 
would better be forgotten; some also objected to the 
expense that might be incurred for music and flowers. 
But from that day to this, more and more attention has 
been paid to Memorial Day and the services connected 
with its observance. Never has the day been more fittingly, 
impressively, and universally observed than it was last 
year. As the comrades of the Civil War are becoming 
less and less able to take the initiative in preparations 
for the day, those of the Spanish-American and World 
wars are taking up the work. All along, the patriotic 
societies allied to the Grand Army have been active co- 
workers with us in all memorial services, and they have 
worked in full harmony with us. Moreover, the boys and 
girls in both public and parochial schools have taken an 
essential part in all memorial exercises. They have pre- 
sented patriotic programs in their schoolrooms on some 
day just before the thirtieth of May; and everywhere they 
are chosen to strew flowers on the graves of our fallen 
comrades. No one can fully comprehend the patriotic 
influence upon our national life of this sacred custom in 
which every year millions of our little citizens happily 
and seriously take part. 



The Grand Army of the Republic 



407 



There is also Memorial Sunday — next before May 30 — 
when the members of every Grand Army post in the land 
have for fifty years attended divine service in a body, in 
some church to which they have been invited, there to 
listen to a memorial sermon and the best of patriotic music. 

For the public exercises of Memorial Day it is the 
custom everywhere to secure the best speakers and the 
most impressive music suitable for the occasion. In many 
cases school children are given places on the program. 
The procession to the cemetery is as imposing as it can be 
made, with bands, civic societies, city or village officials, 
the Grand Army and its allied organizations, veterans of 
our later wars, and long lines of school children bearing 
the prettiest posies they can find. Deep and lasting must 
be the impression made by such observance of Memorial 
Day. 

It is unfortunate that the name of the German soldier 
through whose suggestion the first Memorial Day orders 
were issued by General Logan has been lost. It is the 
custom everywhere to have those orders read as a part of 
the memorial program, also Lincoln's immortal Gettysburg 
address. 

PATRIOTIC INSTRUCTORS 

Every Grand Army post, under the general rules and 
regulations, has an officer known as patriotic instructor , 
whose duty it is to help in every way to cultivate, especially 
in our little citizens, the spirit of patriotism. Over these 
there is in every state a department patriotic instructor, 
and over them a national instructor. So far as practicable 
all these work together for a common purpose. In the same 
way all of our allied societies have patriotic instructors — 
local, departmental, and national. Who can estimate 
the full value of their united efforts ! 



408 



Hosea W. Rood 



WISCONSIN veterans' HOME 

At the Department Encampment in Milwaukee, in 
February, 1887, twenty-two years after the close of the 
war, there arose a discussion concerning the needy condition 
of some of our comrades and their wives; some widows also 
of our dead comrades were in sore need. Many of those 
comrades had been disabled by wounds or disease. They 
had, at their discharge, received nothing in the way of 
bonus, and very few of them were granted pensions. Such 
pensions as were granted were small, not at all sufficient 
for even a scanty support. No general service pension law 
was made until 1907, forty -two years after Appomattox. 
Several national homes had been established, one being 
located at Milwaukee; yet no women could be admitted to 
them. If a disabled soldier went there, he must leave his 
wife, which few were willing to do. There was no place for 
a wife or a widow but the almshouse. In some counties 
both soldiers and widows were in the poorhouse. The 
Grand Army posts had done much to aid individual cases, 
yet they could not care for all. In many communities 
there were no posts to give needed aid. Because of this, 
many a war widow who had been braver even than the 
soldiers at the front in her heroic battle with the wolf at 
the door, was forced to go to the poorhouse. It was indeed 
sad that in the country for which a soldier had given his 
life his widow and children must thus suffer the pangs of 
poverty. Moreover, it was said that in some of the poor- 
houses the soldiers and widows were not receiving good 
treatment. This discussion led to the adoption of the 
following resolution at that year's encampment: 

Resolved, That this Department Encampment take steps at once to 
estabhsh a Veterans' Home for honorably discharged soldiers and 
sailors of the Civil War, and their wives or widows who were such 
during the time of the Civil War, and to secure from the state legislature 
an annual aDnrooriation depending upon the number of inmates. 



The Grand Army of the Republic 



409 



It was also provided that a committee of five be elected 
to have full power during 1887-88 to undertake to get 
through the legislature then in session a bill providing for an 
appropriation to aid in the support of such home when once 
established, to the amount of three dollars a week for every 
inmate; also to incorporate the home, secure a proper 
location for it, and do whatever else might seem to them 
necessary. The following named comrades were elected 
members of such committee: F. A. Harden, A. O. Wright, 
B. F. Bryant, James Cumberledge, and J. H. Marston. 
They were to report at the next encampment. 

The following is a summary of this report: During the 

year they had succeeded in getting an appropriation from 

the state, though not all they had hoped for. Through 

the active aid of people in Waupaca, they had obtained 

possession of Greenwood Park Hotel, four miles west of 

Waupaca, a beautiful site on the well known Chain-o' -Lakes, 

with seventy-eight acres of land. There, with $5388.32 

contributed by Grand Army posts, the W^ornan's Relief 

Corps, and by individuals, they had already opened a 

veterans' home. The committee closed its report with the 

following paragraph : 

We now have seventy-eight acres of land on the shores of a beauti- 
ful lake, with a group of buildings, consisting of a center building, a 
chapel, six cottages, and a farm house, accommodating, all told, fifty 
inmates. This is now the property of the Department Encampment, 
to be used as a Soldiers' Home. We can make it what we please. We 
are not obliged to grumble at its management, as we do with the Na- 
tional Home, or as we should be likely to do with this State Home if it 
were managed by state authorities. We can direct its management 
ourselves and make it a practical example of what we believe a Soldiers' 
Home should be. Thus far the Home is in its infancy. Your committee 
have carried it through the opening of its life and now take pk-asuro m 
presenting this institution to you. We ask for it your loving care and 
thoughtful attention. Our work as corporators is done. It now devolves 
upon you to elect a board of trustees as a permanent body to govern 
this Home. 

The committee on corporation had indeed accomplished 
much in a year — established a Wisconsin Veterans' Home 



410 



Hosea W. Rood 



and put it into operation. The encampment, recognizing 
their valuable service and experience, elected as the first 
trustees of the home: J. H. Marston and A. O. Wright, 
for three years; Benjamin F. Bryant and R. N. Roberts, 
for two years; J. F. Woodnorth and W. D. Crocker, for 
one year. 

So, through the initiative of the Grand Army of the 
Republic, the Wisconsin Veterans' Home came into being. 
It still exists, having grown from that small beginning to be 
one of the finest philanthropic institutions in the state. 
During the thirty-five years since it was established it has 
sheltered, fed, clothed, and been a real home to thousands 
of Civil War veterans and their wives or widows. The 
place is now a neat, well kept little village of twenty-three 
large halls, seventy-three cottages and smaller buildings, 
with twenty-six outbuildings. It carries fire insurance for 
$456,624. There are ninety-three acres of land, twenty- 
three of which are a fine large garden. On the thirty-first 
day of July, 1922, there were six officers, with 140 employes 
on the payroll. The members of the home that day were: 
men, 156; women, 296; total, 452. There are a neat chapel 
for religious services, a large amusement hall, library, and 
everything else to make the life of the old people there — 
they average about eighty years of age — ^pleasant and com- 
fortable. The hospital, with about a hundred patients, is 
fully equipped and well managed. The halls and cottages 
are supplied with all the modern conveniences of city homes. 
Wisconsin people may well be proud of the institution. 

All this property now belongs to the state. The gov- 
ernor appoints on the board of managers such persons as 
are recommended to him by the Grand Army Encampment. 
The department commander is ex officio a member of the 
board. The present members are: Robert Law, president; 
Mrs. May L. Luchsinger, vice president; Charles Cowan, 
treasurer; Hosea W. Rood, secretary; Henry C. Smith, 



The Grand Army of the Republic 



411 



and Francis A. Walsh; and James F. Carle, ex officio. 
The commandant is Colonel John Turner, Spanish-American 
and World War veteran. 

WISCONSIN MEMORIAL DAY ANNUAL FOR SCHOOLS 

It may not be generally known that the Memorial Day 
Annual, sent out from the office of the state superintendent 
of public instruction to every school in the state, as an 
aid in patriotic instruction, had its origin in action taken * 
by the Grand Army of the Republic. The following para- 
graph copied from the proceedings of the forty-third 
annual session of the Wisconsin Teachers' Association, 
December 27, 1895, tells how it was done: 

A delegation from the E. B. Wolcott Post, Grand Army of the 
RepubUc, consisting of Colonel Jerome A. Watrous, Dr. O. W. Carlson 
and Lieutenant H. A. Valentin, appeared before the association. 
Colonel Watrous made a brief address, thanking the teachers for 
inculcating patriotic sentiments among the children, and asking them 
to have special services in all public schools and private schools on 
Fridays before Washington's birthday, Lincoln's birthday and Memorial 
Day. On motion, Professor A. O. Wright, Hosea W. Rood and W. H. 
Beach [all Grand Army men] were appointed as a committee to consider 
the question and report. 

The proceedings of the association, December 28, same 
year, contain the following: 

Committee on the memorial of the E. B. Wolcott Post, Grand 
Army of the Republic, reported as follows: *t| 

**We cordially concur in the suggestion of the memorial. We 
believe that it would be in the highest degree appropriate and profitable 
to encourage the sentiments of patriotism in the schools and the homes 
by special exercises or oratory, poetry and song commemorating the 
traditions and example of the founders and preservers of this republic. 
To this end we recommend that all public schools observe the national 
holidays and the birthdays of eminent men, especially Memorial Day 
and the birthdays of Washington and Lincoln. 

"We also recommend that this committee request the state superin- 
tendent to prepare and furnish to schools a list of exercises and recita- 
tions appropriate to be used on such occasions." 

The recommendations were adopted without dissent. 
At that time the Honorable J. Q. Emery was state 
superintendent, and he was heartily in favor of the proposed 



412 



Hosea W. Rood 



plan of patriotic instruction. He began at once the prepara- 
tion of a little booklet in harmony with the recommendations 
of the committee of Grand Army comrades for the teachers' 
association. Here are two paragraphs of Superintendent 
Emery's *Toreword" to the first edition of the Wisconsin 
Memorial Day Annual for Schools, published in 1896: 

To the Teachers in the PubUc Schools: — The Grand Army of the 
RepubUc and the Wisconsin Teachers* Association have requested by 
formal vote of those bodies, that a program of exercises for all public 
schools on Memorial Day be prepared and distributed, which will 
suggest suitable means by which pupils in all these schools will unite in 
observing that day, and become interested in the purposes and senti- 
ments which make the day significant. 

In compliance with that request, and in recognition of the value 
which such exercises may have in promoting the spirit of grateful 
appreciation of great public service, high and pure ideals of loyalty and 
patriotism, and a larger and clearer comprehension of the cost by 
which civil institutions are preserved when imperiled, and when national 
unity and perpetuity can be preserved only by the bloody arbitrament 
of war, this circular has been prepared, and is now sent forth to assist 
teachers and pupils in their preparation to participate in the public 
observance of the 30th of May as Memorial Day. 

From then until now this Memorial Day Annual has 
been published and has gone not only into every school 
and public library in the state, but to the patriotic instruc- 
tor of every Grand Army post and every local organization 
of the allied societies of the Grand Army. Where the 
Annuals have been preserved from the beginning, and 
bound, they constitute a reservoir of the best patriotic 
literature from hundreds of authors. 

For the last fourteen years the Memorial Day Annual 
has been compiled and edited by the late O. S. Rice, school 
library clerk in the office of the state superintendent.^ 

NAMES OF COMMANDERS OF THE DEPABTMENT OF WISCONSIN 
GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC 

James K. Proudfit,* June 7, 1866; Henry A. Starr,* 1867; 
Jeremiah M. Rusk,* 1868; Thomas S. Allen,* 1869-70; Edward 

2 In the death of O. S. Rice, which occurred January 25, 1923, the state lost an educa- 
tor of great ability, who had given long and devoted service to our commonwealth. 



The Grand Army of the Republic 



413 



Ferguson,* 1871-72; Andrew J. McCoy,* 1873; G. A. Hannaford, 
Boise, Idaho, 1874-75; John Hancock,* 1876; Henry G. Rogers,* 
1877; F. S. Hammond, 1878; Griff J. Thomas, Harvard, Neb., 
1879-81; H. M. Enos,* 1882; Phihp Cheek,* 1883-84; James 
Davidson,* 1885; Lucius Fairchild,* to Sept., 1886; Henry P. 
Fisher,* unexpired term, 1886; Michael Griffin,* 1887; Augustus 
G. Meissert, Milwaukee, 1888 to March, 1889; Leander Ferguson, 
Brandon, unexpired term, 1889; Benjamin F. Bryant,* 1890; 
WilHam H. Upham, Marshfield, 1891; Chauncey B. Welton,* > 
1892; Eugene A. Shores,* 1893; Jerome A. Watrous,* 1894; 
William D. Hoard,* 1895; D. Lloyd Jones,* 1896; Edmund B. 
Gray,* 1897; Charles H. Russell,* 1898; Henry Harnden,* 1899 
to March, 1900; S. H. Tallmadge,* unexpired term, 1900; David 

G. James,* 1900; Allen H. DeGroff, Oakland, Cal., 1901; James 

H. Agen,* 1902; Joseph P. Rundle, Milwaukee, 1903; Pliny 
Norcross,* 1904; Frederick A. Copeland, La Crosse, 1905; John 
W. Ganes, Ripon, 1906; John C. Martin, Mineral Point, 1907; 
Edwin D. Coe,* 1908; Robert B. Lang,* after May, 1909; Wil- 
Ham H. Grinnell, Beloit, 1909; Frank A. Walsh, Milwaukee, 
1910; Hiram J. Smith,* 1911; George W. Spratt, Sheboygan 
Falls, 1912; Charles H. Henry, Eau Claire, 1913; Samuel A. 
Cook,* 1914; William J. McKay,* 1915; O. L. Rosenkrans, 
Milwaukee, 1916; William A. Wyse,* 1917; George D. Breed, 
Chilton, 1918; Robert R. Campbell, Green Bay, 1919; Walter 
O. Pietzsch, Madison, 1920; Matthias L. Snyder, Waukesha, 
1921; James F. Carle, Janesville, 1922-. 

Two of those here named have served as commanders-in- 
chief— Lucius Fairchild, in 1886; A. G. Weissert, in 1892. 

* Deceased. Of the fifty-four, twenty-one are still living. 



AN HISTORIC COLLECTION OF WAR PORTRAITS 

Louise Phelps Kellogg 

A portrait as an interpretation of character and person- 
ality is worth infinitely more to the historian than a photo- 
graph. Granting the personal equation of the artist, one 
finds in a well painted portrait a valuable historical docu- 
ment. It is thus a matter of congratulation to historians, 
as well as to appreciators of American art, that in 1919 
certain American artists were chosen to paint the portraits 
of the great personalities of the war. 

The idea was conceived by a group of artists and art 
patrons who obtained the cooperation of the Smithsonian 
Institution and of the American Federation of Arts, as well 
as that of the American Peace Mission to the conference at 
Versailles. Eight eminent American artists were chosen, 
and plans were made whereby they visited Paris and secured 
sittings from the premiers and generals of the allied nations 
there gathered to end the war. This collection of portraits 
is designed to form the basis of an American Portrait Gallery 
to be assembled at the National Museum at Washington, 
there to become an historic collection for the benefit of 
future generations. Several cities of the United States are 
cooperating by purchasing and presenting to the new enter- 
prise the portraits of their choice. Thus far New York, 
Chicago, Cleveland, Cincinnati, and San Francisco have 
responded to the appeal. 

The artists chosen by the National Art Committee were 
Cecilia Beaux, Joseph De Camp, Charles Hopkinson, John 
C. Johansen, Jean McLane, Edmund C. Tarbell, Douglas 
Volk, and Irving R. Wiles. The subjects were also assigned 
by the committee in cooperation with the artists themselves. 



Historic Collection of War Portraits 



415 



To Cecilia Beaux, the eminent Philadelphian, was 
granted the signal honor of portraying three persons of 
three nations who were among the chief personalities of 
the war: Premier Clemenceau, Cardinal Mercier, and 
Admiral Beatty. Of the first she has made an unusual 
portrait, showing the man of tempestuous action in a 
moment of severe restraint. She has given us not "Cle- 
menceau the Tiger," but Clemenceau the Vendeean French- . 
man, powerful and masterful, yet supreme in his love for 
France. Miss Beaux's Mercier is striking in the extreme; 
the tall, slim figure in the brilliant robes of the cardinalate, 
with its background of battered churches and violated cities, 
arrests and holds the attention vividly. It is, however, 
Mercier the prelate, rather than Mercier the spiritual leader, 
that she has portrayed; the fire that burns in the deep-set 
eyes is the gleam of the ascetic rather than the glow of the 
humanitarian. It is in the man of the Anglo-Saxon race 
that Miss Beaux makes her supreme contribution to the 
portraiture of our day. Her Admiral Beatty is worthy to 
rank with the world's great portraits. In simplicity and 
sincerity the admiral stands, the type of the English fighting 
seaman. From his eyes look out the soul of the heroes of 
the past from Drake to Nelson. His is the will that believes 
that "England expects every man to do his duty." Here 
is the victor of Jutland Bank, unafraid and undismayed. 
To him plaudits and honors are of no account. The safety 
of England is his sole concern. By heroic hearts such as 
his the sea wall was kept intact. 

Among the American participants, the typical soldier 
of our race is presented in the full-length standing portrait 
of John J. Pershing, holding by the bridle his mettlesome 
horse. Easily he stands in his uniform of dull khaki, 
enlivened only by a Sam-Browne belt — a splendid soldierly 
figure, urbane, self controlled, and masterful. This por- 
trait by Douglas Volk is companioned by one of Albert of 



416 



Louise Phelps Kellogg 



Belgium, finer and more expressive than that of the Ameri- 
can soldier. The young king is a figure of splendid al- 
truism as he stands, one clenched hand on the sandbags 
of a fortified place, with his ravaged country behind him, 
and on his face a grave look of suffering and determination 
from which personal passion has been burned away. Volk's 
third portrait is that of David Lloyd George — a careworn 
face, in which are graven deep lines of responsibility and ef- 
fort. It is not the usual conception of the British premier, 
but probably truer to the facts of his life than the merry, 
insouciant countenance one usually sees. 

John C. Johansen, the eminent Chicagoan, has succeeded 
best, to our thought, in his portrait of Marshal Joffre. Here 
we have a new and spiritualized presentation of the French 
soldier who is more than a soldier. Nor is this the "Papa" 
Joffre of popular fame. Rather, in this portrait the artist 
shows us JoflFre the idealist and the patriot looking into 
the future and gravely careful for the fate of the France he 
has so nobly saved. Johansen's other portraits are those 
of the Italians, General Diaz and Premier Orlando, both of 
them somewhat overpowered by ornate backgrounds of 
sculpture; and Field Marshal Haig, a thoughtful, quiet 
portrait of a typical British oflScer. To this artist was 
also granted the honor of painting the great hall of Versailles, 
with the treaty signatories and negotiators grouped around 
the central table. This is a well composed and well grouped 
ensemble. As portraits, however, the faces are not suf- 
ficiently individualized. The artist has therein sought 
symmetry and subordination rather than personality. 

Edmund C. Tarbell was assigned the honor of presenting 
Wilson, Hoover, Foch, and Leman. The first two of these 
are purely neutral, being painted from photographs only, 
not from sittings. They are to be withdrawn and repainted 
as soon as personal studies can be made. In his Marshal 
Foch on horseback, with a beautiful French landscape as a 



Historic Collection of War Portraits 417 



background, Mr. Tarbell gives us an interesting and at- 
tractive picture, which is however hardly an adequate inter- 
pretation of the famous victor of France. This artist has 
best succeeded with the portrait of General Leman, of 
Liege, who has died since 1919. Leman's portrait is half 
length, seated, in full uniform including visored cap. The 
face is strong and silent; the lights and shadows are ad- 
mirably arranged. 

Charles Hopkinson, a Boston artist, had the most 
picturesque of the several subjects to paint, since to him 
were assigned the premiers of Roumania and Serbia, as 
well as the prince envoy of Japan. Many consider the 
portrait of the last mentioned. Prince Saionji, the out- 
standing success of the entire collection. The inscrutable 
yellow mask of the Japanese statesman is excellently 
painted, and the whole conception is simplified to a degree 
that produces a powerful impression. With the Serb 
premier, Pashich, Hopkinson has also attained a success, 
portraying him as the patriarch of a pastoral people. In 
Premier Bratiano, however, the artist has been more ambi- 
tious and less successful. Picturesque the portrait is with- 
out doubt; but one may reasonably doubt whether the 
veneered barbarian Hopkinson has painted fitly represents 
the Roumanian statesman. 

Joseph De Camp has painted the two Canadians, 
Premier Borden and General Sir Arthur Currie; both are 
given honest, forthright, uncomplicated treatment. The 
same may be said of Irving R. Wiles' Admiral Sims, an ef- 
fective presentation of a candid and sincere character. 
Elizabeth Queen of the Belgians, Premier Hughes of 
Australia, and Venizelos of Greece are not yet painted — 
Jean McLane (Mrs. John Johansen), chosen to portray 
them, not having as yet been able to secure from them 
personal sittings. 

The collection as it now stands is composed of one large 



418 



Louise Phelps Kellogg 



group picture and twenty individual portraits. It is being 
shown in various cities of the United States, before final 
deposit at Washington. Wisconsin was fortunate in having 
the opportunity of viewing these remarkable portraits, 
which, during the month of December, 1922, were exhibited 
at the State Historical Library by the Madison Art Asso- 
ciation. 



A FOOTNOTE TO THE STORY OF A 
GREAT COURT 

LuciEN S. Hanks 

How interesting, indeed, is The Story of a Great Court, 
under the gifted pen of the distinguished jurist, the late 
John B. Winslow, chief justice of the supreme court of 
Wisconsin; an interesting story, an instructive story, an 
historical story, clothed in delightful diction, reminding 
us of his endearing personality. As I read on and on, 
about the several justices, dating back to the spring of 
1860, when I first began my stewardship in the old State 
Bank of Madison as teller, I am reminded how customary, 
and indeed how necessary, it was in those days for the 
justices to piece out with borrowed money their meager 
salaries; some in silent but apparent protest, and others 
with outspoken criticism of the law respecting their com- 
pensation.^ 

I recall a remark made to me by the late Chief Justice 
Dixon when applying for a loan of $500. **I came to 
Madison from Portage, easily worth $15,000; there is 
nothing left now, and I am obliged to rely upon my salary.*' 
The loan of $500 was granted because it was hard to refuse. 
Inasmuch as it could not be considered a prudent loan for 
any banker to make, and because of his attitude, I (then 
cashier of the bank) reported it to Samuel Marshall, then 
president, who at the time resided in Milwaukee. I well 
remember his reply, that he thought the compensation 
accorded justices under the law was inadequate, and 
instructing me to grant credit to Judge Dixon from time to 

*The constitution adopted in 1848 fixed the salaries of the justices of the supreme 
court at $1500; in 1852 that sum was raised to $2000. and five years later to $2,500. At 
this figure it remained until 1867, when it became $3500, and the next year $4000. During 
the decade from 1857 to 1867 prices enhanced rapidly; thus the salary of 1860 was ex- 
tremely meager in 1865. 



420 



Lucien S. Hanks 



time, when applied for, up to $2000, and when the loans 
reached that extent, to charge the amount to his account 
and use the letter as a collateral voucher, and further 
requesting that I mention his action neither to Mr. Dixon 
nor to anybody else. 

But now comes the refreshing sequel, which well reveals 
Judge Dixon's keen sense of justice. His several loans had 
reached $1500, when, one morning, finding me alone at my 
desk in the directors' room, he walked in, saying: "Hanks, 
at one time, I did think you were a good banker, but I have 
now concluded you are a damn-fool; because any man who 
would loan me $1500 when I have nothing but my home- 
stead, is not competent to be in the business of banking. 
I am owing you at this time $1500, and I want $500 more." 
Whereupon, he handed me his note for $2000, together with 
a mortgage upon his homestead to secure the payment of 
the same, duly executed by himself and wife, saying: 
"This will take care of the past and serve as well for the 
present. The future will take care of itself." 

I also recall memories of the late Justice Byron Payne, 
whose salary from the state being also inadequate, 
found it necessary to borrow money to meet living 
expenses. He was most keenly sensitive concerning his 
repeated applications for loans, and would shrink from 
the necessity of them, and I well remember the incident 
attending our response to his last application. He seemed 
to be greatly disturbed, and with tense emotion said: 
"It is a burning shame that the judges of the supreme 
court of this state are denied a living salary," adding, "Here 
am I, having nothing but my salary and my little home 
on the shore of Lake Monona." He was so impassioned 
in his manner, that his utterance would have thrilled 
anybody, as it did me. 

Whereupon, I suggested that he take out life insurance. 
To that he replied: "Why do you suggest that, knowing 



A Footnote 



421 



as you do that I have no money to pay the premium?" 
It so happened, that at that time I had been recently in- 
duced by a former oJOScer of the State Bank to accept 
the agency, for Dane County, of the National Life Insur- 
ance Company of the United States of America, of which 
he was general agent for the northwest. The situation so 
impressed me, that I informed Judge Payne that I was an 
agent of a good life insurance company that allowed me 
sixty per cent commission on the first year's premium, 
and I said: "Give me your note for one year without 
interest for the premium, and let the future take care of 
itself." 

But my offer was declined with most cordial and hearty 
thanks, whereupon the interview ended. The next morn- 
ing, however. Judge Payne again called at the bank, and 
when meeting me said, with a broad smile: ''Mrs. Justice 
Payne has ^handed down her decision,' that if your offer 
is still open, it be accepted." Whereupon, his application 
was taken for $5000, in the National Life Insurance 
Company, duly accepted, and the policy issued, dated 
January 12, 1870. 

I had noticed at that time, that none of the policies of 
the National Life recited the hour of the day upon which 
policies would lapse for non-payment of premium. It was 
usually recited in other companies as twelve o'clock noon, 
but the matter at that time caused no comment, nor did 
it again occur to me, until within a short twelve months 
thereafter, when early in December following, Judge Dixon 
called, appearing greatly concerned, and informed me that 
Justice Payne was very ill, and inquired if I knew anything 
about his financial circumstances. I told him of the five 
thousand life insurance policy, which together with their 
homestead was all of his property of which I liad knowledge. 

Late in December Justice Dixon again called, and with 
a glad smile told me that Justice Payne was much better. 



422 



Lucien S. Hanks 



But soon thereafter, sunshine and balmy air in January, 
I was told, induced Justice Payne to sit out in the hall of 
his home, which caused a relapse. Justice Payne lingered 
until the twelfth day of January, 1871, when at twenty 
minutes past nine o'clock in the evening he passed away. 

I had immediately, upon learning of his illness, made 
provision for the second life insurance premium due January 
12, and credited it to my account as agent. The day after 
the funeral, I wrote the company advising it of the 
maturity of the policy, and in my letter added a subsequent 
paragraph, stating that a friend of the deceased (but did 
not mention my name as the friend) had raised the question 
that inasmuch as no hour of the day was stated in the policy 
for its expiration, did not the first premium paid carry the 
policy until twelve o'clock at night, and inasmuch as 
Justice Payne died at twenty minutes past nine, should not 
the subsequent payment of premium which had been made 
be remitted. 

I had just written and signed this letter, when Judge 
Dixon again called, and inquired if the life insurance which 
I had before mentioned was still in force. Whereupon I 
showed him the letter above recited. He read it, and said: 
"Hanks, you may add down at the bottom of that letter, 
that 'the remaining judges on the bench concur in that 
opinion.'" I, of course, made no such addition to my 
letter, but I wrote a private letter to the general agent, 
and told him about it. It is perhaps needless to say that 
the second premium was refunded and the policy paid in 
full. 

I now recall an incident relating to Chief Justice Edward 
G. Ryan. It was a fiercely hot afternoon in August, 1875, 
when a message came from Chief Justice Ryan that he would 
like to see me, if convenient, in his room in the capitol. 
I immediately went over, and found the judge in his chamber 
which, it will be remembered, was located in the north 



A Footnote 



423 



corner of the capitol building — a very large chamber 
indeed, with a spacious bay window in the north corner. 
I rapped upon the door, but receiving no reply, quietly 
opened it, and entered; there was the judge, walking up 
and down the room, alone, and evidently very much 
disturbed, sans coat, sans vest, suspenders hanging over 
his thighs. He immediately turned and greeted rne cor- 
dially, and after a moment said: **Mr. Hanks, I have sent ^ 
for you at the suggestion of Justice Cole. I am in trouble, 
and he said that at times he had found you prolific of ideas.' 

His expression amused me exceedingly, but I immedi- 
ately responded: "Such ideas as I have, are entirely at 
your service." 

Whereupon, he stated that a merchant in Milwaukee 
had recovered an unfair and unreasonable judgment 
against him, and that the merchant was in fact indebted 
to him, but the time had expired to appeal the case, that 
he had been very negligent regarding his financial matters, 
but that now he apprehended that possibly his Salary 
from the state might be disturbed. 

I suggested that he might appoint some person his 
attorney-in-fact, to draw his salary from the state treasurer 
a few days before due. The attorney then could take the 
money to the bank, receive a draft on New York, payable 
to E. G. Ryan, while he could use the same as a certificate 
of deposit, which would surely defeat any garnishee, as 
there would be no deposit in the bank, nor with the attorney. 
We were walking to and fro in his room during this conver- 
sation. Whereupon, to my surprise, he gave me a sharp 
rap between my shoulders, and said: "You are right, and 
you are my attorney-in-fact. Prepare the necessary power 
of attorney, and bring over for my signature." 

This was done, and the "power of attorney-in-fact" 
then granted by Chief Justice Ryan remained in force until 
his decease. 



CHARLES HENRY WILLIAMS— A SKETCH i 
Samuel M. Williams ' 

Charles Henry Williams, of Welsh Quaker parentage, 
the eldest child of Micajah Terrell Williams and Hannah 
Jones Williams, was born on the twenty-first of December, 
1818, in the city of Cincinnati, Ohio. In the private 
school conducted by General O. M, Mitchell, a graduate t 
of West Point, he became so interested in mathematics } 
and military tactics as to form a desire to continue his I 
education at West Point, to which his Quaker parents 
demurred. He then quietly began reading Blackstone's { 
Commentaries, with the purpose of becoming a lawyer. 
This plan also received the Quaker parental negation. 

But there were other fields for conquest, and Charles 
Henry was employed in the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust 
Company Bank, of which his father was president. During 
his employment with the bank, he was often directed to 
carry large sums of currency from Cincinnati to Chillicothe 
or to Columbus by stage. In later years he entertained his 
children with an account of what he thought the safest 
way to carry the money. At the bank it was carefully 
wrapped and safely tied in a package; the trusted young 
messenger would then roll it up in an old soiled newspaper 
tied with common string, put the bundle under his arm, 
slide out of the rear door of the bank, go around a few 
blocks, then down to the stagecoach, engage his passage, 
throw the bundle under the back seat of the coach, and 
climb up with the driver. When the stage arrived at his 
destination, the soiled package would be pulled out and he 
would then go in a roundabout way to the back of the 
bank, deliver the package, and receive a proper receipt 
therefor. 




CHARLES HENRY WILLIAMS 




i 



Charles Henry Williams 



425 



With the approval of his parents, he selected the pro- 
fession of civil engineer, beginning as rodman in the 
surveys being made on the White River Canal in Indiana, 
under his uncle Jesse L. Williams, of Fort Wayne. He 
steadily followed engineering until 1837, when all work 
of that nature upon the canal was suspended, he having 
by that time risen to the position of assistant engineer. 
In the wilderness of Indiana, working as a civil engineer, 
absorbing the ozone and nectar of the natural life, con- 
versing with the settlers, trying out his young strength 
against hardships, Mr. Williams developed a love for 
country life that resulted later in his becoming a farmer 
in the Baraboo valley of Wisconsin, though engineering 
and the study of its problems interested him to the end of 
his days. 

The early death of his father, in 1844, left him in charge 
of a large estate chiefly in lands heavily encumbered at 
Toledo, Ohio, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. This charge 
forced Mr. Williams to relinquish his own life plans, to go 
to Milwaukee, and to devote most of his time to the settle- 
ment of the estate in the interest of his mother and her 
seven children. His duties as executor, however, did not 
require all of his time, for history records the fact that in 
1846 he married Sarah Clark Thomas, of St. Clairsville, 
Ohio. The marriage was solemnized according to the 
Quaker or Friends ceremony, the engagement having been 
announced six months previous at the Friends meeting, 
and at each monthly meeting thereafter. At the wedding, 
when the spirit moved them, the bride and groom arose 
in the presence of their friends and repeated the marriage 
ceremony. In after years, Mrs. Williams amusingly stated 
that on the occasion of their marriage, Charles Henry was 
so serious and reflective that she thought the spirit never 
would move him, and she *'just gave him a little kick with 
the toe of her shoe'' to hasten the moving of lus spirit. 



4£6 



Samuel M. Williams 



In 1849 he was elected to the common council of the 
city of Milwaukee and was a member of the committee on 
city grades that cut down Spring Street (now Grand 
Avenue) fifteen feet at Seventh and Eighth streets. At or 
about the same time he was appointed receiver of the 
public land office by President Taylor, with headquarters 
at Milwaukee. But the yearning for farm or rural life 
that found root in the heart of the young engineer, while 
working through the forests of Indiana, was not to be 
overcome by the attractions of city life, for the Baraboo 
valley had been visited and Meadow Farm, with its lure 
of the wild and its natural grandeur, was beckoning to a 
heart and soul already seasoned with desire. 

Meadow Farm was located in the town of Excelsior, 
Sauk County, Wisconsin, adjoining the farm of Stephen 
Van Rensellaer Ableman, whose name has been given to 
the little village nestled among the bluffs at the intersection 
of Narrows Creek with the Baraboo River. The purchase 
of land in this valley was made because Mr. Williams 
understood that the proposed Milwaukee and La Crosse 
Railroad would pass through it. Instead it turned aside 
and passed through Kilbourn, fourteen miles farther north. 
The farmhouse was located in a grove of native black oak 
forest trees, that stood as a shade and shelter to the home 
and grounds as long as Mr. Williams owned the farm; 
but now alas! "Thrift, thrift, Horatio!" The trees have 
passed into firewood and the grounds to the yield of crops. 
The farm consisted of nearly a square mile of land, very 
rolling, in parts rocky, with high-faced bluffs of rock upon 
which here and there were a few large old white pine trees, 
but it was redeemed by being well wooded and watered, 
and by possessing large tillable areas and meadow. Besides 
being suited to stock raising and a variety of uses, it pleased 
the eye and charmed the soul with its diversity and sublim- 
ity of landscape. 



Charles Henry Williams 



427 



Mr. Williams took great pride in Meadow Farm. It 
was the place where he first became a tiller of the soil, a 
breeder of shorthorn cattle, merino and Cotswold sheep, 
Chester White swine, and Brahma chickens. To this farm 
in 1853 he brought his young family, rearing them to know 
the practical side of life and to realize in some degree the 
hardships of the frontier. Always, in talking about it, he 
said, "The greatest business of life is in raising good men ^ 
and women, and in my opinion there is no better place than 
a farm." When the boys demurred at some kinds of 
objectionable work, he would say, "I do not mind that kind 
of work when I am dressed for it," which of course sounded 
wise to us; but with a twinkling eye, that bespoke the 
humor of the situation, brother Charles would observe, 
"Yes, father, but we notice you do not get dressed that 
way very often." 

The farm neighbors then were Americans — John Young, 
General Starks, Alfred Williams, Moses Chaplin, James 
Colwell, George Young, Philip Cheek, Edward Watson, 
who married Colonel Ableman's daughter Laura, Aunt 
Dolly Pearl, Mr. Ableman's sister who used to go fishing 
with us children in the Baraboo River, and, neither last nor 
least. Colonel Ableman himself, weighing 325 pounds in 
his shirt sleeves. And then a half mile north of Meadow 
Farm, up a road that passed the Sugar Loaf and climbed 
to the top of the bluff that holds the Baraboo River on 
the east, just before it reaches the village of Ableman, 
two Quakers, Benjamin and Johanna Thomas, from St. 
Clairsville, Ohio, the father and mother of Mrs. Williams, 
located a small farm of eighty acres, and with their sons 
Terrell, Oliver, William, Corwin, and Charles, cleared it 
up, set out an orchard, and built a little cottage upon it, 
almost the last of the houses of that early day to fall beneath 
the power of time and decay. But eighteen months ago it 
stood in all the quaint charm of its peaceful Quaker origin, 



428 



Samuel M. Williams 



overlooking the magnificent valley reaching out toward 
Baraboo, and recalling to those who in the past had found 
comfort, cheer, and welcome beneath its Quaker roof, 
a feeling of profound respect and tenderness for even the 
flagstones that led to its threshold. It seemed a part of 
Meadow Farm to us children, as in the shifting events in 
the life of the family at Ableman it was home. Here 
Benjamin Thomas died; here Johanna Thomas, our grand- 
mother, lived with her sons, and when the war broke out 
in 1861 gave four of them to her country's need. 

As a civil engineer Mr. Williams knew about farming 
only through books, observation, and intercourse with 
other men, but providence brought to him an experienced 
English farmer, William Bell, whose practical knowledge of 
farm labor was as nearly perfect as possible. Every kind 
of farm work Mr. Bell could do with skill and perfect 
integrity of workmanship. In butchering, care and handling 
of stock, management of men, seeding, cultivating, har- 
vesting, he was always proficient, never boastful, never 
conceited, while his temperament and integrity of character 
drew him into a relation of mutual respect and cooperation 
with his employer that continued to the end of their business 
relations. 

In 1858, while operating Meadow Farm with the 
assistance of William Bell, his farm foreman, Mr. Williams 
accepted an invitation to return to Milwaukee and become 
the treasurer of the Milwaukee and Mississippi Railroad, 
which then extended from Milwaukee to Prairie du Chien, 
and was the beginning of what is now the great Chicago, 
Milwaukee, and St. Paul system of railway from Lake 
Michigan to the Pacific Ocean. In this capacity he served 
for two years. Often he related with relish that while living 
in Milwaukee, prior to his appointment as treasurer, and 
at the time when subscriptions to the stock of the company 
were first being taken, he was asked to subscribe, to which 



Charles Henry Williams 



429 



he replied, "I am land poor, but I will make a subscription 
of twenty-five dollars," thereupon pulling the money out 
of his pocket and paying it in cash; and that, he said was 
the first cash subscription to what is now the great railway 
company. As treasurer he rode upon a pass, but when his 
term ended he refused to accept such favors, maintaining 
that passes were usually given to those who could afford to 
pay their fare, while those who could not were compelled 
to pay. He preferred the feeling of independence, notwith- 
standing his classification with those who could not afford 
to pay. 

The breeding of thoroughbred Durham or shorthorn 
cattle was the branch of Mr. Williams' farming to which 
he devoted the greatest amount of labor and conscientious 
care, both on Meadow Farm at Ableman, and on Elmwood 
Farm at Baraboo, beginning at the latter place in 1871. 
At Elmwood Farm he introduced and carried on a system 
of public sales of shorthorns that brought together farmers 
from various parts of the state. At this time — 1879 — 
he was the veteran breeder of the state, having bred them 
since 1853. The beginnings of his herd and all new additions 
thereto came from Kentucky, except a later purchase from 
the herd of George Murray, of Racine, and one from W. B. 
Dodge, of Waukegan, Illinois. In an article by Clyde 
De Forrest Dopkins, entitled "A History of Shorthorns 
in Wisconsin from 1850 to 1890," is clearly described 
Mr. Williams' work in breeding Durham or shorthorn 
cattle. Mr. Dopkins says: 

In many respects the most important breeder of the period wa.«» 
Charles H. Williams, Baraboo, Sauk County. Mr. Williains, as will W 
remembered, was an old-time breeder of short-horns, having purr-l>r(Ml 
stock from almost the beginning of the period i)recrding tlic Civil \\i\r. 
He had a large herd of well bred animals of good quality which lir had 
developed through years of faithful, conscientious selection. His herd 
was subject to some criticism in that it lacked the blood that would 
command the highest prices. His animals, however, were just tlie 
type that were needed in Wisconsin; that is, well bred animals, of goml 



430 



Samuel M. Williams 



quality, which could be purchased at prices favorable to the general 
farmer and to the small breeder. During all the years of his breeding, 
Mr. Williams had been tireless in his efforts to impress upon the live 
stock breeders of the state the advantages to be derived from good 
cattle. He had been a faithful exhibitor at the various fairs, had written 
unceasingly about the good points of the breed, and at the same time 
had always sold his animals at a figure low enough for the poor stockman 
who had the desire to improve his herd and at the same time benefit 
his community. Because of these things, it can be said that Mr. Wil- 
liams was the most important breeder of the time. He was superintend- 
ent of cattle at the state fair in 1871. His report to the secretary of 
the society shows the charitable nature of the man, his love of his 
state, and at the same time it sums up the live stock situation of the 
time. 

The last paragraph of that report concludes as follows: 

Farmers of Wisconsin, our interests and those of our state lie largely 
in improving our domestic animals, growing the best of its kind is the 
most profitable. Raise, then, the best only — the best cattle, the best 
horses, the best sheep, swine and poultry — your means will warrant 
it; if not, go as many steps toward the best you can, and, by a gradual 
improvement, you will in time reach the desired goal. 

Of Mr. Williams Mr. Dopkins states: 

Too much credit cannot be given him, for his thirty years' work 
with shorthorns in Wisconsin. No one man exerted such a lasting 
influence toward the improvement of the live stock of the state as did 
this man. He was a conscientious breeder, possessing unimpeachable 
business integrity, a good neighbor and a man, who had the interests 
of his community, his state, and his country foremost in his heart. 

When President Lincoln called for "Three Hundred 
Thousand More," Mr. Williams left Meadow Farm in 
the care of William Bell, raised a company in Sauk County 
that was known as Company F of the Twenty-third Regi- 
ment Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, of which Colonel J. J. 
Guppey of Portage was the colonel, and of which he became 
the major. In the handling of a regiment of men, without 
criticism from his superior officers, he grew to doubt his 
capacity to command a large body of troops under difficult 
and trying conditions, where the lives of the men were in 
danger and the peril multiplied. This doubt weighed upon 
his mind and he resigned his commission as major after 
eight months of service around Vicksburg, Arkansas Post, 



Charles Henry Williams 



431 



and Fort Heinman; but he always said he would like to 
have remained in the army just as captain of Company F. 
There was another side to this army life. While major 
of the regiment, he fulfilled his duties with such scrupulous 
care and commanding intelligence that he attained the 
record of being one of the best regimental majors in the 
entire army corps, and was in line for early promotion at 
the time he resigned. Mr. Williams loved to recount the 
superior quality of the men of the regiment, and to describe 
the soldierly character they acquired through the military 
training given them by Colonel J. J. Guppey, for whom he 
entertained the highest respect and admiration as a soldier. 

In an interesting paper written and read by Mr. Williams 
in 1886 at the reunion of the Eleventh and Twenty-third 
regiments at Madison, he describes the high character of 
the regiment and the praise and admiration extended to 
it everywhere on the journey from Wisconsin to Ohio and 
through Kentucky, for the soldierly bearing of the men, 
their military precision of movement, and the absence of 
disorderly or immoral conduct. In a small plat known as 
WiUiams' Second Addition to the city of Baraboo, on the 
south limits thereof, on the old Devils Lake Road, as a 
last mark of respect for Colonel J. J. Guppey, Mr. Williams 
named a street Guppey Street. 

In the summer of 1865, at the close of the war, Mr. 
Williams built a new house at the east end of Meadow 
Farm. It stood upon an eminence overlooking the road 
from Ableman to Baraboo, about a mile from the former 
place, in what would be called "white oak openings.'' 
The white oak trees were two and a half to three feet in 
diameter at the butt, without a limb for fifty to sixty feet — 
staunch old pioneers, that survived for more than two hun- 
dred years.^ Here the family lived until 1871, when they 

lit is interesting to note that the old home of Mr. Williams" great -Krftn<lfathrr 
Richard Williams, in the neighborhood of Guilford Court House, North Carolina, in 
1781, had the same setting of grand old white oaks; it was known as the "New (lanlrn 
Oak." See the American Review of Renews, Ixvii, 302 (March, l»iW). 



43£ 



Samuel M, Williams 



moved to Elmwood Farm, south of Baraboo, on the old 
Devils Lake Road. The writer recalls that here in the 
white oak openings he learned to drive a yoke of oxen 
before the drag in seeding time. 

In the garden at the rear of this new farmhouse, Mr. 
Williams conceived the idea, growing out of his ever sturdy 
advocacy of diversified farming, that we should have a few 
swarms of bees. Now it is perfectly easy to handle bees, if 
you know how, and are to the manner born. He had never 
handled bees; his knowledge came from a book, wherein 
it was said that as summer waned an examination should 
be made of the hives, to see in what proportion the honey 
should be divided between the swarm and the owner. 
When fall came, he directed each of his elder sons, Micajah 
and Charles in turn, to make the necessary examination. 
Usually obedient to parental direction, on this occasion 
the boys said they would rather split wood, to which their 
father replied he was sorry, indeed, that he had no son 
suflSciently courageous to perform the necessary service 
to the bees, and would do it himself* The boys raised no 
objection to this. Reference to the book disclosed the 
information that the time of least hazard for such an enter- 
prise was the night, when the bees were at rest, and sug- 
gested the use of a lantern. Mr. Williams selected the 
night, lit the lantern, and announced his purpose of search- 
ing for honey* Mrs. Williams and the boys of course 
volunteered to bring up the rear of the procession. There 
must have been some mistake in that bee book, for the 
bees came out in great numbers, lighting upon Mr. Williams 
with murderous intent, until the family were soon engaged 
in search, not for honey, but for a bee more bold than his 
comrades, that had got inside the major's clothing and 
was promising a sword thrust* The anticipation of that 
sting was too much; it temporarily broke up the battle 
front of the invaders. But a few days later a professional 



Charles Henry Williams 



433 



bee man performed the task with perfect skill and grace. 
The family thus had a never-failing source of amusement 
over father's midnight quest for honey, in which he heartily 
joined, saying that he had got the most honey out of the 
humor of the situation, and declaring that farming should 
not be too diversified. 

In the spring of 1883 Mr. Williams was appointed a 
regent of the University of Wisconsin by Governor Jeremiah ^ 
M. Rusk. During the entire six years of his regency he 
served upon the standing farm committee, and continuously 
advocated and urged the establishment of a short course 
in agriculture that would be adapted to the needs of the 
average farmer boy of limited time and means. In 1885 
this farm committee, comprised of Hiram Smith, H. D. 
Hill, and Charles H. Williams, prepared and presented a 
special report on ways and means of conducting farmers' 
institutes^ 

Mr. Williams had no political ambitions, nor could he 
be influenced by purely party or political arguments. 
It was the right or justice of the thing in hand that gained 
his approval. However, any needed service to the com- 
munity met his prompt and devoted response. Always 
at the caucus, a member of the district school board, the 
county board, the common council, he gave his best en- 
deavor. In religion he was a Unitarian, in politics a Repub- 
lican, for many years a devoted reader of the New York 
Tribune, and naturally a disciple of Horace Greeley, until 
Mr. Greeley joined the Democratic party in order to become 
president. 

In Mr. Williams' later life, when declining years made 
retirement from the farm necessary, his active mind turned 
to the study of the great human problems and he devoted 
many years to the special study of the treatment of op- 
pressed peoples, more especially the negroes. Upon these 
subjects he wrote, published, and circulated at his own 



434 



Samuel M, Williams 



expense hundreds of brief articles, many of which found 
their way into the daily papers. This brought letters to 
him out of all parts of the United States, and some parts 
of Europe, from people sympathizing with or opposing 
his views; to these he always replied, writing himself, in 
longhand, up to within a year before his death. Walking 
with him on the street in Baraboo, I called his attention 
to a negro on the opposite side of the street, and said to 
him, "There, father, is a friend of yours," to which he 
replied, "My son, he is no more a friend of mine than of 
yours; I wish it understood that in all I have said and 
written upon the subject of the cruel and unjust treatment 
of the negroes, I am the friend of the oppressed man, the 
world over, no matter what his race or color, and I wish 
you to remember that." 

Mr. Williams died at Baraboo on the seventeenth of 
October, 1908, within about two months of ninety years 
of age, perfectly clear of mind, and conscious of all going 
on about him. The funeral services were conducted by 
Joe Hooker Post, Grand Army of the Republic. 



JOHN COUMBE, THE FIRST WHITE SETTLER 
IN RICHLAND COUNTY 



Camille Coumbe 

John Coumbe was born March 25, 1808, in Devonshire, 
England. A part of his boyhood days was spent in the city of 
London, where he received his education. Early in life he exhib- 
ited a love of adventure, which trait no doubt accounts for 
the fact that he later devoted his life to conquering the wilds of 
the territory of Wisconsin, and establishing there an estate, 
which he modeled after the estates of old England. 

In 1828 his parents migrated to America, locating in Gambier, 
Ohio. From there the young man made frequent journeys by 
stagecoach and on foot to the unsettled portions of that state. 
The inborn characteristics of the Anglo-Saxon race prompted 
him to push on into the unknown regions of the interior to 
continue "the course of empire." In the fall of 1836 he went to 
Galena, Illinois, where it was rumored great wealth lay in the 
lead mines. He worked there until the summer of 1838. Having 
heard of the rich lands north of Wisconsin River, he at last 
induced two of his young companions, John La Rue and Frank 
Hubbard, to accompany him through the pathless wilderness, 
that they might see for themselves this land of promise. When 
they reached Wisconsin River near the mouth of the Blue, 
they obtained an Indian canoe and crossed the swiftly running 
stream, landing near the place now occupied by the north end 
of the Blue River bridge. 

The newcomers were charmed by the beauty of the country. 
They pushed through the forest to the northward and westward, 
and just as they climbed over the crest of the hill, where the 
old Coumbe homestead was later built and still stands, they 
discovered the tepees of a large Indian village spread out below 
them in a clearing that sloped down to the river. The smoke 
could be seen curling out of the tops of the tents, and the bones 
of animals used for food lay strewn over the ground. Scattered 
about the clearings were the Indian corn fields, composed of 



436 



Camille Coumbe 



hills of corn planted at irregular distances apart and without 
regard to rows. When the corn came through the ground the 
dirt was scratched or raked about it, making a hill. This, of 
course, was the work of the squaws. Year after year corn was 
planted in the same hills. These corn hills may still be seen 
about the farm in considerable numbers. 

The three young adventurers were greatly surprised to find 
Indians present in such numbers, having supposed that they 
had been permanently removed to the west of the Mississippi 
River as a result of the Black Hawk War. In 1837 the Winnebago 
had ceded to the government all the lands east of the Mississippi, 
and had agreed to move west of the Father of Waters. The 
compact had not been carried out. Due to the fact that Richland 
and other adjacent counties afforded such choice hunting grounds, 
the natives were loath to leave their old haunts. 

For centuries the Indian name of the place had been Tippe- 
saukee, but the young men christened it Trip Knock. Having 
come with the intention of settling, they built a log cabin about 
two rods east of the stone bridge in the present village of Port 
Andrew. The braves, however, became so troublesome and 
arrogant that the young pathfinders, being in a hopeless minority, 
resolved to return to the "diggins." 

For John Coumbe, however, the new country held a peculiar 
fascination. He was ever a lover of nature in her more beautiful 
aspects, and the broad clearings covered with blue grass, which 
sloped gently down to the banks of the silent and majestic river, 
formed a picture which was stamped indelibly upon his memory. 
Thus was the sturdy Englishman again lured to the village of 
Tippesaukee. He had a rare combination of faculties which made 
him a practical man as well as a dreamer. He began to speculate 
upon the possibilities of this new region in the future. Many 
trading posts had already been established along the river, and 
he knew the vast extent of the fur industry about the Great 
Lakes. The possibility of railroads was as remote as flying 
machines; consequently, he figured that the Wisconsin River 
with its deep channel, then a navigable stream almost to its 
source, would be the connecting link between the Great Lakes 



i 




JOHN COUMBE 




HOUSE BUILT BY JOHN COUMBi:, 1 S() I - 



John Coumbe 



437 



and the Mississippi. This highway would be the artery draining 
the rich country of the interior. 

In June, 1840, he set out alone from Galena, with two yoke 
of oxen, and a wagon loaded with household effects and farming 
implements, blazing a trail as he went. He arrived at the trading 
post of Muscoda, where he was confronted with the problem of 
getting his possessions across the river. He finally succeeded 
in inducing one team of oxen to swim across to a sand bar which - 
extended for some distance into the river, and then the others 
followed with little difficulty. He constructed a raft on which 
were loaded all of his possessions. Mr. Coumbe then hired a 
man to float the raft down the river to the particular site he had 
chosen, while he drove the oxen across country. After cutting 
his way through the brush in many places, he arrived at Byrd's 
Creek. He encountered much difficulty in crossing the stream, 
because of the marshy condition of the banks. At last he reached 
the other side safely. The head team of oxen went up the bank 
with a great burst of speed and just missed a young sapling. 
The two teams were connected by a heavy log chain. The less 
fortunate cattle of the second team chose opposite sides of the 
tree, and were skidded well up the sapling, where they hung 
suspended a few feet in the air by the yoke, until Mr. Coumbe 
hurried to their assistance and chopped down the tree. 

When he reached his destination, a point about one-half 
mile north of the village of Tippesaukee, he discovered a large 
patch of wild strawberries. He attached a bell to one of the 
oxen and turned them loose to feed upon the rich growth of blue 
grass, that sprang up wherever the Indians had cleared the 
timber by allowing the fire to run through it. Without further 
delay he picked a hat full of delicious berries, which he devoured 
with expedition, not having taken time to eat anything all that 
day. He then proceeded to the river, where he expected to join 
his companion with the raft, but the latter was nowhere to be 
seen. Feeling some consternation concerning the whereabouts 
of the rude float which contained all of his worldly possessions, 
Mr. Coumbe made his way to a clump of tall pine trees on a 
high part of the bank, climbed one of them, and obtained a 
view of the river for miles in each direction. He retraced his 



438 



Camille Coumhe 



steps up the river for a half-mile to another group of pines, 
which may still be seen rearing their stately heads to a dizzy 
height on the very brink of the stream they seem to guard. 
From the top of one of these trees he scanned the shore for miles, 
but could catch no glimpse of man or craft. All was quiet; 
nothing broke the tranquillity of the late summer afternoon, 
save the twitter of a bird in the trees, or the scamper of small 
game through the wilderness. 

He decided that the man must have missed the landing and 
floated on down the river, in spite of the definite description given 
him. There seemed to be nothing to do but to go in search of 
him. So the worthy pioneer set out on foot down the river 
bank, nothing daunted by the fact that he had already traveled 
some fifteen miles that day over rough country. A few miles 
farther on he met the man just starting to walk back up the 
river. He had drifted by on the south side of the island, following 
what is known as Big Tiger, instead of keeping to the right as 
he had been instructed. Finally, realizing that he had missed 
the place, he came to the bank and tied up the raft at the mouth 
of Knapp's Creek. The prospect of spending the night alone in 
a region infested with Indians was not very comforting, and as 
he caught sight of John Coumbe coming to meet him he exclaimed, 
"My God, Coumbe, where am IV* 

The problem now was to get the raft up the river to the 
desired landing place. The travelers slept that night at the 
improvised camp, and arose early next morning to find a brisk 
breeze blowing up stream. Fortune was beginning to smile upon 
them. With true frontiersman's sagacity, Mr. Coumbe prepared 
a rude sail out of blankets, and in a short time was carried up 
the stream to Tippesaukee as easily as if he had been traveling 
on one of the finest steamships of modern times. 

The cabin which had been erected two years before was still 
intact, and the settler immediately took possession. One day 
after he had been out clearing, he returned in the evening to 
find his cabin a heap of smouldering ruins. The wily savages 
had visited the place and applied the torch in his absence. With- 
out wasting time in useless repining, he went to work and built 
another cabin about a half-mile west of the first site. This was 



John Cournhe 



439 



also burned by the savages. Nothing daunted, the white man 
applied to the military for protection, and requested that the 
Indians be driven out of the country. The commandant sent a 
detachment of soldiers under the command of a Heutenant. 
Upon hearing that the Indians were encamped in force west, 
near Knapp's Creek, the oflScer lost his nerve and declared his 
intention to give up the expedition and return to the settlements. 
The soldiers were eager to make a forward movement, and when 
they found that their officer lacked courage, by unanimous 
acclaim they chose John Coumbe to lead them. From this 
incident resulted the name by which he was ever afterward 
known — Captain Coumbe. 

The party advanced to the Indian village west of Tippesaukee, 
near Knapp's Creek. The young leader, acting as spokesman and 
addressing the Indians in their own language, told them that 
they would have to move on. By way of illustrating his meaning 
and securing immediate results, he leaned over and pulled up one 
of the tent pegs. At this an old Indian squaw flew out of the 
midst of the dark group of savages, and chattering in a wild 
jargon, came up to Captain Coumbe with a series of menacing 
gestures. He picked her up and flung her lightly to one side, 
where she remained at some distance from the rest of the party, a 
muttering heap of beads, blankets, and shawls. He then shouted, 
"Puck-a-chee," which in the language of the Winnebago means, 
"Get out." The Indians knew him to be absolutely fearless, and 
gradually gave way before the stern, determined man. As they 
retreated sullenly and silently through the forest, several of the 
braves came up to the captain, holding up all of the fingers of 
their two hands and glowering darkly in his face. This was a 
threat that they would kill him sometime within the next ten 
years. 

The Indians have continued to return each year during the 
hunting season up to the present time, but in ever diminishing 
numbers. Mr. Coumbe always treated them with kindness and 
fairness, and many times on stormy nights his cabin floor was 
covered with the forms of sleeping savages. One night a party 
of twelve or more applied for shelter. He wclconied tlu ni, but 
soon discovered that a few of them were much the worse from 



440 



Camille Coumbe 



the efiFects of "fire water' V which they had obtained from the 
traders at Muscoda. He remarked many times that he always 
got along pretty well with the Indians until they got some 
whisky, and then they were inclined to be very troublesome. 

A brief description of the interior of Coumbe's cabin may be 
interesting. The walls, of course, were formed of the rough logs 
which made the framework. The entire house was put together 
almost wholly without the use of nails, for they were expensive 
and difficult to obtain. The floor was covered with uneven boards 
hewn out of the trunks of great trees, for there were no sawmills 
in those early days. Coumbe built a sort of rude counter across 
one end of the house, behind which he kept his supplies. At 
one end was an immense fireplace where logs eight feet long 
might be burned. There were some pegs driven into the wall 
to the left of the fireplace. It was here that the pioneer always 
placed his trusty gun when indoors. On the particular night 
of which we were speaking, one of the tallest bucks of the party 
approached the spot where the gun rested. He was twice told 
by the host not to touch it, but the half-drunken redskin con- 
tinued to meddle with the flintlock. Quick as a flash the powerful 
white man sprang upon him, seized him by the hair with one 
hand and the breech clout with the other, and pitched him head 
first out into the darkness. The other braves recognized the 
justice of the action, and expressed their approval by loud shouts 
of laughter. Afterwards the settler said that if he had discrimi- 
nated against any of the orderly members of the party, they 
would all have been upon him in a moment. 

Sometime after the incident just related, Mr. Coumbe took 
his plowshare, or lay, to Muscoda to have it repaired. He 
crossed the river and took the Indian trail on the south side, 
which led through tall grass as high as his head. Just as he had 
covered about half the distance (five or six miles), there in the 
narrow path directly in front of him stood the very Indian whom 
he had thrown out of his lodging so unceremoniously but a short 
time before. He was an unusually large buck of powerful stature, 
and towered high above the head of the white man. He asked 
Mr. Coumbe for some tobacco, but the latter said curtly, "Got 
none!" and walked on without so much as turning around to see 



John Coumhe 



441 



what the Indian was doing, although he fully expected an arrow 
in his back the next minute. Such bravery could not but strike 
this savage with awe and admiration. He is reported as having 
remarked later to another settler: "Coumbe, heap much brave." 

During the three years John Coumbe was living a lonely life 
in his solitary cabin on the site of Tippesaukee, he often made 
excursions into the wilds north of Wisconsin River. Before 
starting on these journeys, he always put all of his tools in the 
cabin and secured them by a strong hasp. This was necessary, 
for prowling Indians would carry away everything on which they 
could lay their hands. One day when he was returning from one 
of these exploring trips, and was within a half-mile of the cabin, 
he heard a noise below him on the edge of the trail near the river 
bank. Soon he could see an Indian hiding behind the trees. 
He called to the Indian to come out, but the savage continued 
to skulk under cover. At last, after repeatedly commanding him 
to come forward, Mr. Coumbe succeeded in getting him to show 
himself. The Indian presented the appearance of having rolled 
in an ash heap, and the pioneer's suspicions were aroused. He 
then asked the savage where he had been and what he was hiding 
under his blanket. The Indian answered, "Me good Injun. 
Smoke peace pipe." This Mr. Coumbe refused to do until the 
red man showed what he had under his blanket. The Indian 
tried all kinds of artful dodges to escape detection; but seeing 
that his questioner was deeply in earnest and was handling his 
gun in a threatening manner, he complied with the white man's 
request and drew forth several loaves of bread. He had climbed 
to the top of the chimney of the fireplace and had gained entrance 
through this sooty opening to the room below. Mr. Coumbe 
gave the Indian a severe lecture on the evil of his way, and then 
compelled him to return the bread to the cabin. It must be 
kept in mind that bread was precious to that lone pioneer, for 
his meal and flour had to be brought from Galena. The journey 
thither was a long and fatiguing one, which he aimed to take 
once each year when he hauled his flailed wheat to mill. This 
usually took place in winter, when the ice afforded a bridge upon 
which to cross the river. Sometimes, when he was unable to 
cross the river on the ice, he was obliged to carry his wheat to 



442 



Camille Coumbe 



mill in the summer. In order to cross the river it was necessary 
for him to take his wagon-load of grist up stream a mile by ox 
team. At this point the wagon was unloaded, taken to pieces, 
placed on two Indian canoes, and poled to the opposite bank. 
The return trip was then made and the wheat loaded onto the 
canoes, to be transported in like manner. Then the oxen were 
forced to swim across the river, where the wagon was again set 
up and the journey resumed along the blazed trail to Galena. 
The process was repeated in crossing the river upon his return. 

By continuing his practice of always treating the Indian 
squarely, the young man managed to remain on his claim; he 
lived alone in his hut and worked constantly, clearing the land 
and preparing it for cultivation. It was not an enviable situation, 
to dwell miles from any other white men, alone in the midst of 
a wild country. Had he not been inspired by a purpose and 
possessed of indomitable courage and will power, he would soon 
have given up his project and returned to the comforts of civili- 
zation. It was three long years before other settlers followed 
him to the region. His brother Edward was among the first to 
come, and soon afterward two of his sisters, Lottie and Mary 
Coumbe, migrated to the new country. Lottie was later married 
to Captain Andrews, who operated a large boat on the river and 
founded the village of Port Andrew, which still bears his name. 
Mary became the wife of Judge J. T. Mills of Lancaster, a learned 
and eminent gentleman. 

After the burning of his second cabin, Mr. Coumbe built a 
more pretentious log house not far from his last hut. After 
having lived in the new country alone for nine years, he was 
married. May 31, 1849, to Sarah Ann Palmer, daughter of 
Thomas Palmer, who was also a pioneer of Richland County. 
In this new house they began their wedded life.* 

The Coumbe homestead is situated on the hilltop before 
alluded to, about one-half mile west of the village of Port Andrew. 

* Seven children were born to them — three girls and four boys. The eldest son, 
Thomas, a talented young man, died at the early age of nineteen. The youngest child, 
Lottie, died in childhood. Sarah Sophia, commonly known as "Pet," died at her home in 
Blue River, Wisconsin. Will Coumbe lives at present in Kansas City, Missouri, where 
he is engaged in the real estate business. Robert Coumbe, of Blue River, is a banker. 
Warner Coumbe, a physician, lives at Richland Center. Mrs. Mary Powers, the only 
living daught^, now occupies the old homestead. She has in her possession many Indian 
relics and souvenirs of by-gone days. 



443 



John Coumbe 



443 



The beautiful elevation on which it is built affords a splendid 
view of the Wisconsin River. It needs no stretch of the imagina- 
tion to picture the noted pioneer sitting on the broad veranda 
and gazing out over the rippling water of the river studded with 
green islands, or watching the changing shades on the distant hills. 
These bluffs, which are often seen through a blue haze that 
seems to enhance their loveliness, complete the panoramic view. 
One cannot help thinking of Irving and his immortal pictures of 
the region along the Hudson, and wishing for some modem 
dreamer who could gaze into the vistas of former years and 
crystallize the stories of those brave pioneers. 

John Coumbe was a man of high ideals, keen intellect, and 
nobility of character. He was always on the side of right, and 
championed the cause of the weak and the oppressed. Many 
a poor settler has Mr. Coumbe to thank for having rescued his 
claim from the hands of fraudulent land sharks. He raised his 
family in a remarkable way, considering the times, for he sent 
all of his seven children away to school and college. His tastes 
were those of a cultured English gentleman, and he brought into 
the home he founded in the new country many of the refinements 
of the most civilized parts of the world. Music and art found a 
liberal patron in him. It was a great day when the large, square 
rosewood piano, the first in the county, was brought into the 
parlor of the big white house on the hill, and all the neighbors 
from far and near came to view the wonder. He was always a 
hard-working man. In later years he rode a fine riding horse 
when overseeing the estate and his outlying farms. 

This venerated pioneer died, at the age of seventy-four, 
in his home on the bank of the river he loved, having carved 
for himself a unique and highly honored place in the histor>^ of 
Richland County. 



DOCUMENTS 



THE SPEECH OF HONORABLE JOHN E. CASHMAN, 
SENATOR FROM THE FIRST DISTRICT, ON 
BILL NO. 108, Si 

PROHIBITING THE USE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS CONTAINING 
PROPAGANDA FAVORABLE TO ANT FOREIGN GOVERNMENT 

The history of a nation is its proudest asset. It includes 
the record of its great men, their ideals, sacrifices and achieve- 
ments. To preserve that history in all its original purity and 
teach it to the rising generations is a nation's first duty. 

To pollute that history, rewrite it from a foreign viewpoint, 
malign the nation's founders and defenders, assail their ideals 
and question their integrity, and teach that to the children 
in the schools, is treason to the nation; it poisons the wells where 
the children drink, destroys their patriotism and love of country. 

No nation since time began has a grander or more sublime 
history than ours. The bravest and most liberty-loving people 
from out the mother land of Europe laid the foundations of this 
republic. The Dutch settled New Netherlands, now New York, 
the English settled many of the colonies, the Swedes settled 
Delaware, the Germans were numerous in Pennsylvania, the 
Irish in Maryland and in all the colonies, the French were the 
trail blazers of civilization. 

But all these different peoples braved the long voyage of 
the Atlantic and the hazards of an unknown wilderness inhabited 
by wild men and wild animals, in order to escape civil and re- 
ligious persecutions in the lands where lay the bones of their 
fathers for a thousand years, in order to be free. 

We owe much to the countries whence they came. Back of 
the common law of England was the civil law of old Rome, 
adopted in continental countries. To Holland we are indebted 
for the written ballot, and for town and county representation 

^ Delivered March 1, 1923. in the Wiaconsin State Senate. 



The Speech of John E, C ashman 



445 



in a legislature; our free public school system came from Prussia. 
But the spirit of liberty breathed into the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence was the American spirit, native to American soil and 
borrowed from no other place. 

The broad Atlantic and months of voyage separated and 
shielded the American colonists from the king-ridden tyrannies 
they had left, and enabled them to breathe the atmosphere of 
freedom and stand up free men, willing to kiss the hand of no 
tyrant or bend the knee to no human power. 

So when tyranny followed them here they resisted, not as 
Englishmen but as Americans, all standing together. The 
navigation laws enacted by parliament required the Americans 
to trade only with England and on English ships. The laws of 
trade and manufacture passed by parliament forbade the Ameri- 
cans to manufacture even the nail for a horseshoe without the 
consent of parliament. Taxation without representation, the 
treason act, deporting Americans for trial and imprisonment — 
all these and others constituted a procession of tyrannies which 
compelled the Americans to resist, for, be it remembered, they 
had come here to escape tyranny. They petitioned the king and 
parliament. The king refused to see the petition, and parliament 
would not permit it to be read within its walls. The Americans 
were looked down upon as an inferior class of people, and even 
the conmion people of England spoke of the Americans as "our 
subjects in the colonies." 

Then came the War for American Independence, wherein our 
Revolutionary sires fought, suffered, and sacrificed, as never 
men fought and sacrificed since Leonidas and his three hundred 
Spartan heroes braced themselves in the Pass of Thermopylae 
to win or perish for the liberties of Greece. 

And on July 4, 1776, George Washington and the patriot 
fathers brought forth upon this continent a new nation, conceived 
in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are 
created equal. To that proposition and to the new-risen republic 
they pledged their lives, fortunes and sacred honor, and after eight 
years of the most heroic suffering and sacrifice on a hundred 
battle fields from Lexington and Bunker Hill to Valley Forge 
and Yorktown, they defeated the tyrant enemy of their country. 



446 



Documents 



his Tory and Indian Allies, and brought into being this new 
nation. Then they wrote, and the states adopted, the supreme 
law of the land, the American constitution, the most sublime 
public document that ever came forth from the mind and the 
soul of man, establishing a system of government based upon the 
consent of the governed, with religious liberty protected, inherent 
rights guaranteed, to be written in indestructible letters into the 
pages of the nation's laws. 

That priceless heritage of a free republic and a fundamental 
law erecting a government based upon the consent of the gov- 
erned, the patriot fathers founded and transmitted to our keeping 
with the solemn warning of Washington to keep out of all entang- 
ling alliances with foreign powers. That policy of America and 
that warning of Washington's was the guiding star of the Republic 
for 140 years, down to the time of Woodrow Wilson. Adhering 
to that advice and following that policy of minding our own 
American business and letting Europe mind hers, our country 
prospered, became the splendor of nations, the home and heritage 
of the free. American children looked back through the century 
from the American schoolroom with pride to their country's 
founders. Patriotism was the natural product of every American 
school. 

Then came the foreign propaganda, aided by the Carnegie 
treason, the Rhodes scholarships, the enemies within the gates. 
Then came the new dispensation, the disregard of the advice of 
Washington and the policy of America for 140 years, the foreign 
war, and foreign entanglements that tie us up with empires and 
imperialism. 

The dream of Carnegie and Rhodes and Woodrow Wilson 
must be realized. Professors are subsidized, histories rewritten, 
and American inspiration poisoned at its source. The republic 
must be tied up with leagues to guarantee bankers' loans and 
victors' spoils. The will of the people is forgotten as soon as 
the votes are counted. The purpose is to undermine the Republic 
by reaching the future citizen in the schools. 

Yesterday American history was written from the American 
viewpoint. Today so-called American history is written from 
the British viewpoint. Yesterday American history taught the 



The Speech of John E. C ashman 



447 



glory of the Republic and the pure ideal of its founders, today it 
maligns them. Yesterday you and I were taught the Revolu- 
tionary War was the outstanding struggle of all time for human 
freedom. Today the revised histories teach our children that 
the Revolutionary War was a mistake, a quarrel between the 
Whigs and Tories. 

We were taught to look upon George Washington as a patriot 
soldier and unequaled statesman, the Father of his country. 
Our children are told in these histories that Washington was a 
sorehead, sore because he didn't get a job from the British 
government. In the old histories the minutemen were lauded 
as firing the shot that echoed around the world. In the new 
histories our children are taught that the minutemen were 
cowards and ran away at Lexington, leaving their dead behind. 
Yesterday we were taught that the men of the Second Continental 
Congress who formulated the Declaration of Independence and 
upon the ruins of despotism erected the structure of the Republic, 
were far-seeing statesmen. Our children are taught that the 
Second Continental Congress was composed of "narrow minded, 
office-seeking, office-trading plotters," and that only for them 
we might still be part of the glorious British Empire. 

According to these treason texts the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence was falsehood and the Revolutionary War was a mistake 
and a farce. 

In these treason texts there is no room for Nathan Hale, 
whose only regret on the British scaffold was that he had but 
one life to give to his country; no room for Anthony Wayne, who 
when he fell wounded, ordered his aides to carry him so that he 
might die at the head of the column; no room for General Francis 
Marion and the leaders who delivered the Carolina s from the 
British; no room for Betsy Ross and the birth of the American 
flag; no room for the words of the dying Lawrence, "Don't give 
up the ship"; no room for Faneuil Hall, the cradle of American 
liberty. 

Talk about teaching Americanization and deporting reds, 
while un-American professors head our colleges and write our 
histories. One of these treason texts can do more liann in ton 
months than a hundred shiploads of reds could do in ton years. 



I 



448 



Documents 



The security of this Republic does not depend alone upon 
great battleships and big armies. It depends upon the patriotism 
that lives in the hearts of the people, implanted there by the 
history of its great men, and the inspiring story of their noble 
deeds handed down untarnished to the generations of children 
as they appear upon the scene. 

Rewrite and poison the history that goes into the children's 
hands and the nation goes down to dependence, serfdom, and 
death as surely as the sands of Egypt cover the buried glory of 
its people, as surely as the ruins of Rome are the mute monuments 
of its ancient greatness. 

This priceless heritage of liberty did not come to you and me 
by accident. It was not the gracious gift of a king, parliament, 
or kin across the sea. 

The barefoot soldiers with Washington in the awful winter 
at Valley Forge, the crimson footprints of the ragged heroes 
retreating across the frozen fields of New Jersey, the 2400 picked 
men crossing the Delaware with Washington amid the drifting 
ice and blinding sleet of that Christmas night — these are some of 
the price of the liberty that we enjoy. 

The granite walls of Quebec where brave Montgomery fell, 
the bloody field of Camden where De Kalb died at the head of 
the Continental regulars, the plains of Savannah where Pulaski 
laid down his life at the head of his legion, the bloody decks of 
Old Ironsides^ whose thunders shook the mighty deep, the shallow 
trench at New Orleans where Jackson and the Kentucky and 
Tennessee riflemen stood like a wall of iron defending their 
country — these are some of the events amid which the nation 
was born and preserved. 

I say to you, Mr. President, if our country is to live, the 
wells of history must be kept pure for our children. 

The taxpayers' money must no longer be used to teach treason 
and defame the nation's founders and defenders. 

We love our schools and spend millions for their support, 
but we would rather see those schools perish and the grass grow 
where they stand than that they should become agencies of 
propaganda to undermine the Republic. 



The Speech of John E, Cashman 



449 



In the name of the patriot founders of this nation who gave 
us a country and freedom, 

In the name of that love of country that is native in every 
American heart, and which should be transmitted to the coming 
generations, I ask you to drive these treason texts from the 
schools of Wisconsin. 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 



POPULAR CENSORSHIP OF HISTORY TEXTS 

Wisconsin has now a unique law on the subject of 
school history texts. That law provides, section 1 : 

No history or other textbook shall be adopted for use or be in any 
district school, city school, vocational school or high school which 
falsifies the facts regarding the War of Independence or the War of 1812 
or which defames our nation's founders or misrepresents the ideals and 
cause for which they struggled and sacrificed, or which contains propa- 
ganda favorable to any foreign government. 

The method provided in other sections of the law for 
banishing textbooks which have been adopted but which 
are repugnant to the above provision is as follows: Upon 
complaint of any five citizens, filed with the state superin- 
tendent of public instruction, a hearing shall be arranged, 
to be held before the state superintendent or his deputy, 
in the county from which the complaint came. Previous 
notice must have been given through the press to the 
public and by mail to the complainants and to the pub- 
lishers of the textbook complained of. A decision must 
be rendered within ten days. If the book shall be found 
obnoxious to the provisions of the law, that fact shall be 
noted by the state superintendent in the list of books for 
schools which he publishes annually. Thereafter the 
book so listed may be used only during the remainder of 
the year in which the state superintendent publishes it as 
proscribed. The penalty for retaining it beyond the time 
limit shall be the loss to the school or district concerned 
of the state aid normally falling to its share. 

The passage of this bill in the senate with only one vote 
against it, created a good deal of surprise, which changed 
to admiration for the oratorical powers of its author and 
sponsor, Senator John Cashman of Manitowoc County, 



Popular Censorship of History Texts 451 



when it was learned that his impassioned appeal to patriot- 
ism figuratively swept senators "oflF their feet." 

History students can have no quarrel with the motive 
assigned by Senator Cashman for the passage of this law. 
He says: "The history of a nation is its proudest asset. 
It includes the record of its great men, their ideals, sacrifices, 
and achievements. To preserve that history in all its 
original purity and teach it to the rising generations is a 
nation's first duty." With every word in that stirring 
exordium the historically minded man or woman will 
cordially agree. Thoughtful persons, whether historians 
or not, will also sympathize with Senator Cashman when 
he undertakes to rebuke anything approaching levity in 
characterizing the fathers of the Republic or captiousness 
in criticizing their policies, motives, and achievements. 
Unfortunately, there always have been among writers 
some who display a certain air of "smartness" or super- 
ciliousness which hardly comports with the inherent dignity 
of the historian's oflSce, or with the aim of doing equal and 
exact justice to all persons and to all causes discussed. 
Yet it will probably be no light task to convince an impartial 
umpire that writers of textbooks which have been adopted 
for use in the schools, after careful scrutiny by boards of 
education and other school officers responsible to the 
people, have been guilty of "treason to the nation," as 
Senator Cashman seems to think has often been the case.* 
The framers of the constitution, with wise prevision, 
limited the application of the word "treason" in such a 
way as to exclude that indefinite class of crimes known 
elsewhere under the name of constructive treason, which 
in England and other countries had provided a favorable 
soil for plotters of revenge against individuals and in times 
of high tension always yielded a sinister harvest of oppres- 
sion and suffering. So they defined treason against the 

* Speech of Senator Cashman, ante. 



452 



Editorial Comment 



United States narrowly as consisting only in "levying 
war against them or in adhering to their enemies, giving 
them aid and comfort," and they also provided that con- 
viction under a charge of treason could be secured only 
on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act 
or confession in open court. 

This view of the fathers as relates to treason was of 
course lost sight of during the Civil War, when in the 
North it used to be fashionable for men to pillory as "fool" 
or "traitor" (with an emphatic expletive) anyone who had 
the temerity to vote the Democratic ticket; it was lost 
sight of in the recent war when men were called traitors 
because they refused to buy liberty bonds or because they 
declared the draft a violation of the rights of the individual; 
and it is likewise lost sight of when we condemn under 
the term treason opinions on history which we niay regard 
as too favorable to our nation's one-time enemies, or too 
contemptuous of the characters or the acts of our own 
distinguished men of a past age. It would be strange if 
the impulses engendered by the war and the peace were 
not reflected more or less in editions of books prepared 
since 1917. It is probably true that some authors have 
overstressed the "hands across the sea" sentiment, while 
others perhaps lean unduly in an opposite direction. But 
that any of them have been guilty of treasonable acts or 
even intentions is what no one who knows the historical 
profession can believe without the most explicit proof. 

But this question of treason aside, the problem still 
remains to determine what is the history of our country 
"in all its original purity." What shall be the test of purity 
inasmuch as, happily, there is no established list of author- 
ized books or records from which writers must derive their 
facts? Are they not compelled either to investigate each 
point for themselves or to accept as probably correct the 
results of other men's investigations? To be sure, every 



Popular Censorship of History Texts 453 



important event creates its own legend or tradition, and 
such legends tend to be preserved and to be handed down 
from generation to generation. But legends are not history. 
No one worthy to rank as a careful historian would presume 
to write the history of the Great War on the basis of legends 
now crystallizing about it. No more can one write the history 
of the Revolution on such a legendary basis. This view, 
that much which once was thought to be history but was in 
fact mere legend, is not in any sense new. James Russell 
Lowell, who ranks among the very distinguished Americans 
of the last generation, wrote, in 1864, that the early reports 
of the battle of Lexington claimed for the Yankee minute- 
men a non-resistant attitude. 

The Anglo Saxon could not fight without the law on his side. But 
later, when the battle became a matter of local pride, the muskets that 
had been fired at the Red coats under Pitcairn almost rivalled in number 
the pieces of furniture that came over in the Mayflower. Indeed, who- 
ever has talked much with Revolutionary pensioners knows that those 
honored veterans were no less remarkable for imagination than for 
patriotism. It should seem that there is nothing on which so little 
reliance can be placed as facts, especially when related by one who saw 
them. It is no slight help to our charity to recollect that, in disputable 
matters, every man sees according to his prejudices, and is stone blind 
to whatever he did not expect or did not mean to see. Even where no 
personal bias can be suspected, contemporary and popular evidence 
is to be taken with great caution, so exceedingly careless are men as 
to exact truth, and such poor observers, for the most part of what goes 
on under their eyes.* 

It is hardly necessary at this late day to insist that no 

writer is justified in building his narrative of events on 

unverified tradition. He must try to penetrate to the 

truth that lies behind the legend (which in some cases 

will differ very widely from the legend itself). It is no easy 

task at best to perform a successful piece of historical 

research, and the questions on which final agreements 

have been reached are not numerous. Accordingly, if 

the law should be so construed as to enforce banishment 

from the schools of any book which can be proved incorrect 

' Essay on The Rebellion, 



t 



454 



Editorial Gomment 



in some of its alleged facts without regard to their impor- 
tance, no textbooks will be left in the schools, for none are 
impeccable. True, the Cashman law would condemn only 
for falsifying the history of the Revolutionary War and 
the War of 1812, leaving four other foreign wars in which 
our country has engaged, and the great Civil War, to be 
treated without other restraint than that contained in the 
last clause of section 1, denouncing propaganda in favor 
of any foreign government. But under that sole provision 
it might still prove embarrassing for a writer to tell the 
truth about the Mexican War and possibly the others also, 
for the term propaganda^ — as the whole world has learned 
lately — is a most elastic one. Presumably, the propaganda 
test applies as well to other phases of history as to the 
military phases, wherefore an author of a textbook is apt, 
under a strict construction of this law, to be haled into court 
on the charge of propaganda if he should consider it his 
duty to say a single thing in commendation of any other 
nation. For, will there not always be found, in any school 
district, five citizens whose views collide with those of the 
author; and if so, what is to prevent a case being called? 
Surely a word in favor of France would be resented by 
some; a word in favor of Great Britain would be resented 
by others; a word in favor of Germany would offend still 
others; and so on through the list. In the present mournful 
state of general unrest and want of confidence among 
nations, an author would tread unsafely on any ground out- 
side the "three-mile limit." 

It does not follow from the fact that under the law it is 
easy to bring cases, that convictions would be equally easy. 
Presumably the state superintendent has had knowledge 
of all books now in use in the schools and, in eflfect if not 
in form, has approved them. This he would not have done 
had he considered any of them purveyors of treason or 
excessively faulty in statement. Moreover, as judge in 



Popular Censorship of History Texts 455 



cases that may arise under this law, the superintendent 
will be bound to take judicial notice of some things. For 
example, it is common knowledge that no history text 
is perfect either on its factual side, in its literary qualities, 
or in the author's perspective of events; that few writers 
display at all times perfect taste, and none perfect judg- 
ment, in their criticisms of men and their comments on 
historical actions and movements; that a given textbook 
may be valuable, despite minor defects in all of the above 
points, by reason of its superior arrangement, its psycho- 
logical adaptation to children's needs, and the success 
with which it communicates to them the main features 
and the spirit of American history. He will also be obliged 
to rule that the truth is not malicious propaganda and he 
is bound to maintain an author's right to liberty of research. 
It goes without saying that if a book is palpably and 
grossly inaccurate; if it gives the child a wholly erroneous 
view of history; if it is crassly censorious of America's 
great men; if it is written in a spirit tending to destroy 
American ideals; if it tends to make boys and girls ashamed 
of American character and achievements, not in exceptional 
instances here and there, but generally; then there would 
hardly be a question about the duty of getting rid of it 
with all convenient promptness. But would it not be 
strange if, with the superintendent and other educational 
experts on guard, such a book had got itself adopted? 
On general principles one would expect that only in the 
rarest cases would this law come into operation; for it 
ought not to be easy for a thoroughly unworthy book to 
elude the critical eyes of publishers, editors, school sujx^r- 
intendents, teachers, and school boards, to be finally 
detected and exposed by some school patron or other 
private citizen. No doubt such cases arc possible, but 
one could hardly conceive them to be of common (k curroncv. 
Misgivings are aroused, therefore, by the report that at the 



456 



Editorial Comment 



legislative hearing Senator Cashman denounced, by name, 
five well known and widely used textbooks. 

If the Senator's historical views, as published in the 
Senate Journal under date of March 1, 1923, are intended 
to be made the platform in a campaign to purify the history 
teaching of our schools, the upshot may prove widely 
different from what is now anticipated; for among those 
views, the derivation of which is not indicated, are somei 
which it would be difficult to find expressed in any existing 
textbook. For example. Senator Cashman holds that 
our country is indebted to Holland "for town and county 
representation in a legislature." Americans have long 
been taught that, in the picturesque phrase of John Fiske, 
"self-government broke out in Virginia" in 1619 by reason 
of the fact that these people were English. We are aware 
of no investigations which have brought forth evidence 
compelling the abandonment of that view, though some 
very extravagant claims have been made for the Dutch 
influence upon both colonial politics and colonial education. 
He also holds that "our free public school system came 
from Prussia." If by this were meant merely that Prussian 
influence has been felt in the creation of a system of state 
supervision of education, and in the strengthening of ai 
school system already in existence, we would gladly concur. 
But the statement is too sweeping to admit of such an inter- 
pretation. Wisconsin Germans ought to be very glad to 
assign to New England colonies and states the chief influence 
in giving us the public school system because, in the present 
state of research, that appears to be where the credit belongs. 
To all that the Senator says about the selection of immi- 
grants for America, the development in the colonies them- 
selves of a new and vivid love of liberty which found 
expression in the Declaration of Independence, the stupid 
tyranny of George III, and the heroic sufferings and 
achievements of patriots in the Revolution, we utter a 



Popular Censorship of History Texts 457 



hearty Amen; realizing, of course, that his statement 
is necessarily a crowded summary, cast in oratorical mould, 
and not designed as a complete exposition of his views. 
But, in thus concurring we do hot yield up our sympathy 
with the aphorism of Edmund Burke, that in their reaction 
to tyranny the colonists "are descendants of Englishmen.'' 
The same reservations might be made with reference 
to Senator Cashman's statement on the constitution. And 
yet a fair interpretation of what he says on that subject 
compels us to class him with those extreme worshipers of 
that document who, like the authors of the New York 
teachers' test oath, would maintain the constitution, 
unchanged, at any cost. Speaking of the fathers and 
their work, he says: "Then they wrote and the states 
adopted the supreme law of the land, the American consti- 
tution, the most sublime public document that ever came 
forth from the mind and soul of man, establishing a system 
of government based upon the consent of the governed, 
with religious liberty protected, inherent rights guaranteed, 
to he written in indestructible letters into the pages of the 
nation's laws'' [Editor's italics.] It is a well known 
view of the present progressives, as it was of the framers 
themselves, that, great as was the original constitution, 
it was still far from being perfect. Also, most progressives 
now accept in principle the conclusions of Charles A. 
Beard, the historian whose recent investigations on this 
point are now well known, that the constitution represents 
a partial reaction from the democracy of the Revolution, 
and was designed in part to set limitations upon the popular 
will. While venerating the constitution, progressives in 
the main believe that such restrictions as the legislative 
election of senators, the appointment and life tenure of 
judges (some would include the mode of electing the 
president), were intentionally anti-democratic, and that 
these and other defects which time has revealed ought to 



458 



Editorial Comment 



be subject to modification whenever the people desire the 
changes. The mode of amendment having been designed 
to make changes diflScult, or impossible (though in recent 
years several changes have been adopted), leading pro- 
gressives have long held that that fundamental article 
ought to be amended first in order to facilitate other 
changes. This was Justice John B. Winslow's opinion, 
put forth in 1912; it was the burden of an important plank 
in the La Follette national platform the same year; that 
doctrine was preached, at least in spirit, by the late President 
Roosevelt. In short, it is a progressive principle that the 
constitution must cease to be a fetish — a dead hand upon 
the present and the future — and must be adjusted, from 
time to time, to existing social, economic, and political 
conditions. The document represents, for the time, a 
mighty triumph of constructive statesmanship, so pro- 
gressive leaders believe, and it should not be changed "for 
light or transient causes," much less revolutionized, but 
"it was designed for a rural or semi-rural state." The 
men who made it "however able could not anticipate or 
solve the new problems of life and government which have 
come upon us in the last half century."^ 

To follow Senator Cashman's outline of American 
history into the recent period to the all-engrossing event 
of the World War and America's participation therein 
would be fruitless. Not one of us can conscientiously 
claim to be an impartial investigator with respect to things 
which have wrenched our souls. We cannot abdicate our 
own personalities. In treating the war, all that any his- 
torian at present could hope to do would be to state his 
views with becoming restraint and concede that those 
views may ultimately prove to be quite wrong. A censorship 
law of fifty years hence (if our people shall then still adhere 
to the censorship idea) would be sure to condemn the 

' John B. Winslow, quoted in La FoUette'a Magazine, vol. iv, no. 20, p. 6. 



Popular Censorship of History Texts 459 



teaching of what some of us now piously beHeve with refer- 
ence to this feature of history; just as a censorship law of 
today, if it included in its scope the Civil War, would con- 
demn the teaching of some things which nearly one-half 
the voters of Wisconsin sincerely believed in 1864. "Time 
is the great sifter and winnower of truth," and we must 
consent to leave these matters to the investigators of our 
grandchildren's generation. Yet the gravest danger to be 
feared from the law we are now discussing lies in the psycho- 
logical probability that every second man's opinion of a 
given history will be based not on what the author says 
about the Revolution, or the Constitution, or the War of 
1812, but on what he says about the recent war and the 
League of Nations. In other words, the reader who is 
prejudiced against an author on account of his last chapter, 
which is almost sure to be unsatisfactory to many, will 
find the first, the middle, and all other chapters reeking 
with faults, and this even while personally he may be 
unconscious of having imbibed a prejudice at all. 

There is a possibility that, as an engine for expelling 
books now used, the law will become a dead letter, first, 
because it may prove unexpectedly difficult for a dissatisfied 
citizen to persuade four others to act with him in making 
complaint, which however is not probable; second, because 
of the clamor of those in the district who are not keen for 
or against the book, but who realize that if it is thrown out 
all old copies will be worthless and they will have to pay 
for new books at the opening of the next school year; third, 
because the first cases brought may go against the com- 
plainants and discourage others from multiplying com- 
plaints. But, the popular psychology being what it is, 
there is an equal chance that the law may foster a wide- 
spread disposition to atta,ck history books, geography books, 
civics books, and even readers; that it may keep echicational 
matters in a state of turmoil, engendering much social 



460 Editorial Comment 

bitterness due to the clashing of parties and interests 
over questions raised in the school-book fights. In such 
controversies teachers would be the first to suffer, because 
their opinions would be called for at once, which would 
place them between two fires; and no surer way could be 
found to degrade the social influence of our schools than 
by keeping the teachers in a state of perpetual anxiety. 

We have reason to think that Senator Cashman, an 
acknowledged friend and promoter of education, would 
deeply deplore such a result. If he had anticipated anything 
of the kind, doubtless he would have refrained from offering 
his bill. But laws, like children, when they get out of hand, 
have a way of surprising their progenitors. However, 
we have the law and must use it to the best ends. 

If every one in position of leadership or authority in 
relation to it — and among those are members of this Society 
— shall feel a responsibility for guiding discussion into 
proper channels; if debate on school-book questions shall 
be kept not merely free but also parliamentary in form and 
spirit; if we all insist that differences of view must be 
treated tolerantly; if we can secure from the public toward 
the arguments and facts in these cases a measure of that 
openness of mind which characterizes the American juror 
sworn to try a case fairly on the evidence, it may be possible 
to mitigate or prevent the evils apprehended. 

And if, without discouraging research, the law shall 
merely enforce through future adoptions the idea that good 
taste is as obligatory upon the textbook maker as good 
manners are upon the private individual, one point will 
have been gained. We trust this may not be won at the 
expense of a disposition to whittle down the truth to fit a 
supposed demand, or that it will result in substituting 
books written by dishonest or spineless persons for those 
written by men and women of real character and scholarship. 

In the midst of the late war the school supervisors of 



Popular Censorship of History Texts 461 

a western state discovered what they believed to be propa- 
ganda favorable to one of America's enemies, and demanded 
the expulsion of the book from the schools. The superin- 
tendent, being a wise and thoughtful man, prepared and 
printed a page of corrective criticism, which all teachers 
were asked to paste in the accused book and to teach to the 
children with the regular text. By that simple device he 
saved the people of the state many thousands of dollars 
which would have been paid for an inferior text, if the 
book had been expelled. If the law shall permit such a 
handling of the borderline cases, does it not seem that in a 
time when we are at peace with all nations, we could act 
with equal calmness, equal justice to authors or publishers, 
and equal regard for the interests of the people who have to 
buy school books .f* 

Joseph Schafer 



COMMUNICATIONS 



A CORRECTION 

The writer would like to call your attention to a statement made 
at the bottom of page 255 in the Wisconsin Magazine of History for 
March, 1923, which reads as follows: "But the war record of these 
Germans, Scandinavians, and other foreigners? In the Civil War *a 
Wisconsin regiment was worth a battalion' went the saying in the 
tents of the generals." 

It is hardly flattering to the soldiers of the Civil War to say that it 
took a regiment of twelve hundred men to equal in fighting ability a 
battalion of approximately three hundred. 

John G. Graham, Tomak 

The author of the article in question used the term battalion 
in a general sense, such as is employed by the French Marseillaise 
when urging the formation of battalions. It would have been 
more exact, from the standpoint of American military language, 
had he said (as was intended) "a Wisconsin regiment was worth 
a brigade." 

ERRATUM 

Our attention has been called by an attentive reader to the 
misplacement of Bloomfield on page 362 of our March issue. 
Bloom Prairie church was located in the southeastern part of 
Walworth County, not in Waukesha County as we inadvertently 
stated. 



THE SOCIETY AND THE STATE 



During the three months* period ending April 10, 1923, there were 
twenty-two additions to the membership roll of the State Historical 
Society. Two of these enrolled as life members: William F. Funk, of 
La Crosse; and William H. Pugh, of Racine. 

Eighteen persons became annual members, as follows: William H. 
Armstrong, Racine; Gilbert J. Davelaar, Milwaukee; David H. Flett, 
Racine; Zona M. Gale, Portage; Carl M. Grimstad, Mount Horeb; 
Benjamin H. Hibbard, Madison; F. E. Jaastad, Eau Claire; Alvin P. 
Kletzsch, Milwaukee; Mrs. H. A. Main, Fort Atkinson; Graeme 
0*Geran, Madison; Merton P. Peavey, Darlington; James L. Sellers, 
Madison; William B. Shaw, New York City; Lester B. Shippee, Minne- 
apolis, Minn.; John C. Van Dyke, Milwaukee; Frank V. Van Ells, 
Milwaukee; C. H. Winkenwerder, Milwaukee; Edgar L, Wood, Milwau- 
kee. 

Luther College, Decorah, Iowa, enrolled as an institutional member; 
Concordia College, Milwaukee, became a Wisconsin school member. 

The present number of this magazine completes the sixth year of 
its publication, and the first under the present editorship. Our readers 
continue to evince their interest in the varied fare we are placing before 
them. Our aim is not only to interest our readers, but also to recover 
for our state*s records submerged or forgotten episodes and personalities, 
to present the history of social movements, and incidentally to furnish 
information concerning all the forces that are working for the con- 
servation of our past. 

A brief talk on "Garret Gleanings,** urging the search for historical 
treasures, was prepared by our Superintendent, and broadcasted 
from the University radio station on the evening of February 27. 

The Wisconsin Heights battle field, where the fleeing Indians under 
Black Hawk were overtaken by the American troops on July 21, 1882. 
will be marked by the John Bell (Madison) Chapter of the Daughters 
of the American Revolution in cooperation with our Society and the 
Wisconsin Archeological Society. Readers of this magazine will find a 
description of this battle field in volume iv, page 55-60 (Septenil>er, 
1920). The monument will be placed by the roadside on the Mazo- 
manie road, Dane County. At the time of the unveiling, on the after- 
noon of Labor Day, September 3, a field meeting will be held to which 
all of our members are invited. 

CHURCH ANNIVERSARIB8 

St. James Episcopal Church of Manitowoc is the oldest of that 
denomination in that part of the state. Manitowoc River was visited 



464 



The Society and the State 



in 1842 by the Reverend Richard Cadle, Indian missionary at Green 
Bay. Six years later a church was organized, which in April celebrated 
its diamond jubilee. The first pastor was the Reverend Gustavus 
Unionius, a Swedish graduate of Nashotah Seminary. 

Rosendale Congregational Church of Fond du Lac County observed 
in May its seventy-fifth anniversary. This church possesses an unbroken 
series of records for its entire existence. 

St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Church of Racine held a sixtieth 
anniversary session February 19. This is one of the largest parishes 
in the Northwest. 

St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church of Wausau observed its 
sixtieth birthday on April 8-11, with music and social ceremonies. 

In February last, the Methodist church of Reedsburg celebrated 
the fiftieth anniversary of its founding. 

LANDMARKS 

The Landmarks Committee of the Society held an important 
meeting at the capitol, Madison, February 28, 1923. At this meeting 
the work of the committee was apportioned among the members, each 
committee member, except the chairman, H. E. Cole, being made 
head of a subcommittee on a particular line of landmarking activity, 
with authority to request assistance of others. The subcommittee 
heads, and their departments, are as follows: David Atwood, Indian 
landmarks; O. D. Brandenburg, educational institutions; A. H. Long, 
religious institutions; John G. D. Mack, industrial institutions; William 
A. Titus, taverns, courthouses, and other public institutions; Mrs. E. H. 
Van Ostrand, roads, trails, ferries, bridges. 

Chairman Cole has general oversight of all committee work, and 
was authorized to arrange, if possible, for a field meeting on Labor Day. 

The La Crosse chapter of the D. A. R. is planning a memorial for 
its founder and first regent, Mrs. Angus Cameron, wife of the United 
State senator from our state. This memorial will be placed in the 
new Wisconsin room of the Continental Hall at Washington. 

Brown County Bar Association has decided to honor some of the 
pioneers of its profession at Green Bay, by erecting memorial tablets 
on the sites of their first residences. Henry S. Baird, first practicing 
lawyer west of Lake Michigan, and Timothy O. Howe, United States 
senator 1861-79 and member of the cabinet 1882-83, are among those 
to be so honored. A history of the bar of Brown County is being 
prepared under the auspices of the same association. 

Beloit Historical Society plans a memorial for Alfred A. Ayer, 
charter member, and later president of the society. 

The University of Wisconsin is arranging for a memorial service 
at commencement in honor of the late Bishop Samuel Fallows, an 
alumnus of 1859, a regent of 1866-74, and state superintendent of public 
instruction for Wisconsin 1870-74. In the latter capacity he obtained 
the first legislation leading to the University's accredited system with 



Dr. Henry W, Cansdell 



465 



the local high schools and academies. His ideal was a unified system 
of state education. 

Early in January a memorial medallion of the late Dr. Charles 
McCarthy, of the Legislative Reference Library, was unveiled in the 
state capitol. The legislature of 1921 made provision for this memorial, 
which was executed by Merton Grenhagen, an Oshkosh artist, personal 
friend of Dr. McCarthy. 

May, 1923, marks the hundredth anniversary of the advent of the 
first steamboat on the waters of the upper Mississippi. The first craft 
larger than an Indian canoe to navigate the Father of Waters was a 
small sailboat with lateen sails, called a felucca. This was employed in 
1700 by Pierre le Sueur, who ascended from the mouth of the Mississippi 
to the Minnesota River in search of mines. The appearance of this 
sailing vessel caused great surprise among the Indians. One hundred 
and twenty-three years later, the natives were still more surprised by 
the appearance of the steamboat called the Virginia^ which after some 
difficulty in passing the rapids at Rock Island, mounted to the newly- 
built Fort Snelling just below the present city of Saint Paul. The 
Virginia carried supplies and passengers for the garrison at this frontier 
post. 

The city of Racine plans to celebrate in August the seventy-fifth 
anniversary of its incorporation, together with the entrance the same 
year of Wisconsin into the federal union. 

The movement for state parks continues to occupy the attention 
of the lovers of Wisconsin's landscape and history. Four miles north of 
Beloit, on the west bank of Rock River, stands Big Hill, a favorite 
resort for Beloit College students and the site of many Indian mounds. 
This site was included in the legislative bill of 1921 with the Northern 
Lakes Park. Since it was not secured by legislative action, private 
enterprise is attempting to purchase Big Hill as well as the Northern 
Lakes site for the state. 

The Wausau Kiwanis Club has purchased Rib Mountain in Mara- 
thon County, the highest point in our state, and has presented it to the 
Conservation Commission for a state park. 

The activities of the local historical societies contribute largely to 
the growth of historical interest in the state. Among these, Winnebago 
County is exceedingly active. Stevens Point in February perfected an 
organization for a local historical society. At Appleton the Out^iganiie 
County Pioneer Association had a well-attended meetiitg on Washing- 
ton's Birthday. The Milwaukee Old Settlers' Society met on the same 
day. 

The Vineland Historical Magazine began in its issue for last October 
the publication of the diary of Dr. Henry W. Cansdell. formerly of 



466 



The Society and the State 



Whitewater. Dr. Cansdell in 1862 was physician in charge of Camp 
Utley at Racine, and his journal of that period is of great interest to 
Wisconsin readers. 

In the March issue of this magazine Senator W. A. Titus, in his 
article on the town of Empire, Fond du Lac County, mentioned its 
earliest settler, Gustave de Neveu. Recent examination into the records 
of the courthouse of that county has disclosed the naturalization papers 
of this worthy pioneer. His eagerness to become an American citizen is 
evidenced by the fact that his first papers were dated July 29, 1836; 
his naturalization was completed June 5, 1844. 

Comrade John Hill, of Eau Claire, the last of the custodians of 
the famous war eagle "Old Abe," died during the past winter. At 
Hayward, March 5, a public funeral was held for H. B. Shue, corporal 
of the guard that was stationed to watch the body of Lincoln, while it 
lay in state at Washington after he was killed. 

A recent visitor to the Historical Library was Mrs. Walter Brennan, 
of Lancaster, who came in search of records of her forebears the Reverend 
Samuel Mitchell, one of the earliest Methodist itinerants in south- 
western Wisconsin, and his sons James, John T., and Frank F., all like 
their father in the Methodist ministry. Mrs. Brennan presented to the 
Society such accounts of the early life of the Mitchells as she possesses 

The Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters held at 
Beloit College, April 6 and 7, its annual session. Several of the papers 
presented were of interest to historical and archeological students. 
Professor G. L. Collie, of Beloit, described the Indian mound groups of 
the vicinity; Charles E. Brown showed Indian pictographs from a 
cave in Richland County; Dr. N. P. Jipson, of Chicago, the chief 
authority on the Winnebago, spoke of their Rock River chiefs and 
villages; followed by a paper on the removal of the tribe in 1833, by 
Louise P. Kellogg. Mrs. S. T. E. Tyler, of the State University, showed 
the value of Amerind designs for application to decorative art. H. M. 
Skavlem, of Janesville, gave a demonstration of the manufacture of 
Indian artifacts. H. E. Cole, of Baraboo, entertained the Academy with 
stories of stagecoaching days and the legends of early taverns. E. A. 
Richardson and Royal B. Way, of the Beloit College faculty, both 
presented papers of historical interest. These will be published in the 
Academy Transactions. 

MUSEUM NOTES 

The State Historical Museimi has on display three new special 
exhibits. One of these consists of specimens of dried fish and other 
sea foods of the Japanese, and was sent from Tokyo by Forest C. 
Middleton, a former resident of Madison. Some of the small fish are 
neatly tied together in bunches or impaled on small bamboo sticks. 



Museum Notes 



467 



Some of the smallest, less than an inch in length, Mr. Middleton ex- 
plains, are boiled in soup; others are pulled apart with the fingers 
and eaten raw. A squid, or devil fish, is prepared by being warmed on 
top of a hot stove. It somewhat resembles chewing gum. 

Another exhibit illustrates children's scrap picture-books, the 
specimens which are being shown dating from 1860 to 1890. They bring 
back pleasant childhood recollections to many adult visitors to the 
Museum. A third exhibit consists of a collection of pocket and other 
small and curious atlases. 

Near the south end of the corridor of the Museum a second case ' 
of World War flags has just been placed on exhibition. In this attractive 
exhibit are the colors of the 127th, 340th, and 341st Infantry regiments, 
and of the 120th Field Artillery. There are also the red guidons of 
Batteries D and E of the 121st Field Artillery, and a guidon of Troop 
F of the First Wisconsin Cavalry, which was presented to it in 1917 by 
the city council of Lake Geneva. This troop was afterward trans- 
formed at Camp McArthur, Texas, into Battery F of the 120th Field 
Artillery. At the top of the case hangs a dark blue chaplain's flag 
bearing a white cross; this was used by Chaplain William F. Hood 
throughout service of his regiment in the United States and France. 
On the floor of the case is the flag of the Third Infantry, Wisconsin 
National Guard, carried by the regiment in Mexican border service, 
and until mustered into service for the World War, on March 26, 1917. 
Colonel John Turner of Mauston was its commanding officer. 

The spring plowing and cultivation of many farms in Wisconsin 
and the breaking up of new pieces of land, especially in the vicinity of 
ponds, lakes, and watercourses, are certain to bring to light numerous 
Indian clay, horn, bone, antler, stone, and metal implements and 
ornaments. The State Historical Society asks all citizens who find such 
specimens to present them to the State Historical Museum at Madison, 
where they may be exhibited for the benefit of its numerous visitors 
and made available to students of Wisconsin Indian history. It is 
important that the state should possess large collections of such speci- 
mens from every county, for purposes of present and future historical 
research and study. Fragments of broken earthenware vessels should 
be carefully gathered up. Broken and unfinished specimens of stone 
implements are as desirable for study purposes as are perfect and 
finished specimens. The presence on the surface of the soil of numerous 
flint chips and fragments, of cracked and burned stones, broken pottery, 
animal bones, and other debris often marks the location of a foniior 
Indian camp or village site. Collections of such specimens should \>c 
made and presented to the Museum. In past years hundreds of generous 
friends have aided the educational work of the Museum by making 
donations of such specimens, and it is hoped that many others inay 
do so. Every citizen of the state should be proud to tluis help in an 
important public work. Students of Wisconsin Indian remains may 
at all times address the Museum for information or assistance. 



468 



The Society and the State 



For the use of students who will attend this year's summer session 
of the University of Wisconsin the State Historical Museum is publishing 
two small but interesting leaflets, entitled Wisconsin Indian Tribes" 
and "Flower Games of American Children." They are being printed 
by the University. Last year a similar leaflet, "Paul Bunyan Tales," 
was issued, and in previous years others entitled "Indian Folk Lore," 
"Little Walks About Madison," "Lake Wingra Mounds," and "Lake 
Mendota Historical Excursion," have appeared. The demand for 
these leaflets from school teachers and libraries has extended far beyond 
the borders of Wisconsin. 

The Wisconsin Archeological Society is about to issue a report on 
the Indian history, trails, village sites, and earthworks of Waukesha 
County, prepared by Secretary Charles E. Brown. Part I of this 
report, which treats of the eight northern townships of the county — 
Oconomowoc, Merton, Lisbon, Menomonee, Summit, Delafield, and 
Brookfield — is now ready for distribution. It is illustrated with a 
map and a number of plates and text figures. Part II, describing the 
Indian remains in the eight southern townships, is in preparation and 
will soon appear. These reports will be of special interest to students of 
Wisconsin archeological history. 

Archeologically Waukesha County is one of the richest of southern 
Wisconsin counties. There Dr. Increase A. Lapham from 1837 to 1850 
did some of his best antiquarian research work. The Wisconsin Archeo- 
logical Society began its researches in this county in 1901, and these have 
continued to date. 

The Winnebago County Archeological and Historical Society is 
preparing for a state field assembly of Wisconsin archeological and 
historical societies to be held at Oshkosh on June 8 and 9. The program 
of the two-day meeting will consist of automobile pilgrimages to places 
of historical and archeological interest located along the Lake Winnebago 
shore, between Oshkosh and Neenah-Menasha, and to the westward 
on the shores of Lake Butte des Morts. Prominent speakers from 
various cities in the state will deliver addresses. In past years similar 
state field meetings have been held at Waukesha, Beloit, Menasha, 
Baraboo, Manitowoc, Two Rivers, Prairie du Chien, Madison, and 
Aztalan. 

The central section of the American Anthropological Association 
held its second annual session in March at the Milwaukee Museum. 
Its object is "to advance the study of ethnology, archeology, and all 
other branches of anthropology in the Middle West, where the field 
for research is about limitless." 

We regret to announce the recent deaths of Professor A. S. Flint, 
of Madison, and Thomas Bardon, of Ashland, both charter members 
of the Wisconsin Archeological Society and life members of the State 
Historical Society. 



Our Contributors 



469 



OUR CONTRIBUTORS 

Mrs. William F. Allen (''A Polish Pioneer's Story") came to Madi- 
son in 1868 as the wife of a highly esteemed professor in the State Uni- 
versity. 

Superintendent Joseph Schafer ("The Yankee and the Teuton in 
Wisconsin") devotes this third article of the series to the social traits 
of the Yankee pioneers. 

Hosea W. Rood (*The Grand Army of the Republic") is state - 
patriotic instructor for the G. A. R., as well as custodian of headquarters 
at the capitol. In this article he concludes his contribution on this 
patriotic society. 

Louise P. Kellogg ("An Historic Collection of War Portraits"), 
senior research associate of our Society, has given much attention to 
the history of art. She has recently completed a course of twelve 
talks on American art for the Madison Y. W. C. A. 

Lucien S. Hanks ("A Footnote to The Story of a Great Court''} 
was connected for many years with the State Bank at Madison. He has 
been since 1900 treasurer of our Society. 

Samuel M. Williams ("Charles Henry Williams") of Milwaukee, 
who gave us a pen picture of his grandfather in the March magazine, 
adds thereto a sketch of his father, a well-known Wisconsin pioneer. 

Camille Coumbe ("John Coumbe, the First White Settler in Rich- 
land County") is a granddaughter of the pioneer whose history she 
has sketched. She makes her home at Richland Center. 



BOOK REVIEWS 



The Boone Family. A Genealogical History of the Descendants of George 
and Mary Boone Who Came to America in 1717. Compiled by Hazel 
Atterbury Spraker (Rutland, Vt., 1922). 

This large and handsomely bound book of nearly seven hundred 
pages is a valuable record of a family which has played a notable part 
in the history of America, especially of the trans-Allegheny West. While 
it is now conceded that Daniel Boone was not the first white man to 
explore Kentucky, it is well authenticated that he represents the type of 
borderers or frontiersmen who won the West for the new republic by 
their daring in exploration and their courage in defense of the settle- 
ments pushed far beyond the frontier of the first thirteen colonies. 
Boone was by no means a solitary figure; but upon all his adventures he 
was accompanied and aided by brothers, sons, sons-in-law, and nephews. 
Thus a Boone family history is for the most part a history of migrations 
and of restless pioneering. As its author well says: "In a family so 
imbued with the spirit of migration and adventure as this one, it is not 
surprising to find that much data has been lost or never recorded. . . . 
When, however, young people married and moved West with all their 
worldly goods on a few pack-horses, it is not strange that they failed to 
burden themselves with the old family records, and even failed to 
remember the family traditions, so filled were their later years with 
arduous labor in a new frontier country. I think we may well be all the 
prouder of them for this, and thankfully record what little they have 
left us." 

This task Mrs. Spraker, herself a descendant of one of Daniel 
Boone's brothers, has undertaken and carried out with a thoroughness 
and carefulness that prove her work to have been a labor of love. She 
found the greatest possible aid for her work in the Draper manuscript 
collections of our Society; for Draper, our first secretary, planned to 
write a biography of Daniel Boone, and in his comprehensive way made 
a large collection of family and genealogical material. Mrs. Spraker 
gives ample acknowledgment of this source for her book, and publishes 
several facsimiles obtained through the courtesy of the State Historical 
Society of Wisconsin. Among these is a genealogical chart prepared by 
James Boone of Pennsylvania, which gives invaluable information, 
otherwise unattainable, of the English antecedents of the Boone family, 
and of the first emigrants to the early home near Philadelphia. 

The volume also includes a careful biographical sketch of Daniel 
Boone by Jesse Procter Crump, one of his descendants, together with 
sketches of allied and cognate families. 



INDEX 



Ableman, Laura, married, 427. 
Ableman, Stephen Van R., Sauk County 

pioneer, 426-427. 
Ableman, village of, 427, 429, 431. 
Adams, Capt. Robert, in the Revolution, 

304. 

Adventists, in Beaver Creek valley, 205. 
Agen, James H., commandant of Wiscon- 
sin G. A. R, 413. 
Agriculture, in early Wisconsin, 125-145, 

252-253, 261-279; methods, 323-324, 

327-328, 330. 
Aguinaldo, Emilio, Filipino insurgent, 7, 12, 

16-18, 20, 29. 
Ahnapee, G. A. R. post at, 290. See also 

Algoma. 
Alabama, captain of, 180. 
Albany (N. Y. ),emigrants from, 166; road 

to, 267; port, 320-321. 
Albany, canal packet, 345. 
Albany Cultivator, founded, 265. 
Albany (N. Y.) Normal School, graduate 

of, 55. 

Albert, King of Belgium, portrait described, 

415-416. 
Albion (N. Y.), passed, 74. 
Albion Township, lake in, 66-72. 
Aldrich, Nathan B., Wisconsin pioneer, 

201; in Civil War, 202. 
Algoma, history of, 120-121. See also 

Ahnapee. 

Allen, Gen. Thomas S., Civil War officer, 
283; commandant of Wisconsin G. A. 
R., 412. 

Allen, Mrs. William F., "A Polish Pioneer's 
Story," 373-385; sketch, 469. 

Almon Danforth Hodges and His Neighbors, 
cited, 399-400. 

America, canal packet, 345. 

American Agriculturist, cited, 268-269. 

American Anthropological Association, cen- 
tral section organized, 115. 

American Association of University Wo- 
men, at Lawrence College, 163; at 
Washington, 316. 

American Farmer, founded, 265. 

American Federation of Arts, cooperates 
for war portraiture, 414-418. 

American Fur Company, in Wisconsin, 213. 

American Historical Association, annual 
meeting, 350-351. 

American Historical Magazine, publica- 
tions, 347-348. 

American Home Missionary Magazine, 
cited, 49-50. 

American Portrait Gallery, plans for, 414- 
418. 



American Review of Reviews, 431. 

Ames, Edward T., electrician, 190-191. 

Amherst, canal packet, 343. 

Amherstburg (Ont.), described, 77. 

"An Historic Collection of War Portraits," 
by Louise P. Kellogg, 414-418. 

Anderson, James S., Pioneer Courts and 
Lauyyers of Manitovooc County, re- 
viewed, 367. 

Anderson, Martin B., letter, 100. 

Anderson, Gen. Thomas M., sails for Philip- 
pines, 3; commands near Manila, 16, 
19-20, 22-26, 33; recommends Kings 
promotion, 29; recalled, 29; letters, 
34-35. 

Anderson ville (Ga.), in Civil War, 203. 

Andre, Maj. John, execution, 118. 

Andrews, James, river captain, 442. 

Andrick, Jacob, Wisconsin pioneer, 334. 

Appleton, Samuel, philanthropist, 154. 

Appleton, origin of name, 154-155; electric 
light system, 189-194. 

Appleton Crescent, correspondent, 7; print- 
er, 108; cited, 190-192. 

Appleton Paper and Pulp Company, 
president of, 190. 

Appleton Public Library, has Lawrence 
College charter, 150. 

Arellano, Cayetano, Filipino officer, 24. 

Arizona, ocean transport, 7-12, 14. 

Arkansas, boundary, 314. 

Arkansas Post, in Civil War, 430. 

Ashburton Treaty, signed, 235. 

Ashland County, progress, 105. 

Ashtabula (Ohio), on Lake Erie. 76. 

Association of Collegiate Alumnae. See 
American Association of University 
Women. 

Astor, John Jacob, president of fur com- 
pany, 213. 

Astor Battery, in the Philippmcs, 16-17. 

Atkinson, Gen; Henry, superintends In- 
dians' removal. 84. 

Atwood, David, chairman Indian Land- 
marks Committee, 113. 

Augur, Gen. C. C. Union officer. 180. 

Augur, Robert, Troy pionix^r. ilH. 

Auriesville (N. Y.). pa.sso«l, 7.S. 

Australia, transport, 13. 

Austria, gives aid to Polish rxilcs. 3S.S. 

A. V. Brown, rcvoniir (Miltrr. 179. 

Avoca, mound at. 244; farm nrar. .i7.S. 

Ayer, Alfred A.. uumuUt of Uoloit HiMor- 
ical StMMcty. 464. 

Ayer. Sarah Conncll. />i<irv of. fi99. 

Aylwani, John A.. pai>ors, HAft-.'UM). 



I 



Index 



Ayres, R. B., Union oflScer, 180. 
Aztalan, mounds at, 114, 214; campaign 
for, 357. 

Babcock, Benjamin, Aztalan pioneer, 214. 
Babcoek, Col. John B., in War with Spain, 
4. 

Baensch, Emil, translates diary, 110, 134; 

address, 239. 
Bailey, Hobart K., army officer, 30. 
Bailey, Capt. Joseph, papers, 358. 
Baird, Henry S., pioneer lawyer, 464. 
Baldwin, Frank D., army officer, 30. 
Baltic, lakes steamboat, 344. 
Baltimore (Md.), roads to, 178; political 

convention at, 97. 
Banks, in pioneer Wisconsin, 241, 308. 
Baptists, on frontier, 393-394; in Beaver 

Creek valley, 205. 
Baraboo, first schoolhouse of, 358; church 

celebration of, 362; G. A. R. post at, 

294; farm residents, 429-434; addition, 

431. 

Baraboo River, valley of, 425-434. 

Barber, Prof. , at Utica, 73. 

Barber, Hiram, murdered, 73. 
Barclay, Robert, Agricultural Tour, cited, 
268. 

Bark River, sawmill on, 84-85, 219; berry- 
ing near, 218; crossed, 219; woods near, 
344. 

Barn raising, described, 210. 
Barneson, Capt. , commands trans- 
port, 9. 

Barnett, Col. Charles R., in War with 

Spain, 8. 
Barr, Tim, Wisconsin pioneer, 44. 
Barrington (111.), precinct, 93. 
Barron County, progress, 105. 
Barry, T. H., in World War, 185-188. 
Bartlett, Col. A. J., Wisconsin G. A. R. 

officer, 283. 
Bartlett, Josiah, signer of Declaration of 

Independence, 331. 
Bascom, John, president of University of 

Wisconsin, 258. 
Bashford, James W., biography, 367-368. 
Bass Creek, crossed, 334. 
Bateman, Nathaniel P., school teacher, 

205. 

Batzen, Swiss coin, 320, 323. 
Bayard, James, Union officer, 180. 
Bayfield County, progress, 105. 
Bayliss, L., in Ohio, 307. 
Beach, W. H., member of G. A. R., 411. 
Beale, Mrs. Lucy Preston, visitor, 109. 
Beard, Charles A., historian, 457. 

Beardsley, , Iowa pioneer, 340. 

Beatty, Admiral Sir David, portrait de- 
scribed, 415. 
Beaumont, Dr. William, experiments, 339. 



Beauregard, P. G. T., Confederate general, 
176, 178. 

Beaux, Cecilia, war portraits, 414-415. 
"Beaver Creek Valley, Monroe County," 

by Doane Robinson, 195-206. 
Beaver Dam, archeology of, 114. 

Bebas, , storekeeper, 335. 

Beebe, Capt. W. H., constructs telephone 

line, 46. 

Beecher, Henry Ward, addresses Lawrence 

College, 160. 
Bees, anecdote of, 432-433. 
Beetown, resident of, 44. 
Bell, Neil C, Empire farmer, 298. 
Bell, William, Sauk County pioneer, 428, 

430. 

Belmont, territorial legislature at, 396; 

home of Judge Dunn, 315. 
Beloit, in 1840, 94, 208, 222, 224-225; 

described, 208-209. 
Beloit College, founded, 146, 397; jubilee, 

113; museum, 114. 
Benkard, Lieut. James Jr., in Civil War 

172. 

Bennett, Emeline, married, 331. 

Benson, Bertha, father of, 199. 

Benson, Charles, Wisconsin pioneer, 199; in 

Civil War, 202. 
Benson, Fred, Wisconsin pioneer, 199. 
Benson, Wilhelmina, husband of, 198. 
Berkshire County (Mass.) Agricultural 

Society, established, 264. 
Berkshire pigs, bred, 269. 
Berlin, G. A. R. post at, 284. 
Berry, John, Empire pioneer, 301. 
Beulah Lake, settlement on, 82; described, 

83-84. 

"Big Ann," race horse, 44. 
Big Foot Prlairie, in Walworth County, 94, 
208. 

Big Hill, mounds at, 465. 

Big Tiger, bayou of Wisconsin River, 438. 

Bigelow, , visits Wisconsin, 231. 

Billings, , Wisconsin pioneer, 341. 

Bird, , Dane County pioneer, 214. 

Birds, in Albion Township, 66-72. 

Birge, Mrs. , Whitewater pioneer, 

218. 

Birge, Mrs. Imogene Starin, donor, 73. 
Birge, Julius, Whitewater resident, 219. 
Birge, William, Whitewater pioneer, 215, 

219-221; sells land, 228. 
Black Hawk War, relics of, 210; effect of, 

309; participant, 314-315; result of, 

436. 

Black Hills, Indian skirmishes among, 30. 
Black River (Ohio), passed, 76. 
Black River Falls, railroad terminus, 196. 
Blackburn, Esther, Wisconsin resident, 201 . 



Index 



Blackburn, John, Wisconsin resident, 201, 
206. 

Blackburn, Mrs. John, father of, 200. 
Blackburn, Mary, Wisconsin resident, 201. 
Blackburn, Robert, Wisconsin resident, 
201. 

Blackburn, Samuel, Wisconsin pioneer, 
201. 

Blackburn, Samuel Jr., Wisconsin resident, 
201, 

Blaine, Gov. John J., at dedication of Jen- 
kin Lloyd Jones Park, 242. 

Blake, , lakes captain, 342-343. 

Blake, Levi, Racine County pioneer, 226. 

Blake, William, Appleton pioneer, 155. 

Blanton, Mrs. Smiley P., addresses folklore 
meeting, 243. 

Blood, Col. H. L., contractor, 155. 

Bloodgood family, immigrate to Wiscon- 
sin, 166. 

Bloom Prairie, in Walworth County, 86; 

church abandoned at, 362. 
Bloomfield, visited, 86. 
Blue Laws, among Yankees, 398-399. 
Blue River, bridge over, 435; settlers in 

valley of, 140-141. 
Blue River (village), resident of, 442. 
Blunt, George W., resident of New York, 

169. 

Bluzger, Swiss unit of value, 323, 327. 
Boardman. Charles R., in World War, 36. 
Book Reviews, 367-369, 470. 
Boone Family, reviewed, 470. 
"Boots Range," in lead region, 48. 
Borden, Sir Robert L., portrait described, 
417. 

Borglum, Gutzon, sculptor, 242. 
Boston, farming near, 266. 
Boston University, professor, 161. 
Bouck, Gabriel, immigrates to Wisconsin, 
166. 

Boughton, , lakes captain, 230. 

Bourke, John G., army officer, 30. 
Bourne, E. G., Essays in Historical Criti- 
cism, 235. 

Bovay, Alvin J., founds Republican party, 
239. 

Bowman, Col. William, Elkhorn pioneer, 
216. 

Bowne, Borden P., teacher, 162. 
Bracken, Gen. Charles, niece of, 384. 

Bradley, Mrs. , at Whitewater, 

342. 

Bradley, Charles T., Milwaukee merchant, 
166. 

Brady, M. B., photographer, 171. 

Bragg, Gen. Edward S., honor for, 360; 

letters, 110. 
Bratiano, Joan J. C, portrait described, 

417. 

Breed, George D., commandant of Wis- 
consin G. A. R., 413. 



Brewster, , Appleton resident, 155. 

Briggs, , Racine pioneer, 227. 

Brink, Abram, Jefferson County pioneer, 
217. 

British residents, in Hawaii, 11, 13. 

Bromley, , canal captain, 343. 

Bronsons, land speculators, 132. 

Brown, , canal boat captain, 345. 

Brown, Abram E., Legends of Old Bedford, 
387. 

Brown, Alexander, "Lynch Law," 305. 

Brown, Charles E., addresses folklore meet- 
ing, 243; visits eastern museums, 244. 

Brown, George, Whitewater pioneer, 220. 

Brown County, change in boundaries of, 
126. 

Brownsell, T., Empire pioneer, 301. 
Brucker, Peter, Empire farmer, 298. 
Brunson, Alfred, cited, 159. 
Bryant, B. F., member of G. A. R., 409- 

410; commandant of Wisconsin G. A. 

R., 413. 

Bryden, James, of Milwaukee, 360. 

Buck, James S., Pioneer History of Mil- 
waukee, 309. 

Buckner, Simon B., Confederate general, 
178. 

Buffalo (N. Y.), in 1840, 75-76, 342-343, 
345; road to, 267; port, 321. 

Buffalo County, pioneer organization, 358. 

Buffalo Grove, on Rock River, 74. 

Buford, Gen. Abraham, Confederate of- 
ficer, 178. 

Biihler, Bernhard, Swiss immigrant, 323. 
Biihler, Christian, in Wisconsin, 332. 
Buhler, George, letters to, 318-333. 
Buhler, George Jr., in Wisconsin, 332. 
Buhler, Jakob, Wisconsin immigrant. 317- 

318; letters, 318-329; old age, 332. 
Buhler, Leonard, Swiss emigrant, 327. 
Buhler, Ulrich, in Wisconsin. 318; letters, 

329-333; marriage. ,331-332. 
Bunker Hill, lakes steamer, 75, 232. 

Buntley, , Beloit tavern keoi>er, 94. 

Burhyte, T. J., in Empire, .301. 
Burke, Edmund, On Conciliatwn, 390. 
Burnett County, progress, 105. 
Burnura, Timothy, Rock County pioueer, 

225. 

Burret, Josiah, Illinois pioneer. 89. 

Buttles, A., Milwaukee pionoor. 312. 

"By the Waters of Turtle Lake." by Angie 

Kumlicn Main. 60-72. 
Byrd's Creek, in Richland County. 437. 

Cadby, John N., aid acknowlo<lgcd. 44,^. 
Cadle, Richard, Indian nii.'*.««ionary. 464. 
California, military dopartnicnt of. «. »; 

troops in the Philippinr-H. 1(1-17. *). 
California (lulf, hy«lrographic survey of, 

182. 



Ill 



Index 



Calkins, Col. E. A., Wisconsin G. A. R. 

officer. 283-284. 
Calloway, Col. James, Virginia officer, 

304. 

Campbell, Henry Colin, obituary, 356-357. 
Campbell, J., in Empire, 301. 
Campbell, J. B., Wisconsin lead miner, 40. 
Campbell, Robert R., commandant of 

Wisconsin G. A. R.. 413. 
Canada, lakes steamboat, 344. 
Canadians, in Wisconsin, 129. 
Canals, in early Wisconsin, 135; in Ohio, 

306-307; in Indiana, 425. 
Canastota (N. Y.), passed, 74. 
Cansdell, Dr. Henry W., physician, 465- 

466. 

Capron, Allyn, at West Point, 170. 

Carey, , land seeker, 207. 

Carle, James F., officer of Wisconsin 

Veterans' Home, 411; commandant 

of Wisconsin G. A. R., 413. 
Carlson, Dr. O. W., member of G. A. R. 

411. 

Carlton College, founded, 397. 

Carpenter, Capt. Joseph, editor, 305-306. 

Carpenter, Justus, Walworth County 
pioneer, 217, 223. 

Carr, J. B., Union officer, 180. 

Carroll, Robert W., aid acknowledged, 313. 

Carswell, John A., Racine pioneer, 227. 

Carter, Robert G., army officer, 30. 

Carter, William Harding, major general, 30, 
181; at Honolulu, 185. 

Cartland, F. G., Southern Heroes, 305. 

Cary, Dr. L, H., Wisconsin G. A. R. of- 
ficer, 283. 

Case, , Racine pioneer, 231. 

Cashman, Sen. John, author of textbook 
law, 450-461. 

Cassville, resident of, 45, 314-315. 

Castle Rock, in Beaver Creek valley, 195. 

Catfish Creek, in Iowa, 335, 340. 

Catholic church, at Platte ville, 54, 57; 
celebrations, 112. 

Cattaragus County (N. Y.), emigrant from, 
195. 

Cattle breeding, 268, 427, 429-430. 
Cavite Arsenal, in the Philippines, 16, 22. 
Cavite Point, in Manila harbor, 15. 
Census of 1850, Wisconsin in, 128. 
Centre Ville, an early Wisconsin town, 334. 

Chad, , Racine County pioneer, 228. 

Chamberlain, Adeline, school teacher, 205. 
Chamberlain, Libbie, school teacher, 205. 

Chambers, , Iowa pioneer, 338. 

Champlain, Samuel de, French explorer, 
250. 

Chancellorsville (Va.), battle in Civil War, 
180. 

Chandler, Bob, in Civil War, 172. 
Channing, Edward, History of the United 
States, 235. 



Chantilly (Va.), in Civil War, 180. 

Chaplin, , Iowa pioneer, 336-337. 

Chaplin, Moses, Sauk County pioneer, 427. 
Charlevoix, Pierre Francois Xavier de, on 

Lake Michigan, 120. 
Chase, Salmon P., candidate, 97. 
Cheek, Phil, Wisconsin G. A. R. officer, 

292, 413; in Baraboo valley, 427. 
Cheney, Hazen, speculator, 132. 
Cherbourg (France), naval battle near, 180. 
Chevalier, Michel, Society, Manners, and 

Politics in the United States, cited, 263, 

401-402. 

Cheyenne Indians, hostilities with, 30. 

Chicago, business firm, 74; described in 
1840, 90-91; letter from, 95; political 
meeting at, 98, 354; early fire engine, 
110-111; port, 220, 230; railway 
terminus, 196; purchases war portraits, 
414. 

Chicago, lakes steamer, 75. 
Chicago and Northwestern Railway, built, 
352-354. 

Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul Rail- 
road, beginnings, 427-428. 

Chicago Tribune, politics, 99. 

Chillicothe (Ohio), stage to, 424. 

Chinese, in Hawaii, 11. 

Chipman, N. P., G. A. R. officer, 404-405. 

Chippewa County, progress, 105. 

Chippewa Indians, habitat, 122. 

Chopin, Frederic, friend of, 383. 

Churches, in early Wisconsin, 240; an- 
niversaries, 361-362. 

Churchill, Richard C, at West Point, 170. 

Cincinnati, political conventions at, 97-98; 
residents, 303-313, 424; purchases war 
portraits, 414. 

Circuit riders, in pioneer Wisconsin, 394. 

Citizen, lakes steamer, 120. 

Civil War, Beaver Creek valley in, 202-203; 
Lawrence College students in, 160; 
Sauk County Company, 430-431. 

Claflin, Lee, governor of Massachusetts, 
160. 

Clancy, Mrs. , at dedication of 

Jenkin Lloyd Jones Park, 242. 

Clark, Edward, Wisconsin resident, 200. 

Clark, Frances, Wisconsin resident, 200; 
married, 201, 206. 

Clark, James, Milwaukee trader, 310. 

Clark, James, Wisconsin pioneer, 48. 

Clark, John A., Wisconsin pioneer, 201. 

Clark, Lucretia Mosher. See Clark, Mrs. 
Seth C. 

Clark, Mary, Wisconsin resident, 200. 
Clark, Oracy, daughter of, 55. 
Clark, Seth C, Wisconsin pioneer, 200, 206. 
Clark, Mrs. Seth C, Wisconsin pioneer, 
200. 

Clark, W. Philo, army officer, 30. 
Clark County, progress, 105. 



Index 



Clark Motor Company, in Fond du Lac, 
301. 

Clemenceau, Georges, portrait described, 
415. 

Cleveland (Ohio), in 1840, 76, 343, 345; 

purchases war portraits, 414. 
Cleveland, lakes steamer, 90, 120. 
Clinton, DeWitt, governor of New York, 

148. 

Clive, Margaret Ann, husband of, 198. 
Clybourn, Archibald, Chicago pioneer, 310. 
Coates furnace, used by miners, 42. 
Coburn, Eleazar C, surveyor, 334-335, 
338^340. 

Coe, Edwin D., commandant of Wisconsin 

G. A. R., 413. 
Coeducation, in early days, 156-157. 
Cold Spring, in Jefferson County, 84. 
Cold Spring Farm, in Empire, 298. 
Cole, Felix, in Germany, 316. 
Cole, Harry E., cited, 242; author, 244; 

donor, 245; chairman of landmarks 

committee, 464. 
"Cole, Kate Dewey — An Appreciation," 

314-316. 

Cole, Orsamus, judge of Wisconsin Supreme 

Court, 423. 
Cole, Theodore, married, 315. 
Coleman, Edward, Wisconsin G. A. R. 

officer, 283. 
Colman, Edward, Fond du Lac County 

resident, 296, 298-299. 
Colman, Rev. Henry, alumnus of Lawrence 

College, 156; address, 157. 
Colman, Henry R., Methodist clergyman, 

150, 152; resignation, 156. 
Colonial Dames of America, president of 

Wisconsin branch, 110. 
Colorado, troops for Spanish War, 7, 17. 
Colt family, immigrate to Wisconsin, 166. 
Columbia, lakes schooner, 231-232. 
Columbia County, described, 213. 
Columbian Centinel (Boston), cited, 399. 
Columbus (Ohio), stage for, 424. 
Col well, James, Sauk County pioneer, 427. 
Comanche Indians, hostilities with, 30. 
Commons, John R., economist, 258. 
Commons, in New England, 262. 
Commonwealth Edison Company, 

predecessor of, 189; records of, 191. 
Communications, 117, 238, 352-354, 462. 
Como Lake, visited, 86. 
Concordia Estero, in the Philippines, 19, 

21-28. 

Congregational church, at Platteville, 54, 
56-57. 

Conklin, Col. Henry, Fond du Lac County 

resident, 296, 299. 
Conneaut (Ohio), passed, 76. 
Connecticut Valley, farming in, 264. 
Constellation, lakes steamer, 75, 232. 
Cook, , Wisconsin pioneer, 345. 



Cook, Capt. C, on canal boat, 343. 

Cook, Edward, president of LawTence 
College, 159. 

Cook, Samuel A., commandant of Wiscon- 
sin G. A. R., 413. 

Cook County (111.), county seat, 92; con- 
vention in, 93. 

Cooley, Walter, Milwaukee pioneer, 224. 

Copeland, Frederick commandant of 
Wisconsin G. A. R., 413. 

Corbin, Henry C, adjutant general of 
army, 9. 

Cornishmen, in Wisconsin, 252. 

Cornishville (111.), visited, 93; ferry at, 207. 

Cornwall family, in town of Sparta, 2f)l. 

Cornwallis, Charles, earl, in the Revolu- 
tion, 118, 304. 

Couchman, , Wisconsin pioneer, 199. 

Coumbe, Camille, "John Coumbe, the 
First White Settler in Richland 
County," 435-443; sketch, 469. 

Coumjje, Edward, Richland County 
pioneer, 442. 

Coumbe, John, sketch of, 435-443; portrait, 
436. 

Coumbe, Lottie, marriage of, 442. 
Coumbe, Mary, marriage of, 442. 
Coumbe, Robert, ba^er, 442. 
Coumbe, Sarah Sophia, death of, 442. 
Coumbe, Thomas, father of, 442. 
Coumbe, Warner, physician, 442. 
Coumbe, Will, father of, 442. 
County fairs, origin, 264. 
Cowan, Charles, officer of Wisconsin 

Veterans' Home, 410. 
Cozzens Hotel, on Hudson River, 171, 174. 
Cramer, William, Milwaukee pioneer, 166. 
Crary, Russel, lakes captain. 281. 
Cravath, Prosper, Walworth County 

pioneer, 219; Early Annah of IVhUe- 

water, 84. 

Crawford, Emmet, army officer. 30. 180. 
Crocker, Emilie M., at Lawrence Institute. 
156. 

Crocker, W. D., trustee of Wisconsin 

Veterans' Home, 410. 
Crook, George, Union officer, 180. 
Cross, Nathaniel, at Nashville, 347. 
"Crouching Venus of the VaticAn."' 

presented to the Historical S<x"irty, 

238. 

Crystal Lake, in northern Illinoi.s 89; 

tavern at, 93: described. 207. 
Cuba, officer in, 30. 

Cullum, Gen. George W., at West Point. 
170-171. 

Gulp's Hill, Imttlr in (^ivil War. 178. 
Cuniborlodgc, Jaiuos. iiioml>cr of (J. .\. H., 
409. 

CummingR, . L>wn physiciRn, ."WS. 

Cupertino (Cal ), resident of. 64. 
Curran, , traveling com|>anion, PI . 



V 



Index 



Curran, William J., in Civil War, 203. 
Currie, Gen. Sir Arthur, portrait de- 
scribed, 417. 
Curtis, Olin A., teacher, 161. 

Curtiss, , Whitewater pioneer, 342. 

Cushing, Caleb, speculator, 132. 

Custer, Gen. George A., Union officer, 180. 

Cutler, , traveling companion, 85. 

Daggett, Col. A. S., letter, 101. 
Dagupan railway, in the Philippines, 29. 
Dairying, beginnings of, 269-271, 277. 
Dames, William, settles in Wisconsin, 138; 

Wie Sieht Es in Wiskonsin Aus, 132, 

134. 

Damon, S. M., secretary of Hawaii, 11. 

Dana, Charles A., letter to, 95-99. 

Dane County, lake in, 66; described in 
1840, 212; rural population, 106. 

Daniiser, Anna, greetings for, 329. 

Daniiser, George, letter for, 329-332. 

Daniiser, Margaret, greetings for, 332. 

Daniiser, Zidonia, greetings for, 332. 

Darien, population in 1840, 216. 

Darling, Mason C, helps found Lawrence 
Institute, 154. 

Dartmouth College, student at, 148. 

Daughters of American Revolution, activi- 
ties, 357. 

Daughters of the Grand Army, G. A. R. 
allied society, 404. 

Dauphin, claim to be, 148-149. 

Davidson, James, commandant of Wiscon- 
sin G. A. R., 413. 

Davidson, Dr. William, Wisconsin pioneer, 
48. 

Davis, Dr. , at Lawrence College, 

160. 

Davis, David, candidate, 95, 97, 99. 
Davis, Patrick, Wisconsin pioneer, 200, 205. 

Daws, , Walworth County pioneer, 

217. 

Day, George H., Lawrence College founder, 
150. 

Dayton, Col. Elias, in the Revolution, 117, 
119. 

Dayton, Rev. Francis S., addresses folklore 

meeting, 243. 
Dayton, Col. Jonathan, in the Revolution, 

119. 

Dead Lake. See Wingra. 

DeCamp, Joseph, war portraits, 414, 417. 

Decatur (111.), G. A. R. post organized at, 
281-282; political meeting at, 354. 

DeGroff, Allen H., commandant of Wis- 
consin G. A. R., 413. 

Delaney, Arthur K., school teacher, 205. 

Delavan, origin of name, 396; population 
in 1840, 216; visited, 341, 344. 

Dellona, mounds at, 244. 



Democratic party, policies, 95-100, 308; 
early meeting, 341; campaign, 433; in 
New England, 390; Beaver Creek val- 
ley, 202. 

Des Moines (la.), G. A. R. encampment at, 
290. 

Des Plaines River, towns on, 91-93. 
Dessereau, Robert M., History of Langlade 

County, reviewed, 368-369. 
Detroit, in 1840, 77-78, 342, 344-345. 
Devils Lake State Park, marker at, 357; 

road to, 431-432. 
Devon cattle, bred, 268. 
Devonshire (Eng.), native of, 435. 
Dewey, Catherine Dunn, portrait, 314. 
Dewey, Admiral George, in the Philippines, 

8, 15, 17; King's relations with, 182- 

183. 

Dewey, Nelson, Wisconsin governor, 45, 

314; sketch, 315. 
"Diary of a Journey to Wisconsin in 

1840," by Frederick J. Starin, 73-94, 

207-232, 334-345. 
Diaz, Gen. Amando, portrait described, 

416. 

Dick Bill, in Congress, 36. 
Dickson, Col. Joseph, Wisconsin pioneer, 
46. 

Diederichs, Johann F., diary, 110, 134, 
137, 144. 

Dietrichson, Rev. J. W. C, pioneer pastor, 
240. 

Dillon, Moses, Ohio resident, 306. 

Disbrow, Nathan, Walworth County pio- 
neer, 94, 207. 

Dix, Gen. John A., candidate, 96. 

Dixon, Rev. Alvon, at Platteville, 49-50. 

Dixon, Luther, chief justice of Wisconsin 
Supreme Court, 419-422. 

Documents, 73-101, 207-232, 317-345, 
444-449. 

Dodge, Henry, signs Lawrence College 
bill, 150; homestead, 358. 

Dodge, Jeremiah, siu-vey for, 219; house 
raising, 223. 

Dodge, W. B.. breeder, 429. 

Dole, Sanford B., governor of Hawaii, 11. 

Doolittle, James R., senator, 5; letter of 
1880, 95-99; characterized, 99-101. 

Dopkins, Clyde D., "History of Short- 
horns," cited, 429-430. 

Door, B. F., timber cruiser, 352-353. 

Doty, Charles, member of Wisconsin 
legislature, 298. 

Doty, James D., speculator, 132; politician, 
296, 335; son, 298. 

Douglas, Stephen A. Jr., speech, 98. 

Douglas Coimty, progress, 105. 

Douglass, Fred, addresses Lawrence Col- 
lege, 160. 



VI 



Index 



Douglass, Maria Greene, "Personal Recol- 
lections of Platteville," 56-65; sketch, 
55. 

Douglass, Truman O., "Platteville in 
Its First Quarter Century," 48-56. 

Dousman, , Milwaukee settler, 311. 

Downes, , Iowa pioneer, 340. 

"Downing, Major Jack," Thirty Years 
out of the Senate, 400. 

Doylestown (Pa.), museum at, 244. 

Draper, Lyman C., collector, 346-349, 355. 

Drew Theological Seminary, professor at, 
161. 

Drift, lakes schooner, 230-231. 

Dubuque, Julien, monument for, 340-341. 

Dubuque (la.), in lead region, 43; sur- 
veyors at, 335; in 1840, 335, 340-341. 

Duck Creek, in Wisconsin, 155; church at, 
241. 

Dugdale, R. I., publisher, 242. 

Dundee (111.), visited, 89, 93. 

Dunkirk (N. Y.), port, 76. 

Dunn, Catherine, married, 314-315. See 

also Dewey, Catherine Dunn. 
Dunn, Charles, territorial judge, 314. 
Dunn, Capt. William, canal officer, 343. 
Dunn County, progress, 105. 
Dunning, Abel, Dane County pioneer, 211. 
Dupage River (111.), town on, 92. 

Durham, , Iowa pioneer, 337. 

Durham cattle, bred, 268, 429-430. 

Dutch Reformed church, at Milwaukee, 

361. 

Dwelle and Warren, engravers, 312. 
Dwight, Timothy, New England traveler, 

cited, 264, 266, 268, 389-390, 402. 
Dwinnell, S. A., cited, 397. 
Dyer, Alexander B., in War with Spain, 

183. 

Dziewanowski, Mary Esther. See Wal- 

bridge, Mrs. F. E. 
Dziewanowski, Micolay, in Civil War, 382. 
Dziewanowski, Vincent, career of, 373- 

385. 

Eagle, settlement of, 140-141. 
Eagle Harbor (N. Y.), passed, 74. 

Earl, Mrs. , Whitewater pioneer, 

210. 

Earle, Warren, Whitewater pioneer, 228. 
"Early Days in Platteville," editorial, 
40-42. 

East Troy, pioneers in, 73, 82-84; visited, 
344. 

Eastman, H. Eugene, Green Bay pioneer, 
149. 

Eaton, James D., Life under Two Flags, 

reviewed, 368. 
Eau Claire County, progress, 105. 
E. B. Wolcott Post, of G. A. R., 411. 
Edison, Thomas A., inventor, 189. 



Edison Electric Illuminating Company, 
organized, 189; Bulletin cited, 193. 

Editorial Comment, 102-106, 233-236, 
346-351, 450-461. 

Education, among Yankees, 386-389. 

Edwards, William, in Empire, 301. 

Edwin Dean, canal packet, 343. 

Eighteenth United States Infantry, in 
the Philippines, 7, 17. 

Eighth United States Infantry, in Wiscon- 
sin, 213. 

Eggleston, Edward, The Circuit Rider, 

The Graysons, 394. 
Elberfelt (Germany), emigrant from, 138. 
Electoral Commission of 1876, 98. 
"Electric (The) Light System at Appleton," 

by Louise P. Kellogg, 189-194. 
Eleventh Wisconsin Infantry, reunion, 431. 
Elgin (111.), visited, 89, 91, 93; resident, 

201. 

Eliot, Robert, immigrates to Wiscon.sin, 
166. 

Elizabeth, Queen of Belgium, portrait, 417. 

Elizabethtown (N. J.), resident of, 165. 

Elkhorn, in 1840, 86, 215-216. 344; popu- 
lation, 216; county seat, 220; landmark 
near, 35T. 

Elkins, Henry W., painting by, 2.'i8' 
Ellis, John Q., Wisconsin pioneer, 201. 206- 

Elmore, Rev. , in Illinois, 91. 

Elmwood Farm, near Baraboo, 429, 431. 
Ely, Nathaniel, pupil of, 148. 
Ely, Richard T., economist, 258. 
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, speculator, 132. 
Emery, Ben C., Wisconsin pioneer, 200- 

201; in Civil War, 203. 
Emery, Esther, school teacher, 205. 
Emery, J. Q., state superintendent of 

public instruction, 411-412. 
Emory, William H., Civil War general. 177. 
"Empire: A Wisconsin Town." by W. A. 

Titus, 295-302. 
Empire Cemetery, in Fond du Lac County, 

302. 

England, agrarian revolution in, 261; 

emigrants from, 42, 129. 
English, William H., candidate. 97. 
English Prairie. See Mu-scixia. 

Enix, , Illinois pioneer, 22,5. 

Enos, Col. H. M.. Wisconsin (i. A. H 

officer, 291, 413. 
Episcopalians, churches, 54. 57; colobrn- 

tion, 112; growth. 39,S; rais.«»ionRry. 

149. 

Erie, steamboat burnt-*!. 342. 

Erie Canal, voyage on, 7.i-7.'). 16fi. .Sl<; 

inspected. .S07. 
Erwin, Lieut. Edward K.. in the Philip- 

pine^s, 25. 
Esch, Rev. Henry, diary. .il7. 
Eschen. Elia.s von. Swi.ns ImmiKrHn'. J*-*** 



VII 



Index 



Eschen, Elizabeth von, greetings for, 329. 

Eschen, George von, Swiss immigrant, 322. 

Eschen family, Swiss emigrants, 319. 

Estaing, Charles Hector, Count d', in 
American Revolution, 300. 

Esterly, George, inventor, 221. 

Evangelical church, celebration, 112; foun- 
ders, 317. 

Evans, Lieut. Edward, mentioned, 39. 
Everett, Edward, speculator, 132. 
Ewing, Thomas K., senator from Ohio, 

308; candidate, 99. 
Excelsior, in Sauk County, 426. 
Exchange, price in 1840, 75. 

Fairchild, Col. Cassius, in Civil War, 284. 

Fairchild, Lucius, commandant of Wiscon- 
sin G. A. R,., 413; post named for, 
285, 292. 

Fairport (Ohio), described, 76. 

Fallows, Bishop Samuel, educator, 464; 
obituary, 238; legacy, 239. 

Farallones Islands, in the Pacific, 10. 

Farm life, in early Wisconsin, 202. 

Farmers Almanack, cited, 386, 388-399. 

Farmers' institutes, promoted, 433. 

Farragut, David G., admiral, 181-182. 

Farragut, Loyal, at West Point, 181. 

Favill, Rev. John, at Jenkin Lloyd Jones 
Park dedication, 242. 

Fay, Harrison K., Racine pioneer, 227. 

Felch family, in town of Sparta, 201. 

Felsburg (Switzerland), emigration from, 
317-333; history, 331. 

Ferdinand, Austrian prince, 378, 383. 

Ferguson, Edward, commandant of Wis- 
consin G. A. R., 413. 

Ferguson, Leander, commandant of Wis- 
consin G. A. R., 413. 

Ferguson, Peter, in Empire, 301. 

Ferries, in early Wisconsin, 209, 211, 335, 
341. 

Fevre River, mining on, 335, 341. 
Field, Stephen J., candidate, 99. 
Fifth United States Cavalry, officers of, 
3-4, 29-30. 

Fifth United States Infantry, in Indian 
wars, 30. 

Fifth Wisconsin Infantry, in Civil War, 
245. 

Fifty-first Iowa Regiment, in War with 

Spain, 5-6, 16. 
Filer, L., Racine pioneer, 227, 232. 
Finch family, Jefferson County pioneers, 

211, 217. 
Finney patch, in lead region, 43. 
First California Regiment, in War with 

Spain, 16; in the Philippines, 20, 

23, 25-27. 

First Idaho Regiment, in War with Spain, 
4, 19, 26-27; commander killed, 28. 



First New York Infantry, in War with 
Spain, 7, 11, 13. 

First Tennessee Regiment, in War with 
Spain, 4, 6, 16; colonel of, 22. 

First Washington Infantry, in the Philip- 
pines, 19, 21-23, 25-27. 

Fisher, Henry P., commandant of Wiscon- 
sin G. A. R., 413. 

Fitch, Norman D., Wisconsin pioneer, 
201 ; in Civil War, 202-203. 

Fitzgerald, Adeline, writes play, 240. 

Fleming, , Appleton manufacturer, 

193. 

Fletcher, H., clerk in land office, 217. 
Florence County, progress, 105. 
Flour, article of import, 76. See also 
Wheat. 

Floyd, John B., secretary of war, 168. 

Foch, Marshal Ferdina,nd, portrait de- 
scribed, 416-417. 

Fond du Lac, G. A. R. post at, 290; 
railroad to, 298. 

Fond du Lac Commonwealthy editor, 108. 

Fond du Lac County, town in, 295-302; 
representatives, 298. 

"Footnote (A) to the Story of a Great 
Court" by Lucien S. Hanks, 419-423. 

Forbes, Elmira'. See Pomeroy, Mrs. 
Erastus. 

Forbes, Frank, Wisconsin resident, 201. 
Forbes, Lewis, Wisconsin resident, 201. 
Forbes, Lorenzo, Wisconsin pioneer, 201; 

in Civil War, 202-203. 
Forbes, Saladen. Wisconsin pioneer, 201. 
Forbes, Selucia, Wisconsin pioneer, 201; 

school teacher, 205. 
Ford, Guy Stanton, history professor, 

350-351. 
Forest County, progress, 105. 
Forests, in Wisconsin, 129-131, 135-136, 

142; effect on agriculture, 262, 272, 

275. See also Lumbering. 
Forrer, Samuel, engineer, 307; letter, 

309-310. 

Forrest, Gen. N. B., Confederate officer, 
178. 

Fort Atkinson, in 1840, 210-211, 215. 
Fort Crawford, site of, 240; preservation 

of, 357. 
Fort Gratiot, passed, 344. 
Fort Heinman, in Civil War, 431. 
Fort Mackinac, garrison, 342. 
Fort Maiden, site, 77. 
Fort Sheridan, in World War, 186. 
Fort Wadsworth, letter from, 101. 
Fort Winnebago, events at, 73, 84; visited 

in 1840, 211-214; ruins to be preserved, 

357. 

Fortieth Wisconsin Infantry, officer in, 238. 

Fortson, , Washington state officer, 

27-28; inWar with Spain, 184. 



Index 



Forty-ninth Wisconsin Infantry, officer 
in, 238. 

Foster, Dwight, Fort Atkinson pioneer, 
210. 

Fourteenth Illinois Infantry, in Civil 
War, 280. 

Fourteenth United States Infantry, in 
the Philippines, 16-17, 19, 22; colonel, 
29; in Indian wars, 30. 

Fourth United States Artillery, garrisons 
Mackinac, 342. 

Fourth United States Cavalry, in the 
Philippines, 16-17, 19; officers, 29-30. 

Fourth United States Infantry, in Indian 
wars, 30. 

Fox Indians, in Wisconsin, 248. 

Fox Lake, mounds at, 244. 

Fox River, valley lands purchased, 149. 

Fox-Wisconsin portage, in Wisconsin his- 
tory, 213, 250; landmarks activity, 
357. 

Fox- Wisconsin waterway, first voyage on, 
349. 

Fox River (Pishtaka) of Illinois, crossed, 
82, 214, 225, 228; towns on, 89, 91, 
215; tributaries, 207. 

Francis, Eliza, Wisconsin resident, 200. 

Francis, George Thomas, Wisconsin resi- 
dent, 200. 

Francis, Mary, Wisconsin pioneer, 200. 
Francis, Peter, Wisconsin pioneer, 200. 
Francis, William Henry, Wisconsin resi- 
dent, 200. 

Frank, Louis F., Pioneer Jahre, 139. 

Frankfort (N. Y.), lock at, 73. 

Frank's Point, mounds on, 244. 

Fraternities, at Lawrence College, 163. 

Frederick, , photographer, 171. 

Freeman, C. B., mentioned, 231. 

French, in the Revolution, 118; in Wiscon- 
sin, 122-123, 250-251. 

French-Canadians, in Wisconsin, 125-126. 

Freund brothers, in Empire, 301. 

Friends of Our Native Landscape, meeting, 
66; member, 357; activities. 111. 

Fritsche, G., Die Evangelische Gemeind- 
schaft in Wisconsin, 317. 

Fultonville (N. Y.), departure from, 73; 
visited, 343. 

Funston, Col. Frederick, in War with 
Spain, 5-6, 16. 

Fur trade, in Wisconsin, 250. 

Gale, Zona, delivers address, 242. 
Galena (111.), in lead region, 40, 42-43, 49, 

380, 441; home of Grant, 46, 108; 

residents of, 49, 435; road to, 93, 317. 
Galesville University, principal of, 238. 
Gallagher, Charles W., president of 

Lawrence College, 163. 
Gallia County (Ohio), residents of, 195, 

198. 



Gait, Capt. Patrick H., at Fort Mackinac. 
342. 

Gambier (Ohio), residents of, 435. 

Ganes, John W., commandant of Wiscon- 
sin G. A. R., 413. 

Garden of Delicacies. See Hortus Delicarum. 

Gardiner, Jacob H., death, 231. 

Gardner, D. J., "Incidents in the Early 
History of the Wisconsin Lead Mines," 
42-48. 

Garlington, Ernest A., army officer, 30. 

Gary, , Illinois pioneer, 91-92. 

General Thornton, lakes vessel, 231. 

"Genesee," Kentucky-bred horse, 175. 

Genesee County (N. Y.), fair, 268. 

Genesee Falls (N. Y.), described, 74. 

Geneva (111.), visited, 91. 

Geneva (Wis.), population in 1840, 216. 

Germans, in Hawaii, 11, 13; in Pennsyl- 
vania, 154, 314; Wisconsin immigrants, 
123, 125-145, 154, 261-279, 301, 398; 
agricultural methods, 271-279; soldier 
honors for, 404. 

Germond, A. T., Empire pioneer, 301. 

Gibbon, Gen. John, Union officer, 180. 

Giddings, David, Fond du Lac County 
resident, 297; in constitutional con- 
vention, 298. 

Giles, John, lakes captain, 231. 

Gloversville (N. Y.), emigrant from. 200. 
G